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A robot that eats pollution

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    Hi, I'm an engineer
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    and I make robots.
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    Now, of course you all know
    what a robot is, right?
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    If you don't, you'd probably go to Google,
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    and you'd ask Google what a robot is.
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    So let's do that.
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    We'll go to Google
    and this is what we get.
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    Now, you can see here there are
    lots of different types of robots,
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    but they're predominantly
    humanoid in structure.
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    And they look pretty conventional
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    because they've got plastic,
    they've got metal,
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    they've got motors and gears and so on.
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    Some of them look quite friendly,
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    and you could go up
    and you could hug them.
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    Some of them not so friendly,
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    they look like they're
    straight out of "Terminator,"
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    in fact they may well be
    straight out of "Terminator."
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    You can do lots of really cool
    things with these robots --
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    you can do really exciting stuff.
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    But I'd like to look
    at different kinds of robots --
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    I want to make different kinds of robots.
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    And I take inspiration
    from the things that don't look like us,
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    but look like these.
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    So these are natural biological organisms
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    and they do some
    really cool things that we can't,
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    and current robots can't either.
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    They do all sorts of great things
    like moving around on the floor;
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    they go into our gardens
    and they eat our crops;
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    they climb trees;
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    they go in water, they come out of water;
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    they trap insects and digest them.
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    So they do really interesting things.
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    They live, they breathe, they die,
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    they eat things from the environment.
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    Our current robots don't really do that.
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    Now, wouldn't it be great
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    if you could use some of those
    characteristics in future robots
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    so that you could solve
    some really interesting problems?
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    I'm going to look at a couple of problems
    now in the environment
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    where we can use
    the skills and the technologies
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    derived from these animals
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    and from the plants,
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    and we can use them
    to solve those problems.
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    Let's have a look
    at two environmental problems.
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    They're both of our making --
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    this is man interacting
    with the environment
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    and doing some rather unpleasant things.
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    The first one is to do
    with the pressure of population.
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    Such is the pressure
    of population around the world
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    that agriculture and farming is required
    to produce more and more crops.
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    Now, to do that,
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    farmers put more and more
    chemicals onto the land.
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    They put on fertilizers,
    nitrates, pesticides --
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    all sorts of things
    that encourage the growth of the crops,
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    but there are some negative impacts.
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    One of the negative impacts is
    if you put lots of fertilizer on the land,
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    not all of it goes into the crops.
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    Lots of it stays in the soil,
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    and then when it rains,
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    these chemicals go into the water table.
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    And in the water table,
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    then they go into streams,
    into lakes, into rivers
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    and into the sea.
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    Now, if you put all
    of these chemicals, these nitrates,
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    into those kinds of environments,
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    there are organisms in those environments
    that will be affected by that --
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    algae, for example.
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    Algae loves nitrates, it loves fertilizer,
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    so it will take in all these chemicals,
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    and if the conditions are right,
    it will mass produce.
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    It will produce masses
    and masses of new algae.
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    That's called a bloom.
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    The trouble is that
    when algae reproduces like this,
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    it starves the water of oxygen.
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    As soon as you do that,
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    the other organisms
    in the water can't survive.
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    So, what do we do?
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    We try to produce a robot
    that will eat the algae,
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    consume it and make it safe.
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    So that's the first problem.
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    The second problem is also of our making,
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    and it's to do with oil pollution.
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    Now, oil comes out
    of the engines that we use,
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    the boats that we use.
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    Sometimes tankers
    flush their oil tanks into the sea,
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    so oil is released into the sea that way.
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    Wouldn't it be nice
    if we could treat that in some way
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    using robots that could eat the pollution
    the oil fields have produced?
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    So that's what we do.
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    We make robots that will eat pollution.
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    To actually make the robot,
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    we take inspiration from two organisms.
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    On the right there
    you see the basking shark.
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    The basking shark is a massive shark.
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    It's noncarnivorous,
    so you can swim with it,
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    as you can see.
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    And the basking shark opens its mouth,
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    and it swims through the water,
    collecting plankton.
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    As it does that, it digests the food,
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    and then it uses that energy
    in its body to keep moving.
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    So, could we make a robot like that --
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    like the basking shark
    that chugs through the water
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    and eats up pollution?
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    Well, let's see if we can do that.
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    But also, we take the inspiration
    from other organisms.
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    I've got a picture here
    of a water boatman,
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    and the water boatman is really cute.
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    When it's swimming in the water,
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    it uses its paddle-like legs
    to push itself forward.
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    So we take those two organisms
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    and we combine them together
    to make a new kind of robot.
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    In fact, because we're using
    the water boatman as inspiration,
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    and our robot sits on top of the water,
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    and it rows,
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    we call it the "Row-bot."
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    So a Row-bot is a robot that rows.
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    OK. So what does it look like?
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    Here's some pictures of the Row-bot,
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    and you'll see,
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    it doesn't look anything like the robots
    we saw right at the beginning.
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    Google is wrong;
    robots don't look like that,
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    they look like this.
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    So I've got the Row-bot here.
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    I'll just hold it up for you.
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    It gives you a sense of the scale,
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    and it doesn't look
    anything like the others.
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    OK, so it's made out of plastic,
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    and we'll have a look now
    at the components
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    that make up the Row-bot --
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    what makes it really special.
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    The Row-bot is made up of three parts,
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    and those three parts are really
    like the parts of any organism.
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    It's got a brain,
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    it's got a body
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    and it's got a stomach.
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    It needs the stomach to create the energy.
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    Any Row-bot will have
    those three components,
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    and any organism
    will have those three components,
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    so let's go through them one at a time.
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    It has a body,
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    and its body is made out of plastic,
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    and it sits on top of the water.
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    And it's got flippers on the side here --
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    paddles that help it move,
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    just like the water boatman.
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    It's got a plastic body,
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    but it's got a soft rubber mouth here,
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    and a mouth here --
    it's got two mouths.
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    Why does it have two mouths?
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    One is to let the food go in
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    and the other is to let the food go out.
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    So you can see really
    it's got a mouth and a derriere,
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    or a --
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    (Laughter)
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    something where the stuff comes out,
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    which is just like a real organism.
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    So it's starting to look
    like that basking shark.
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    So that's the body.
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    The second component might be the stomach.
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    We need to get the energy into the robot
    and we need to treat the pollution,
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    so the pollution goes in,
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    and it will do something.
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    It's got a cell in the middle here
    called a microbial fuel cell.
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    I'll put this down,
    and I'll lift up the fuel cell.
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    Here. So instead of having batteries,
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    instead of having
    a conventional power system,
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    it's got one of these.
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    This is its stomach.
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    And it really is a stomach
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    because you can put energy in this side
    in the form of pollution,
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    and it creates electricity.
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    So what is it?
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    It's called a microbial fuel cell.
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    It's a little bit
    like a chemical fuel cell,
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    which you might have
    come across in school,
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    or you might've seen in the news.
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    Chemical fuel cells
    take hydrogen and oxygen,
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    and they can combine them together
    and you get electricity.
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    That's well-established technology;
    it was in the Apollo space missions.
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    That's from 40, 50 years ago.
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    This is slightly newer.
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    This is a microbial fuel cell.
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    It's the same principle:
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    it's got oxygen on one side,
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    but instead of having
    hydrogen on the other,
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    it's got some soup,
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    and inside that soup
    there are living microbes.
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    Now, if you take some organic material --
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    could be some waste products, some food,
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    maybe a bit of your sandwich --
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    you put it in there,
    the microbes will eat that food,
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    and they will turn it into electricity.
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    Not only that, but if you select
    the right kind of microbes,
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    you can use the microbial fuel cell
    to treat some of the pollution.
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    If you choose the right microbes,
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    the microbes will eat the algae.
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    If you use other kinds of microbes,
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    they will eat petroleum
    spirits and crude oil.
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    So you can see
    how this stomach could be used
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    to not only treat the pollution
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    but also to generate electricity
    from the pollution.
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    So the robot will move
    through the environment,
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    taking food into its stomach,
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    digest the food, create electricity,
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    use that electricity
    to move through the environment
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    and keep doing this.
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    OK, so let's see what happens
    when we run the Row-bot --
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    when it does some rowing.
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    Here we've got a couple of videos,
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    the first thing you'll see --
    hopefully you can see here
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    is the mouth open.
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    The front mouth and the bottom mouth open,
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    and it will stay opened enough,
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    then the robot will start to row forward.
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    It moves through the water
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    so that food goes in
    as the waste products go out.
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    Once it's moved enough,
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    it stops and then it closes the mouth --
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    slowly closes the mouths --
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    and then it will sit there,
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    and it will digest the food.
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    Of course these microbial fuel cells,
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    they contain microbes.
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    What you really want is lots of energy
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    coming out of those microbes
    as quickly as possible.
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    But we can't force the microbes
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    and they generate a small amount
    of electricity per second.
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    They generate milliwatts, or microwatts.
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    Let's put that into context.
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    Your mobile phone for example,
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    one of these modern ones,
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    if you use it, it takes about one watt.
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    So that's a thousand or a million times
    as much energy that that uses
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    compared to the microbial fuel cell.
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    How can we cope with that?
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    Well, when the Row-bot
    has done its digestion,
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    when it's taken the food in,
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    it will sit there and it will wait
    until it has consumed all that food.
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    That could take some hours,
    it could take some days.
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    A typical cycle for the Row-bot
    looks like this:
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    you open your mouth,
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    you move,
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    you close your mouth
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    and you sit there for a while waiting.
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    Once you digest your food,
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    then you can go about
    doing the same thing again.
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    But you know what, that looks
    like a real organism, doesn't it?
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    It looks like the kind of thing we do.
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    Saturday night,
    we go out, open our mouths,
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    fill our stomachs,
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    sit in front of the telly and digest.
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    When we've had enough,
    we do the same thing again.
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    OK, if we're lucky with this cycle,
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    at the end of the cycle
    we'll have enough energy left over
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    for us to be able to do something else.
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    We could send a message, for example.
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    We could send a message saying,
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    "This is how much pollution
    I've eaten recently,"
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    or, "This is the kind of stuff
    that I've encountered,"
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    or, "This is where I am."
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    That ability to send a message
    saying, "This is where I am,"
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    is really, really important.
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    If you think about the oil slicks
    that we saw before,
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    or those massive algal blooms,
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    what you really want to do
    is put your Row-bot out there,
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    and it eats up all of those pollutions,
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    and then you have to go collect them.
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    Why?
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    Because these Row-bots at the moment,
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    this Row-bot I've got here,
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    it contains motors, it contains wires,
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    it contains components
    which themselves are not biodegradable.
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    Current Row-bots contain
    things like toxic batteries.
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    You can't leave those in the environment,
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    so you need to track them,
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    and then when they've finished
    their job of work,
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    you need to collect them.
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    That limits the number
    of Row-bots you can use.
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    If, on the other hand,
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    you have robot a little bit
    like a biological organism,
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    when it comes to the end of its life,
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    it dies and it degrades to nothing.
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    So wouldn't it be nice if these robots,
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    instead of being like this,
    made out of plastic,
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    were made out of other materials,
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    which when you throw them out there,
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    they biodegrade to nothing?
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    That changes the way
    in which we use robots.
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    Instead of putting 10 or 100
    out into the environment,
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    having to track them,
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    and then when they die,
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    collect them,
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    you could put a thousand,
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    a million, a billion robots
    into the environment.
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    Just spread them around.
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    You know that at the end of their lives,
    they're going to degrade to nothing.
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    You don't need to worry about them.
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    So that changes the way
    in which you think about robots
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    and the way you deploy them.
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    Then the question is: Can you do this?
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    Well, yes, we have shown
    that you can do this.
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    You can make robots
    which are biodegradable.
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    What's really interesting
    is you can use household materials
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    to make these biodegradable robots.
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    I'll show you some;
    you might be surprised.
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    You can make a robot out of jelly.
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    Instead of having a motor,
    which we have at the moment,
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    you can make things
    called artificial muscles.
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    Artificial muscles are smart materials,
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    you apply electricity to them,
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    and they contract,
    or they bend or they twist.
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    They look like real muscles.
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    So instead of having a motor,
    you have these artificial muscles.
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    And you can make
    artificial muscles out of jelly.
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    If you take some jelly and some salts,
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    and do a bit of jiggery-pokery,
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    you can make an artificial muscle.
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    We've also shown you can make
    the microbial fuel cell's stomach
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    out of paper.
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    So you could make the whole
    robot out of biodegradable materials.
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    You throw them out there,
    and they degrade to nothing.
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    Well, this is really, really exciting.
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    It's going to totally change the way
    in which we think about robots,
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    but also it allows you
    to be really creative
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    in the way in which you think
    about what you can do with these robots.
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    I'll give you an example.
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    If you can use jelly to make a robot --
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    now, we eat jelly, right?
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    So, why not make something like this?
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    A robot gummy bear.
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    Here, I've got some I prepared earlier.
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    There we go. I've got a packet --
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    and I've got a lemon-flavored one.
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    I'll take this gummy bear --
    he's not robotic, OK?
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    We have to pretend.
  • 12:58 - 13:01
    And what you do with one of these
    is you put it in your mouth --
  • 13:01 - 13:02
    the lemon's quite nice.
  • 13:03 - 13:06
    Try not to chew it too much,
    it's a robot, it may not like it.
  • 13:07 - 13:09
    And then you swallow it.
  • 13:09 - 13:11
    And then it goes into your stomach.
  • 13:11 - 13:15
    And when it's inside your stomach,
    it moves, it thinks, it twists, it bends,
  • 13:15 - 13:16
    it does something.
  • 13:16 - 13:18
    It could go further down
    into your intestines,
  • 13:18 - 13:20
    find out whether you've got
    some ulcer or cancer,
  • 13:20 - 13:23
    maybe do an injection,
    something like that.
  • 13:23 - 13:25
    You know that once
    it's done its job of work,
  • 13:25 - 13:28
    it could be consumed by your stomach,
  • 13:28 - 13:29
    or if you don't want that,
  • 13:29 - 13:31
    it could go straight through you,
  • 13:31 - 13:32
    into the toilet,
  • 13:32 - 13:34
    and be degraded safely in the environment.
  • 13:35 - 13:38
    So this changes the way, again,
    in which we think about robots.
  • 13:39 - 13:43
    So, we started off looking
    at robots that would eat pollution,
  • 13:43 - 13:46
    and then we're looking
    at robots which we can eat.
  • 13:46 - 13:47
    I hope this gives you some idea
  • 13:47 - 13:50
    of the kinds of things
    we can do with future robots.
  • 13:52 - 13:53
    Thank you very much for your attention.
  • 13:53 - 13:57
    (Applause)
Title:
A robot that eats pollution
Speaker:
Jonathan Rossiter
Description:

Meet the "Row-bot," a robot that cleans up pollution and generates the electricity needed to power itself by swallowing dirty water. Roboticist Jonathan Rossiter explains how this special swimming machine, which uses a microbial fuel cell to neutralize algal blooms and oil slicks, could be a precursor to biodegradable, autonomous pollution-fighting robots.

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Video Language:
English
Team:
TED
Project:
TEDTalks
Duration:
14:10
Krystian Aparta edited English subtitles for A robot that eats pollution
Krystian Aparta edited English subtitles for A robot that eats pollution
Brian Greene edited English subtitles for A robot that eats pollution
Brian Greene edited English subtitles for A robot that eats pollution
Joanna Pietrulewicz accepted English subtitles for A robot that eats pollution
Joanna Pietrulewicz edited English subtitles for A robot that eats pollution
Joanna Pietrulewicz edited English subtitles for A robot that eats pollution
Leslie Gauthier edited English subtitles for A robot that eats pollution
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