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MN 16 Cetokhila Sutta- The Wilderness In The Heart

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    So sutta 16, Cetokhila Sutta, The Wilderness In the Heart.
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    Thus have I heard, on one occasion the Blessed One was living
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    at Savatthi, in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's park.
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    There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus".
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    "Venerable sir" they replied.
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    The Blessed One said this: "bhikkhus,
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    that any bhikkhu who has not abandoned
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    5 wildernesses in the heart and not severed
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    5 shackles in the heart should come to
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    growth, increase and fulfillment
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    in this Dhamma and Discipline - that is impossible.
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    What, bhikkhus are the five wildernesses
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    in the heart that he has not abandoned?
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    Here a bhikkhu is doubtful, uncertain,
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    undecided and unconfident about the
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    Teacher, and thus his mind does not incline
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    to ardour, devotion, perseverance and
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    striving. As his mind does not incline to
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    ardour, devotion, perseverance and striving,
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    that is the first wilderness in the heart
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    that he has not abandoned."
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    So that means the first one is they don't have
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    the faith, confidence in the Buddha. The teacher,
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    that's the Buddha so they have no faith.
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    It's important we have the faith but it has to come
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    from the right understanding. For example, someone
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    have doubt whether the Buddha is a special being..
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    Lots of people are saying it's impossible to get
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    enlightened so we better practice to be born in a
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    better place or a heavenly realm. So people say
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    that, some Buddhists say that! They find it's
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    impossible to become enlightened.
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    So they have doubt - whether this is beyond me,
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    whether the Buddha exists. They have doubt whether
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    the Buddha is an ordinary being and whether they can
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    get enlightened. So when you have doubt you will not
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    be inspired and you wil not arouse that energy to
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    practice, isn't it? Because you have doubts.
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    For example, something that you have no faith.
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    Yes? [question from audiece]
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    This is they have the confidence and faith in the
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    Buddha. We have no faith, but this faith come from
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    the right understanding. For example, some people
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    may have lots of faith in the Buddha and they think
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    the Buddha.. they pray to Buddha,
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    they pray very hard
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    and they believe in the Buddha, they have a very strong faith.
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    But it doesn't come from the right understanding, that is from
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    the wrong view. Maybe some people think if they have
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    faith in the Buddha so maybe their life, everything,
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    will go well for them. And then some have difficulties in their life
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    so they say it's not working - I have faith
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    in the Buddha, I pray so hard - and some misfortune still
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    happens to me. So this is not come from right
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    understanding and the mind will not incline harder.
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    Ardour means you have that inspiration, which gives
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    rise to determination. That is the energy, the noble
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    energy, not the kind of energy that you want to do
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    something you want to get something.
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    Later the Buddha will explain that
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    in terms of the Iddhipada.
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    This is the noble power. So for example,
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    someone have this wrong view of the Buddha so they
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    take Buddha as a God. So they have very strong faith
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    in the Buddha but that is not from the right view,
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    not from the right understanding, that is wrong view.
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    So then if you don't have the faith, and you have doubt,
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    and you're not confident that you'll be able to
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    put into practice, then you will not strive.
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    We will not persevere, isn't it? Will not. Because,
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    "I'm not really sure that the Buddha he himself got enlightened"
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    Then you will not arouse that energy to do the practice,
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    to put forth effort into the practice.
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    So this is what is meant by no faith.
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    Sometimes if you arouse faith, then you put forth effort.
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    Sometimes it's not necessary that you start with
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    the Buddha - that you have faith in the Buddha
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    and then you have faith in the Dhamma.
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    Sometimes it can be the other way around.
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    Now the second one, the Buddha said:
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    "Again a Bhikkhu is doubtful, uncertain, undecided
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    and unconfident about the Dhamma...
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    As his mind does not incline to ardour, perseverance,
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    striving, devotion... that is the second wilderness in
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    the heart that he has not abandoned"
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    You have doubt about the Dhamma, that's the Buddhist teaching,
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    the truth. The Dhamma always refers to the law of kamma.
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    So if someone has doubt, "I don't believe there is
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    rebirth", this law of kamma, whatever we do has no consequence.
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    So you will not really strive, to really
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    put forth effort to really live a skillful life.
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    So you will not have that inspiration.
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    For example, someone come across to the
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    Buddhist teaching and they say oh yeah it's
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    very inspiring, who said that?
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    Oh yeah, it's the Buddha.
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    Because they have the faith in the Dhamma,
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    the teaching, then they have the faith in the Buddha.
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    So it can be the other way around.
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    Because you listen to the Dhamma and you
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    feel so inspired. All of you come here and listen to
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    the suttas and feel inspired and then you
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    put forth effort to do the practice.
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    This is the second wilderness in the heart.
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    A wilderness in the heart means a barrier,
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    like a stump. Some translate Cetokhila as a stump.
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    It stop you from growing further, because if
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    you have this in the heart it will stop you from
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    going further. So if you don't have the faith,
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    and no confidence in the Buddha and no confidence
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    in the Dhamma, it will stop you because you
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    will not put forth effort, you will not strive.
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    You will not persevere to keep going because
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    you have doubt. If you have that it is really a stumbling
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    block, a barrier stopping us going further.
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    That is the second wilderness in the heart the Buddha mentioned.
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    "So again a Bhikkhu is doubtful, uncertain,
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    undecided and unconfident about the Sangha.
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    As his mind does not incline to ardour,
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    devotion, perseverance, and striving
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    that is the third wilderness in the heart
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    that he has not abandoned."
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    So for example, some people they come across
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    to monks or nuns and they find them very inspiring.
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    The way they conduct themself, they are full
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    of loving kindness, and they feel that when
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    they be with this person they become
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    very peaceful and very calm and they feel very inspiring.
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    Then they will start to put forth.. oh I would like to..
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    have someone right in front of them that
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    have this very peaceful and calm, and actually
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    Bhikkhu Bodhi is one of the very good example.
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    When he was about 10, the first monk he
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    met, a Vietnamese monk. And the first time he met he was very young
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    and was really struck by the tranquility
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    of this monk, very peaceful and very calm,
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    the serenity, and it give him a very strong
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    impact on his mind - he say "oh wow,
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    I have never seen a being like that before, a man
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    so calm and so peaceful".
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    This really had a strong impact on his mind.
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    And as all of you know, even this Majjhima
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    Nikaya, Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi
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    translate these suttas. So actually he actually
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    see a monk on the street, he didn't even know this
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    monk walking on the street, and he was so inspired
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    by how this monk is so peaceful and so calm.
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    And he was inspired and later he became a monk.
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    So sangha means those who listen to the
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    Buddhist teaching and put into practice to get
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    enlightened.
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    If you have the faith, the confidence in the Sangha
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    then you have the confidence in the teaching
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    and then you have the confidence in the Buddha, the teacher.
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    So it's not necessary to come from the Buddha
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    the Dhamma the Sangha. You can come from meeting some monks or nuns
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    in your life that really inspire you and you then start to practice.
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    Then you can go from the sangha to the dhamma and the Buddha.
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    So maybe from the Buddha-Dhamma to the Sangha or to the Buddha
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    So it's not necessary that you have to go
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    according to the sequence Buddha Dhamma Sangha.
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    "So again a Bhikkhu is doubtful, uncertain,
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    undecided and unconfident about the training.
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    As his mind does not incline to ardour,
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    perseverance, devotion and striving
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    that is the fourth wilderness in the heart
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    that he has not abandoned."
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    The training is not only the training rules,
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    for example, when the Buddha speaks to the monks
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    it not only refers to the training rules, the
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    patimoka, the vinya rules. It's only part of the sila.
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    So actually it's actually refers to the
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    whole path of practice, the Noble Eightfold Path.
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    That is you have to have the sila, samadhi
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    and panya. That is morality. So morality is the
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    foundation of a peaceful mind, the cultivation
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    of the mind. So the samadhi is not only sitting
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    in meditation.. To have the cultivation of the mind
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    the samadhi group needs to have three -
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    the mindfulness, stillness, calmness and effort.
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    The effort always refers to the four right efforts
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    because mindfulness itself is not enough.
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    You're just knowing, just mindful. So for exampe, you have unwholesome
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    thoughts arising, so anger, it's an unwholesome
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    state of mind and you're aware of that.
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    But because you haven't cultivated the calmness,
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    the stillness, you won't be able to hold yourself
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    and each time you think - I should have held myself!
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    I shouldn't do that again! We do that again because
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    you don't have the stillness, the calmness
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    to hold the mind. So actually it's not easy to
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    have the unreactive awareness so you need to have
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    the calmness, the stillness, the concentration to be
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    able to hold the mind and not react.
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    Also you need to put forth effort, that is the four
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    right effort to stop the mind, to have a break.
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    To stop the mind from going further, to stop
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    the mind to avoid the unwholesome states of mind
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    like anger, greediness, you know you stop that, avoid that.
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    but if it's already arisen then you
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    abandon this unwholesome state of mind
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    abandon, for example, ill-will or anger.
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    then you replace by a thought of loving kindness,
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    a wholesome thought.
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    then you maintain that, then this unwholesome
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    state of mind will not arise.
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    This is the four right efforts.
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    This three together, this mindfullness, stillness
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    and right effort,
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    if these three, they intertwine together they
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    become very powerful and solid.
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    If you have only mindfulness it snaps very easily
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    because it's not strong it's not powerful enough,
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    it's not solid.
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    But only with concentrations, some people try
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    very hard concentration but without the mindfulness.
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    They just focus. I remember someone told me when we were in the monastery.
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    and someone stay in the monastery and some of the food
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    goes off and this person say, "I didn't know
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    that the food was already off, because I just focus
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    on chewing chewing chewing chewing."
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    So I mean it's not very good, just the focus itself.
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    So not knowing they're not even aware what is that.
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    It's not wrong that we know the taste whether
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    it's sour or sweet. You're mindful of what you're eating.
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    It's not just the chewing itself.
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    Sometimes it become blur, no awareness,
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    not bright the mind, you know, just chewing chewing chewing
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    and then the food rotten they don't even know, they just swallow it.
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    You know when an unwholesome state arises you know
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    that if you react to that emotion it's going to
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    lead us to suffering. It causes harm to others
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    and to ourself. We know the danger of that.
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    We're aware of that.
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    And then you'll be able to put forth effort and
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    also you have the awareness and stillness and
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    calmness to hold yourself.
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    Your mind is strong enough to hold.
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    Of course it's not easy to avoid this and avoid that
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    But sometimes again and again lots of people
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    find themselves that they shouldn't have done that
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    but they still couldn't hold, couldn't bite back
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    their tongue and not say something.
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    So you do need that, you know, the cultivation
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    of the mind is not only mindfulness, it's
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    not only stillness, it's effort. These three
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    have to come together. Of course this has to be
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    supported by sila (morality). So morality is important,
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    it's the foundation for a peaceful mind.
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    Because if you're not, so because, if you have
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    done something that you know, causes harm to others
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    and to ourself too, isn't it, if you have done
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    something you feel is not quite right.
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    And your mind you feel go on and on and on.
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    It's very difficult to be peaceful, it's just natural.
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    It's just like the Buddha said, it's natural.
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    You live a virtuous life, you expect that leads to
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    gladness when you're virtuous person.
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    It's natural that you have the gladness.
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    When you do something good you feel good
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    about yourself. That is natural the Buddha, said,
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    whether you want it or not.
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    It happens by itself, it's natural, it naturally leads
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    you to that direction. So when you have the gladnes
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    then you have the peace, joy, you have the energy.
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    So when you have the joy you have the energy.
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    Then you have this happiness. That's why it's always
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    that happiness comes first. Before the stillness.
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    So you have the joy, the tranquility, then you have
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    the happiness, then your mind still. Why?
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    When you're happy then you're content, you don't go anywhere.
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    You're just happy to be there, you're just happy in this moment.
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    Why some people run away from this moment? Because they're not happy.
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    Usually people are restless because they're unhappy.
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    When someone is unhappy they're restless, the mind always wonder off.
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    So that's why it's important, the happiness. If you want to cultivate
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    a peaceful mind to develop the wisdom, happiness
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    actually is the pre-requisite.
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    This Buddhist path is actually a happy path.
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    You need to have the happiness first, to come first,
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    then only you'll be able to focus. Only through the still mind
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    where the insight arises from when the five
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    hindrances abandoned - then you have clarity of mind
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    then you can see things as they really are.
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    You see one thing leading to another.
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    And it happens by itself. It's not through willpower,
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    it's not through trying to control. You can't make it happen, it happens by itself.
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    So the morality is the foundation for a peaceful mind.
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    A peaceful mind is the foundation for development
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    of this wisdom. So the whole training the whole path
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    is referred to the Noble Eightfold Path,
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    that is the sila-sammadhi-panya, this whole path of practice
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    So if you have no confidence
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    have no faith in this training, the Noble Eightfold Path,
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    you will not strive, isn't it, you will not persevere
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    You will not arouse energy to do the practice, you won't.
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    That's why it says this is the fourth wilderness in the heart.
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    So if we have this wilderness in the heart, that is
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    a barrier, it stops us from going further to have
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    growth in the Dhamma.
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    So again the Buddha goes down to the fifth wilderness in the heart.
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    "Again a bhikkku is angry and displeased with
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    his companions in the holy life life, resentful,
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    callous towards them, and thus his mind does not
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    incline to ardour, devotion, perseverance and striving.
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    As his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion
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    perseverance and striving, that is the fifth
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    wilderness in the heart that he has not abandoned."
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    So if someone constantly has lots of ill-will, anger
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    towards the companion in the holy life, it's just like
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    for example if in the family you have lots of anger
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    towards you partner, you know, or maybe in your place
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    with your colleagues, constantly you have lots of ill-will,
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    you will not arouse that inspiration because your
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    mind is disturbed and you're obsessed with that.
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    Each time you come back because normally when we
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    have lots of anger, very easily you get depressed.
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    So when you depressed, the energy is really low.
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    Just imagine constantly your mind is obsessed with that,
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    you think you will have energy to practice?
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    To arouse energy? No, you can't because the mind
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    constantly you go back, thinking about, at home
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    this person said that, that person said that,
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    and that is really a stumbling block.
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    It really stops us from going further because we always
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    think that the problem is outside, but actually it's not.
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    The anger arises within our own mind, sometimes we think the
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    person made me angry, the person is the one who,
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    they are the one, they make me angry because of them
  • 24:08 - 24:11
    my suffering comes from the other person.
  • 24:11 - 24:14
    Yesterday I mentioned about one of the ladies
  • 24:14 - 24:17
    just recently she told me that when she was really
  • 24:17 - 24:23
    stressed out she planned
  • 24:23 - 24:26
    she said she really had the planning to kill her boss.
  • 24:26 - 24:28
    She do all the planning because
  • 24:28 - 24:31
    at that moment she thinks that her suffering comes from the boss.
  • 24:31 - 24:37
    The boss gives her too much work, and she worked till midnight
  • 24:37 - 24:43
    and the next morning she still takes work back home to work
  • 24:43 - 24:46
    till 3am. And she go back to work again and to
  • 24:46 - 24:49
    a point that she's completely stressed out.
  • 24:49 - 24:55
    She said she became depressed, lots of anger, she depressed.
  • 24:55 - 24:59
    She planned to kill [laugh] her. And then she
  • 24:59 - 25:03
    planned after killing her boss she would jump down
  • 25:03 - 25:06
    from the.. because she was working in Singapore
  • 25:06 - 25:09
    which has lots of high-rise buildings, so she
  • 25:09 - 25:14
    planned she'd jump down from the building, she said,
  • 25:14 - 25:17
    this is what she planned. And when she told her
  • 25:17 - 25:19
    sister, her sister said, "you're crazy",
  • 25:19 - 25:23
    you just change your job [laughs], why do you want to kill your boss?
  • 25:23 - 25:30
    But at that moment you don't.. we get stuck you know
  • 25:30 - 25:33
    because our mind, once our mind thinks that object
  • 25:33 - 25:36
    is a problem, so we get sucked in.
  • 25:36 - 25:38
    All we think is how bad is that person is.
  • 25:38 - 25:43
    Again and again, we get lost. Sometimes it's just amazing
  • 25:43 - 25:46
    some people commit suicide because of small thing,
  • 25:46 - 25:49
    because you focus on that, it manifest, and then you
  • 25:49 - 25:53
    become unbearable, you think that is your problem.
  • 25:53 - 25:57
    So your mind is there, because of anger you will not be
  • 25:57 - 26:01
    able to live harmoniously with your companion in the
  • 26:01 - 26:04
    holy life or your partner, because you have lots
  • 26:04 - 26:08
    of anger, you're not at ease and at peace
  • 26:08 - 26:12
    and that is really draining, you have no energy, you
  • 26:12 - 26:15
    cannot strive, you have no energy to practice because
  • 26:15 - 26:18
    it's really draining, especially with this unwholesome
  • 26:18 - 26:23
    state of mind. Your mind go in there.
  • 26:23 - 26:27
    That's why, if you can see the problem comes
  • 26:27 - 26:33
    from ourself then we can ask ourself, do I have
  • 26:33 - 26:36
    thoughts of loving kindness towards that person?
  • 26:36 - 26:40
    So if we can't, at least we can wish ourself,
  • 26:40 - 26:43
    that at least I have no ill-will towards that person,
  • 26:43 - 26:47
    that at least we take away, have a break from
  • 26:47 - 26:52
    going on and on. Because once we go in we're sucked in.
  • 26:52 - 26:57
    And then we just get lost. So when you have that you can't
  • 26:57 - 27:00
    arouse the energy at all, no energy, so that's why
  • 27:00 - 27:09
    sometimes, it goes on and on, and it disturbs the mind.
  • 27:09 - 27:11
    So that is the anger.
  • 27:11 - 27:14
    So actually in the other suttas the Buddha did
  • 27:14 - 27:19
    mention how to deal with this unwholesome state of mind.
  • 27:19 - 27:23
    Especially the anger.
  • 27:23 - 27:38
    Which sutta.. Actually the Buddha did mention...
  • 27:38 - 27:41
    In one of the suttas the Buddha did mention that there
  • 27:41 - 27:46
    is five steps to stop the mind. I think that is the
  • 27:46 - 27:54
    Vitakkasanthana Sutta - The Removal of Distracting Thoughts.
  • 27:54 - 27:58
    The Buddha did mention how when we have these
  • 27:58 - 28:03
    unwholesome thoughts, for example you have this
  • 28:03 - 28:08
    anger, ill-will, towards someone. So you feel like
  • 28:08 - 28:10
    "I'm going to strangle him!"
  • 28:10 - 28:16
    It's really angry. So the Buddha said then you have to
  • 28:16 - 28:22
    replace with a thought of loving kidness.
  • 28:22 - 28:27
    So after doing that, the Buddha said that's the first step
  • 28:27 - 28:30
    and if that doesn't work and you still want to
  • 28:30 - 28:34
    strangle that person then you come to the second step.
  • 28:34 - 28:38
    Then you reflect on the danger of that.
  • 28:38 - 28:47
    You know, the danger if you react and go on and on
  • 28:47 - 28:52
    then you do something that will hurt yourself and others.
  • 28:52 - 28:54
    So you reflect on the danger of that.
  • 28:54 - 28:57
    Then after doing that, you still very angry, you
  • 28:57 - 29:01
    still want to strangle that person, so the Buddha said
  • 29:01 - 29:09
    you go to the third step, that is you try to remove yourself
  • 29:09 - 29:14
    Not to pay attention on that. If you can physically
  • 29:14 - 29:18
    remove yourself then it's good. That is the best way.
  • 29:18 - 29:23
    But if you can't then you try to not pay attention to that.
  • 29:23 - 29:27
    Maybe pay attention to other things.
  • 29:27 - 29:32
    Or not to focus on that. So Buddha said that is the
  • 29:32 - 29:35
    third step. So after doing that, you still want to strangle
  • 29:35 - 29:39
    that person so you have to come to the fourth step really.
  • 29:39 - 29:43
    The fourth one is when you pacify the thought,
  • 29:43 - 29:48
    that is you use something like, you keep telling yourself
  • 29:48 - 29:54
    "calm down, calm down" because when you put your
  • 29:54 - 29:57
    attention to the noting, to the words,
  • 29:57 - 29:59
    like "calm calm calm", then your attention
  • 29:59 - 30:03
    is not on the person, isn't it?
  • 30:03 - 30:06
    Then on the words like "calm calm calm "
  • 30:06 - 30:10
    Or "make peace, make peace, make peace"
  • 30:10 - 30:14
    So then it's a break, then you will not go further.
  • 30:14 - 30:20
    Then after that, after the fourth step, you still want to strange the person!
  • 30:20 - 30:24
    So there is no more. The fifth one is the last step the Buddha said.
  • 30:24 - 30:27
    So you really have to clench your teeth.
  • 30:27 - 30:29
    You have to suppress yourself to not do that.
  • 30:29 - 30:34
    Because you're going to strangle someone!
  • 30:34 - 30:39
    This one you do it with awareness, it's not that you're
  • 30:39 - 30:42
    not knowing, you're knowing that if you go
  • 30:42 - 30:45
    further then you will do something that causes lots
  • 30:45 - 30:48
    of harm to yourself and to others.
  • 30:48 - 30:51
    Because you're going to harm someone, then you have
  • 30:51 - 30:57
    to suppress. But of course after doing the fourth step
  • 30:57 - 31:00
    that is the last one. But if you always do that
  • 31:00 - 31:06
    when anger come up, you just suppress, then it's no good.
  • 31:06 - 31:11
    Then you become mental habitual pattern that you're suppressing all the time.
  • 31:11 - 31:15
    When you suppress all the time, this will explode.
  • 31:15 - 31:20
    Usually if you follow instruction by the time you
  • 31:20 - 31:25
    go to fourth step your anger will subside quite a bit
  • 31:25 - 31:28
    after you try the first step not working, you try the second
  • 31:28 - 31:33
    the third, the fourth. Come to the fourth pretty much your
  • 31:33 - 31:42
    anger will subside quite a bit. So in the other suttas
  • 31:42 - 31:45
    the Buddha did mention.. but I just gave you the gist
  • 31:45 - 31:48
    of that. You can read the suttas about that.
  • 31:48 - 31:52
    That's why it's important if you have lots of anger
  • 31:52 - 31:56
    that really stop as from striving, to arouse
  • 31:56 - 32:01
    the energy because it's draining, you have no energy.
  • 32:01 - 32:04
    So that is the fifth wilderness in the heart the Buddha
  • 32:04 - 32:10
    said that stops us from having growth in the Dhamma to fulfillment.
  • 32:10 - 32:14
    Then the Buddha said:
  • 32:14 - 32:17
    "These are five wildernesses in the heart
  • 32:17 - 32:19
    that he has not abandoned."
  • 32:19 - 32:22
    Now the Buddha went on to say,
  • 32:22 - 32:25
    "What bhikkhus, are the five shackles in the heart
  • 32:25 - 32:30
    that he has not severed? Here a bhikkhu is
  • 32:30 - 32:35
    not free from lust, desire, affection, thirst,
  • 32:35 - 32:39
    fever, craving for sensual pleasures, and thus
  • 32:39 - 32:41
    his mind does not incline to ardour,
  • 32:41 - 32:45
    devotion, perseverance and striving.
  • 32:45 - 32:49
    As his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion,
  • 32:49 - 32:52
    perseverance and striving, that is the
  • 32:52 - 32:58
    first shackle in the heart that he has not severed."
  • 32:58 - 33:09
    So that is we're craving the sensory pleasure, that is the senses, we're attached to that.
  • 33:09 - 33:16
    So then the shackles mean that we're bound by that
  • 33:16 - 33:21
    so we cannot escape. That is the one that tie us down,
  • 33:21 - 33:23
    the sensory pleasure.
  • 33:23 - 33:30
    So for example, if our mind is constantly thinking about getting
  • 33:30 - 33:36
    good food, you know, all your energy is going to there
  • 33:36 - 33:39
    actually this energy is going out.
  • 33:39 - 33:45
    This kind of energy, of course, the Buddha never
  • 33:45 - 33:50
    denied happiness from the senses. We do have happiness.
  • 33:50 - 33:52
    But that kind of happiness is not the wholesome
  • 33:52 - 33:55
    happiness. This is unwholesome happiness.
  • 33:55 - 33:58
    This kind of happiness leads us to more suffering.
  • 33:58 - 34:00
    It won't lead us to peace.
  • 34:00 - 34:04
    Only the happiness within. The Buddha always encourage us
  • 34:04 - 34:07
    to persue the happiness within ourself.
  • 34:07 - 34:13
    Only that happiness within ourself, it leads to peace and calm.
  • 34:13 - 34:16
    Because this kind of happiness is going out,
  • 34:16 - 34:19
    it won't lead us to peace, to calm.
  • 34:19 - 34:24
    For example, you listen to a Dhamma and you're inspired
  • 34:24 - 34:32
    you have lots of joy after listening to the teaching.
  • 34:32 - 34:37
    Because this does not rely on the senses, this is within ourself
  • 34:37 - 34:43
    so it's not dependent on the senses but is independent,
  • 34:43 - 34:48
    so within yourself. So normally with the inspiration,
  • 34:48 - 34:52
    with the joy, that leads you to, you have the energy.
  • 34:52 - 34:57
    Joy is one of the factors of enlightenment, that
  • 34:57 - 35:02
    leads you to peace and happiness, and
  • 35:02 - 35:05
    then development of the wisdom.
  • 35:05 - 35:12
    Once again if we persue that kind of happiness
  • 35:12 - 35:16
    from the senses then we will be bound by that
  • 35:16 - 35:19
    then we will not have growth in the Dharmma.
  • 35:19 - 35:25
    We won't have fulfillment, we will not have progress in our practice.
  • 35:25 - 35:29
    So this is the first shackle that the Buddha mentions.
  • 35:29 - 35:33
    "Then again, a bhikkhu is not free from lust, desire,
  • 35:33 - 35:39
    affection, thirst, fever and craving for the body,
  • 35:39 - 35:41
    ...as his mind does not inline to ardour,
  • 35:41 - 35:46
    devotion, perseverance and striving, that is the
  • 35:46 - 35:49
    second shackle in the heart that he has not severed."
  • 35:49 - 35:54
    That is, we're attached to the body.
  • 35:54 - 36:02
    So we're attached to this body, we think that, you know, we have this..
  • 36:02 - 36:07
    For example, myself, when I was young,
  • 36:07 - 36:09
    when I was in my twenties, I was very attached to my
  • 36:09 - 36:13
    appearance, you know.. I like to go to beaty salon,
  • 36:13 - 36:20
    I spent hours there. I even take to my eyebrow [laughs].
  • 36:20 - 36:24
    So I was thinking, I don't have to do it every day,
  • 36:24 - 36:26
    you save the problem [laughing].
  • 36:26 - 36:29
    This is the attachment to the body and then use lots of energy
  • 36:29 - 36:33
    by thinking, spending lots of time doing that.
  • 36:33 - 36:39
    So if you spend time there you will not arouse that energy
  • 36:39 - 36:44
    to strive, to practice, isn't it?
  • 36:44 - 36:48
    You will not persevere. You don't have the inspiration, you know?
  • 36:48 - 36:51
    It's just the craving, because we're attached to this body so much
  • 36:51 - 36:54
    attached to our appearence, we want people to praise us,
  • 36:54 - 36:59
    "oh you look nice", we're attached to that because
  • 36:59 - 37:02
    it gives us a sense of self, who we are.
  • 37:02 - 37:07
    So we're attached to our self, to our own body the Buddha said.
  • 37:07 - 37:09
    Then this is also we're bound by that
  • 37:09 - 37:17
    If we have that, if we haven't severed this one, the attachment
  • 37:17 - 37:20
    to the body, then we're bound by that
  • 37:20 - 37:24
    then we will not have growth in the Dhamma, we will not have progress
  • 37:24 - 37:31
    in the Dhamma. Then the Buddha continued:
  • 37:31 - 37:40
    "A bhikkhu is not free from lust, desire, affection, thirst, fever and craving for form..
  • 37:40 - 37:49
    As his mind does not incline to ardour, perseverance,
  • 37:49 - 37:54
    devotion and striving, that is the third shackle in the heart
  • 37:54 - 37:56
    that he has not severed."
  • 37:56 - 38:03
    This is more attachment to the form, form is actually referred to
  • 38:03 - 38:10
    attachment to other people or the things that we want
  • 38:10 - 38:17
    like we're craving for a new car, we craving for material things,
  • 38:17 - 38:22
    so we strive to get that, so that is not the right striving
  • 38:22 - 38:24
    this is the wrong effort.
  • 38:24 - 38:28
    Sometimes we strive very hard to get what we want, we strive
  • 38:28 - 38:34
    to get the material things, we strive to have all those enjoyments,
  • 38:34 - 38:36
    indulging the sensory pleasure.
  • 38:36 - 38:41
    So this type of striving, not to strive to get things.
  • 38:41 - 38:44
    Actually the striving is to stop.
  • 38:44 - 38:47
    So it's very difficult to stop isn't it?
  • 38:47 - 38:50
    So we strive to stop, and not strive to get things.
  • 38:50 - 38:57
    So we crave for things, material things, that is the third
  • 38:57 - 39:00
    shackle that the Buddha mentioned in the heart.
  • 39:00 - 39:06
    Then, "...that he has not severed", so this is the third shackle.
  • 39:06 - 39:10
    Then "Again, a bhikkhu eats as much as he likes until his belly
  • 39:10 - 39:18
    is full and indulges in the pleasures of sleeping, lolling and drowsing
  • 39:18 - 39:24
    and his mind does not incline to ardour, perseverance, devotion
  • 39:24 - 39:28
    and striving, that is the fourth shackle in the heart
  • 39:28 - 39:30
    that he has not severed."
  • 39:30 - 39:39
    Sometimes people like the pleasure of drowsiness,
  • 39:39 - 39:42
    you're just drowsy, you know, because,
  • 39:42 - 39:48
    this is one of the way that some people use, as a way because
  • 39:48 - 39:56
    it's unskillful, to face the pain in their life or the emotion,
  • 39:56 - 40:00
    the negative emotion, so they try to run away
  • 40:00 - 40:03
    by using, sometimes people, some people when they're
  • 40:03 - 40:05
    depressed they sleep a lot.
  • 40:05 - 40:09
    And this is one of the ways to escape, running away from
  • 40:09 - 40:15
    dealing, looking at our pain, our problem.
  • 40:15 - 40:19
    I remember when I was in Thailand so the place where we stayed,
  • 40:19 - 40:28
    is the women's section, the kutis there [???]
  • 40:28 - 40:30
    and one of the ladies there, she told me
  • 40:30 - 40:35
    how she have lots of fear, she was really terrified.
  • 40:35 - 40:40
    Initially she was quite okay, until one day because we had someone pass away
  • 40:40 - 40:45
    they cremate in the monastery and for Thai custom they
  • 40:45 - 40:51
    have the ceremony of washing the hands before they cremate
  • 40:51 - 40:58
    so she looked at the dead body, the face, [???], and then next day
  • 40:58 - 41:02
    with the cremation, and after a few days the family came and
  • 41:02 - 41:05
    collected the ashes and put into the wall.
  • 41:05 - 41:08
    And actually the wall is just a wall of the area where we stay
  • 41:08 - 41:12
    and her kuti was quite close to the wall.
  • 41:12 - 41:17
    After that she couldn't sleep. She was really terrified. Lots of fear.
  • 41:17 - 41:22
    And so one of the way she helped herself deal with her
  • 41:22 - 41:25
    fear, you know what she did?
  • 41:25 - 41:28
    She shut herself off.
  • 41:28 - 41:31
    She went to bed at 7, she wake up at 7.
  • 41:31 - 41:38
    Her mind totally shut off. She said because she can't deal with that.
  • 41:38 - 41:43
    This is how we sometimes like to sleep, you know, so we don't have
  • 41:43 - 41:46
    to look at the pain. That's why sometimes we take
  • 41:46 - 41:52
    alcohol or drugs because it's too painful, they can't deal with that.
  • 41:52 - 41:58
    So it's unskillful, so they use it as a way to run away from the
  • 41:58 - 42:03
    pain, the problem they have to face. Because it's painful.
  • 42:03 - 42:09
    It's not easy. They use this as a way to escape.
  • 42:09 - 42:14
    That's why it's enjoy sleeping, enjoy with the drowsiness,
  • 42:14 - 42:21
    because when you're drowsy you're not awake so you will not think of your problem anymore.
  • 42:21 - 42:23
    So this is one of the way.
  • 42:23 - 42:27
    So if you always do that, we're bound by that,
  • 42:27 - 42:29
    we will not have growth in the Dhamma,
  • 42:29 - 42:32
    we will not progress in our practice.
  • 42:32 - 42:43
    So the Buddha says, "this is the fourth shackle in the heart
  • 42:43 - 42:45
    that he has not severed.
  • 42:45 - 42:49
    Again, a bhikkhu leads the holy life aspiring to
  • 42:49 - 42:57
    some order of gods thus: "by this virtue or observance or asceticism
  • 42:57 - 43:03
    or holy life I shall become a great god or some lesser god."
  • 43:03 - 43:08
    and thus his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion,
  • 43:08 - 43:13
    perseverance and striving. As his mind does not incline to
  • 43:13 - 43:18
    ardour, devotion, perseverance and striving, this is the
  • 43:18 - 43:23
    fifth shackle in the heart that he has not severed.
  • 43:23 - 43:27
    These are the five shackles in the heart that he has not severed", the Buddha says.
  • 43:27 - 43:35
    So the fifth one is sometimes people pray to the god and they thought
  • 43:35 - 43:41
    they do all this practice, and they want to be born into the heavenly realm,
  • 43:41 - 43:48
    they don't want to be, they have no interest. So you still want
  • 43:48 - 43:56
    to exist, they're still craving to exist, in a heavenly realm.
  • 43:56 - 43:59
    So if you have that, then you're still bound by that.
  • 43:59 - 44:05
    One of my friends, many years ago, my Dhamma friend, she said to me that
  • 44:05 - 44:09
    she doesn't want to attain nibbana, that she wanted to be a god. [laughs]
  • 44:09 - 44:12
    She want to be born in a heavenly realm, she said.
  • 44:12 - 44:16
    Her main purpose of offering lots of danas,
  • 44:16 - 44:20
    doing all the Dhamma work, for her, her intention is to be born in heaven.
  • 44:20 - 44:24
    She told me, she say, I'm interested in, I only want to be
  • 44:24 - 44:31
    reborn in heaven so for her this is her intention, so she's bound by that.
  • 44:31 - 44:39
    She still want to come back. She still wants to exist.
  • 44:39 - 44:44
    When we want to be then we come back again and again.
  • 44:44 - 44:49
    So we're bound by that. So no escape. Then we will not have any
  • 44:49 - 44:57
    progress in the practice, or it's impossible that we have fulfillment in the
  • 44:57 - 45:00
    Dhamma and the discipline.
  • 45:00 - 45:04
    So "these are the five shackles in the heart that he has not severed."
  • 45:04 - 45:10
    So "bhikhus, let any bhikkhu...", so basically this explain all the sutta and now
  • 45:10 - 45:13
    this is the repeat, so I'll read the repeat
  • 45:13 - 45:18
    "bhkikkus that any bhikkhu who has abandoned the five wildernesses in the heart
  • 45:18 - 45:23
    and severed five shackles in the heart should come
  • 45:23 - 45:28
    to growth, increase and fulfillment in this Dhamma and Discipline
  • 45:28 - 45:32
    that is possible. What bhikkhus are the five wildernessses in the heart
  • 45:32 - 45:41
    that he has abandoned? Here a bhikkhu is not doubtful, uncertain, undecided
  • 45:41 - 45:45
    or unconfident about the teacher and thus his mind incline to ardour, devotion,
  • 45:45 - 45:50
    perseverance and striving. As his mind inclines to ardour, devotion,
  • 45:50 - 45:53
    perseverance and striving, the first wilderness in
  • 45:53 - 45:57
    the heart has been abandoned by him.
  • 45:57 - 46:06
    And then again, a bhikkhu is not doubtful, uncertain, undecided or unconfident about the Dhamma...
  • 46:06 - 46:12
    As his mind inclines to ardour, perseverance, striving, devotion,
  • 46:12 - 46:16
    the second wilderness in the heart has been abandoned by him.
  • 46:16 - 46:22
    Again, a bhikkhu is not doubtful, uncertain, undecided or unconfident about the Sangha.
  • 46:22 - 46:27
    As his mind inclines to ardour, devotion,
  • 46:27 - 46:31
    perseverance, striving, the third wilderness in the heart has been
  • 46:31 - 46:36
    abandoned by him. Again, a bikkhu is not doubtful, uncertain,
  • 46:36 - 46:40
    undecided, or unconfident about the training, and his mind inclines
  • 46:40 - 46:45
    to ardour, perseverance, devotion, striving, this fourth wilderness
  • 46:45 - 46:48
    in the heart has been abadoned by him.
  • 46:48 - 46:53
    Again, a bhikkhu is not angry and displeased with his companions in the holy life,
  • 46:53 - 47:02
    nor resentful and callous towards then, and thus his mind inclines to ardour, devotion,
  • 47:02 - 47:06
    perseverance and striving. As his mind inclines to ardour, devotion,
  • 47:06 - 47:11
    perseverance and striving this fifth wilderness in the heart
  • 47:11 - 47:14
    has been abandoned by him.
  • 47:14 - 47:21
    So these are the five wilderness in the heart that he has abandoned.
  • 47:21 - 47:27
    So, what bhikkhus are the five shackles in the heart that he has severed?
  • 47:27 - 47:32
    Here a bhikkhu is free from lust, desire, affection, thirst, fever and
  • 47:32 - 47:37
    craving for sensual pleasure and thus his mind inclines to ardour, devotion,
  • 47:37 - 47:41
    perseverance and striving. As his mind inclines to ardour, devotion,
  • 47:41 - 47:45
    perseverance and striving, this first shackle
  • 47:45 - 47:48
    in the heart has been severed by him.
  • 47:48 - 47:54
    Again, a bhikkhu is free from lust, desire, affection, thirst, fever and craving for the body.
  • 47:54 - 47:59
    As his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance, striving,
  • 47:59 - 48:05
    this second shackle in the heart has been severed by him.
  • 48:05 - 48:10
    Again, a bhikkhu is free from lust, desires, affection, thirst, fever
  • 48:10 - 48:17
    and craving for form... As his mind inclines to ardour, perseverance, devotions,
  • 48:17 - 48:25
    striving, this third shackle in the heart has been severed by him.
  • 48:25 - 48:29
    Again, a bhikkhu does not eat as much as he likes until his belly is full and
  • 48:29 - 48:36
    does not indulge in the pleasure of sleeping, lolling and drowsing
  • 48:36 - 48:40
    as his mind inclines to ardour, perseverance, devotion, striving
  • 48:40 - 48:45
    this fourth shackle in the heart has been severed by him.
  • 48:45 - 48:48
    Again, a bhikkhu does not live the holy life
  • 48:48 - 48:58
    aspiring to some order of gods thus, "by this virtue or observance or asceticm
  • 48:58 - 49:03
    or holy life I shall become great god, or some lesser god,
  • 49:03 - 49:08
    and thus his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance and striving.
  • 49:08 - 49:12
    As his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance and striving,
  • 49:12 - 49:18
    this fifth shackle in the heart has been severed by him.
  • 49:18 - 49:22
    These are the five shackles in the heart that he has severed.
  • 49:22 - 49:26
    So bhikkhus, that any bhikkhu who has abandoned these five wildernesses in
  • 49:26 - 49:34
    the heart and severed these five shackles in the heart should come to growth, increase
  • 49:34 - 49:38
    and fulfilment in this Dhamma and Disciple - that is possible.
  • 49:38 - 49:41
    So he develops the basis of spiritual power
  • 49:41 - 49:46
    consisting of concentration due to zeal and determined striving.
  • 49:46 - 49:50
    He develops the basis of spiritual power consisting of
  • 49:50 - 49:53
    concentration due to energy and determined striving.
  • 49:53 - 49:58
    He develops the basis of spiritual power consisting in
  • 49:58 - 50:03
    concentration due to purity of mind and determined striving.
  • 50:03 - 50:07
    He develops the basis of spiritual power consisting of concentration
  • 50:07 - 50:12
    due to investigation and determined striving.
  • 50:12 - 50:15
    And enthusiasm is the fifth"
  • 50:15 - 50:19
    So that is the Buddha saying about the iddhipada, that is the
  • 50:19 - 50:26
    four roots to success, the four roots to power.
  • 50:26 - 50:34
    This is the the Nyanatiloka explanation of this iddhipada,
  • 50:34 - 50:40
    iddhi means power, a magical power, and sometimes they translate
  • 50:40 - 50:46
    as this heroic power, because for example,
  • 50:46 - 50:50
    we're inspired and we arouse that energy.
  • 50:50 - 50:56
    The iddhipada roots to power consist of four qualities,
  • 50:56 - 51:02
    these four qualities indicate the root to power connected with
  • 51:02 - 51:08
    form by way of preparations, the root to the power constituting
  • 51:08 - 51:13
    the fruits of the path, namely concentration of intention.
  • 51:13 - 51:16
    Then you have this intention, accompanied by effort of view.
  • 51:16 - 51:20
    That's why sometimes when we start we have to have a little
  • 51:20 - 51:25
    bit of view, good view, accompanied by the effort of view.
  • 51:25 - 51:31
    We have this determination, so we have this
  • 51:31 - 51:42
    view to do the practice. That is what it means by "chanda-sammadhi",
  • 51:42 - 51:51
    Like for us for example, for the bhikkhu and bhikkhunis if we're not
  • 51:51 - 51:54
    not be able to attend the, for example, we have sangha-kamma,
  • 51:54 - 51:59
    we will send our consent - please my consent of
  • 51:59 - 52:02
    whatever you discuss, or I give my chanda.
  • 52:02 - 52:11
    They also translate as concentration of intention accompanied by effort of view.
  • 52:11 - 52:16
    So concentrations of energy, the virya-sammadhi, so the sammadhi based
  • 52:16 - 52:24
    on this energy that is a kind of heroic energy.
  • 52:24 - 52:29
    So the concentrations based on the chita-sammadhi, that is
  • 52:29 - 52:31
    the concentrations of consciousness,
  • 52:31 - 52:35
    and the concentration of investigation accompanied by
  • 52:35 - 52:41
    effort of view. So this is the iddhipada, so you've got to have
  • 52:41 - 52:48
    the desire. Someone went to Ananda, ask, you know, you've got to have the desires
  • 52:48 - 52:54
    to do the practice. So you've got to the have desires to abandon the desires
  • 52:54 - 53:03
    that lead us to rebirth. So it's not all desires that are no good.
  • 53:03 - 53:09
    Lots of people think that arahant is like a vegetable-person,
  • 53:09 - 53:13
    they have no feelings, no desires, so if you have no desires
  • 53:13 - 53:16
    you will not eat, you will starve to death,
  • 53:16 - 53:19
    if you have no desires you can't go to the toilet.
  • 53:19 - 53:26
    So it's not all desires that have the results, desires to do the practice.
  • 53:26 - 53:30
    So when you have the desires you start to arouse the energy
  • 53:30 - 53:33
    for example you have the desire to come here to listen,
  • 53:33 - 53:38
    to come here for this sutta class.
  • 53:38 - 53:45
    So you have these desires, isn't it? To listen to the dhamma.
  • 53:45 - 53:49
    Then you arouse the energy, this is the noble energy, noble power,
  • 53:49 - 53:57
    it's related to the fruits, to the path, it relates to the freedom,
  • 53:57 - 54:01
    it's the wholesome energy, it's not those kinds of energy
  • 54:01 - 54:08
    that we arouse to get something or to try to hurt someone,
  • 54:08 - 54:12
    that kind of energy is unwholesome but this is the wholesome.
  • 54:12 - 54:16
    We arouse the energy, you've got to arouse the energy to put forth
  • 54:16 - 54:21
    effort to come here. Then you have to apply the mind.
  • 54:21 - 54:24
    Oh yes, this is what I'm going to do - come here.
  • 54:24 - 54:30
    Then you investigate, you have to plan how to come here, isn't it?
  • 54:30 - 54:38
    This is the iddhipada, four roots to power.
  • 54:38 - 54:41
    So the Buddha said, "and the last one enthusiasm."
  • 54:41 - 54:46
    We have to have the enthusiasm, then we will be able to continue,
  • 54:46 - 54:48
    to have the perseverance.
  • 54:48 - 54:56
    It's important because we have been wondering in the samsara
  • 54:56 - 55:00
    countless lifetimes. That's why sometimes when we read the suttas
  • 55:00 - 55:07
    there is the Buddha giving the teaching to his monk, his discipline,
  • 55:07 - 55:10
    and no long time and they become an arahant.
  • 55:10 - 55:13
    And we say wow it's so easy.
  • 55:13 - 55:18
    So maybe for the Buddha twenty, thirty, years may be no long time.
  • 55:18 - 55:25
    Actually if you compare to the countless lifetimes
  • 55:25 - 55:30
    that we're in samsara, actually twenty, thirty years is no long time. [laughs]
  • 55:30 - 55:34
    So that's why you need to have the enthusiasm to keep going.
  • 55:34 - 55:39
    So sometimes you think were getting nowhere, have no progress
  • 55:39 - 55:44
    and then we put off, not to continue to practice.
  • 55:44 - 55:47
    It's a lifetime practice. You keep practicing.
  • 55:47 - 55:54
    So we need to have the enthusiasm to keep practising and this is the fifth.
  • 55:54 - 56:01
    So, "A bhikkhu who thus possesses the fifteen factors including enthusiasm is
  • 56:01 - 56:05
    capable of breaking out, capable of enlightenment, capable of attaining
  • 56:05 - 56:09
    the supreme security from bondage.
  • 56:09 - 56:14
    Suppose there were a hen with eight, ten, twelve eggs,
  • 56:14 - 56:20
    which she has covered, incubated and nurtured properly.
  • 56:20 - 56:25
    Even though she did not wish, 'ohhh that my chicks may pierce
  • 56:25 - 56:31
    their shells with the points of their claws and beaks and
  • 56:31 - 56:35
    hatch out safely.' Yet, the chicks are capable of piercing
  • 56:35 - 56:39
    their shells with the points of their claws and their beaks
  • 56:39 - 56:43
    and hatching out safely. So too a bhikkhu who thus possesses
  • 56:43 - 56:47
    fifteen factors including enthusiasm, is capable of
  • 56:47 - 56:49
    breaking off, capable of enlightenment,
  • 56:49 - 56:52
    capable of attaining supreme security from bondage."
  • 56:52 - 56:59
    This is, like, the Buddha gives the simile of the hen sitting on the eggs,
  • 56:59 - 57:04
    it's just like the practice. If you sit long enough, whether you want it or not,
  • 57:04 - 57:07
    whether you want to get enlightened or not,
  • 57:07 - 57:09
    it's going to happen.
  • 57:09 - 57:11
    You don't have to wish - may I get enlightened.
  • 57:11 - 57:18
    No, if you follow the teaching of the Buddha, you follow the instructions,
  • 57:18 - 57:22
    you forth put into practice, that is the result of that.
  • 57:22 - 57:25
    So the Buddha's teaching of non-self, we can't make it happen,
  • 57:25 - 57:31
    it happens by itself. So the hens don't have to wish - may my eggs hatch -
  • 57:31 - 57:36
    they'll hatch by itself whether you want it or not.
  • 57:36 - 57:38
    So whether you want to get enlightened or not,
  • 57:38 - 57:41
    you will get enlightened. So if you are following the path,
  • 57:41 - 57:45
    and if you're on the path, it's just a matter of time.
  • 57:45 - 57:48
    You just keep practicing.
  • 57:48 - 57:51
    "That is what the blessed one said. The bhikkhus were satisfied
  • 57:51 - 57:54
    and delighted in the blessed one's words."
  • 57:54 - 58:00
    So this is the end of the sutta.
  • 58:00 - 58:05
    Any questions or comments?
  • 58:05 - 58:11
    Yes
  • 58:11 - 58:13
    Man from audince: Out of these five shackles,
  • 58:13 - 58:17
    is there any one more important or let's say supreme?
  • 58:17 - 58:21
    Venerable Hasapanna: actually it's not one, or which one, is important,
  • 58:21 - 58:25
    it's just that some people have particular, or more strong with this.
  • 58:25 - 58:28
    That's why it's important when we read the suttas we know
  • 58:28 - 58:31
    for ourself, this is our weak point.
  • 58:31 - 58:36
    Maybe, we are, some people more attached to attached to the body - this
  • 58:36 - 58:40
    is your problem, or this is my problem.
  • 58:40 - 58:46
    So you put more effort. This is the area you need to work with.
  • 58:46 - 58:50
    Because different people have different attachments.
  • 58:50 - 58:55
    Different defilements. Like sometimes this is a problem to someone
  • 58:55 - 58:59
    then it's not a problem to another person.
  • 58:59 - 59:05
    This is why it's important when we read these suttas
  • 59:05 - 59:09
    that we check what are the areas we need to improve.
  • 59:09 - 59:12
    So does that answer your question?
  • 59:12 - 59:20
    Yeah.. so the Buddha said as long as you have these shackles you are bound by that.
  • 59:20 - 59:25
    Some people might not have the.. maybe the fifth one is not strong.
  • 59:25 - 59:31
    They totally do not, never want to become reborn in
  • 59:31 - 59:35
    the heavenly realm. But maybe sometimes people like to
  • 59:35 - 59:40
    sleep a lot. Then this is something we need to work with.
  • 59:40 - 59:47
    Then we have to look at which areas we always have problem with.
  • 59:47 - 59:56
    Then this area we have to work with, you know, to improve.
  • 59:56 - 60:00
    Man from audience: from that sutra we can see that
  • 60:00 - 60:05
    the attempt is welcome to conquer those attachments,
  • 60:05 - 60:09
    inferior attachments, by attachment to the practice, the Dhamma.
  • 60:09 - 60:17
    So is there any step in development of practice where you have
  • 60:17 - 60:22
    to conquer attachment to knowledge and to the practice itself?
  • 60:22 - 60:28
    Is there any such state, such level where you have to renounce
  • 60:28 - 60:35
    even attachment to the practice, the knowledge?
  • 60:35 - 60:37
    Hasapanna: Can you repeat again, I can't really get...
  • 60:37 - 60:43
    Man: So to conquer basic attachments, which Buddha talks here.
  • 60:43 - 60:45
    Hasapanna: what attachment you mean?
  • 60:45 - 60:46
    Man: those five shackles..
  • 60:46 - 60:48
    Hasapanna: okay okay, yeah yeah
  • 60:48 - 60:52
    Man: so we have to cultivate attachment to the practice,
  • 60:52 - 60:55
    to the knowledge, and with the help of that attachment we overcome
  • 60:55 - 60:57
    inferior attachments
  • 60:57 - 60:58
    Hasapanna: Yes that's why the Buddha says..
  • 60:58 - 61:03
    Man: Is there any further if someone is practising successfully
  • 61:03 - 61:09
    and he is making good progress, is there such situation
  • 61:09 - 61:14
    where the practitioner has to renounce even attachment
  • 61:14 - 61:22
    to the practice and to the knowledge to get to the ultimate liberation.
  • 61:22 - 61:24
    Hasapanna: Oh this I understand.
  • 61:24 - 61:32
    So yeah, someone asked me the same question, about how at the beginning
  • 61:32 - 61:39
    you still have that because we cannot just say let go, let go, you know.
  • 61:39 - 61:42
    So sometimes we're attached to the wholesome things
  • 61:42 - 61:45
    rather than attached to the unwholesome things.
  • 61:45 - 61:50
    So then we let go of the coarser happiness, the lesser happiness,
  • 61:50 - 61:57
    for the greater happiness. It's just like a stair, a ladder we climb up.
  • 61:57 - 62:04
    So we let go of that. So of course we still attach to wholesome.
  • 62:04 - 62:08
    Because we're not enlightened yet. Unless we're enlightened,
  • 62:08 - 62:11
    you still have sense of self, you still have attachment to sense of self.
  • 62:11 - 62:17
    But you can tell the difference, for example, after you have practised,
  • 62:17 - 62:21
    your sense of self become more fluid. You still have the sense of self,
  • 62:21 - 62:24
    you're still attached to yourself, but at least you
  • 62:24 - 62:28
    can see that you're happier, you're more relaxed.
  • 62:28 - 62:35
    You can see, you know if someone happens to take up the path of practice,
  • 62:35 - 62:40
    to them the sense of self is so solid, so concrete,
  • 62:40 - 62:45
    whatever unwholesome state they just impulsively react
  • 62:45 - 62:47
    and create more suffering for themselves.
  • 62:47 - 62:51
    But you know for yourself, for example, some situations
  • 62:51 - 62:57
    that in the past cause you lots of suffering, but now you're more relaxed,
  • 62:57 - 63:00
    and more at ease - that is the progress.
  • 63:00 - 63:05
    The Buddha said this is the gradual training, this will not
  • 63:05 - 63:09
    happen overnight. Of course we cannot say let go, let go,
  • 63:09 - 63:12
    lots of people try to do that, letting go.
  • 63:12 - 63:18
    You can't do the letting go, the letting go happens by itself.
  • 63:18 - 63:22
    So you just little by little, that's why it's the gradual training
  • 63:22 - 63:27
    for example we have to let go of the, like renounce, for example.
  • 63:27 - 63:36
    Why did the Buddha emphasise generosity, sila you know, sammadhi and panya?
  • 63:36 - 63:39
    Because generosity helps us to let go.
  • 63:39 - 63:45
    For example we give away the material things, that is the coarser,
  • 63:45 - 63:49
    coarser level, the things outside us, the material things.
  • 63:49 - 63:53
    Then we practice that. Then we can renounce, we can let go of that.
  • 63:53 - 63:56
    So when we can let go of that.. If we can't let go of the material things
  • 63:56 - 64:00
    we can't let go of the more subtle defilements, isn't it?
  • 64:00 - 64:02
    This is how it's the gradual training.
  • 64:02 - 64:05
    We let go of that then after we'll be able to do that,
  • 64:05 - 64:08
    then we practise letting go of the coarser,
  • 64:08 - 64:15
    then we come to more subtle ones, then we let go of our
  • 64:15 - 64:18
    defilements like greed, hatred and delusion.
  • 64:18 - 64:25
    So you cannot stop it immediately, because if you can use willpower
  • 64:25 - 64:29
    to stop it immediately then the Buddhist teaching
  • 64:29 - 64:32
    of non-self is not the truth.
  • 64:32 - 64:38
    It's just like for example, you have this defilment. When you react
  • 64:38 - 64:44
    to the defilement it's just like you kicking the wheel when you react.
  • 64:44 - 64:51
    So when you kick, when you react, your defilements reinforce your defilements, isn't it?
  • 64:51 - 64:54
    Your defilements become greater.
  • 64:54 - 65:00
    So when you don't react, doesn't mean your defilements go away immediately.
  • 65:00 - 65:03
    It's still there.
  • 65:03 - 65:07
    So that means you're not kicking the wheel.
  • 65:07 - 65:13
    But the wheel is still spinning, but the energy becomes slower.
  • 65:13 - 65:20
    This is how to practice. Each time the defilements kick out,
  • 65:20 - 65:24
    we do not react to the defilements. Doesn't mean we don't have defilements.
  • 65:24 - 65:29
    The defilements still there. But the energy becomes weaker.
  • 65:29 - 65:34
    So the more we do that, each time, then it becomes weaker, weaker, weaker
  • 65:34 - 65:41
    and it stops by itself. If you leave the wheel by itself it spins, spins, spins,
  • 65:41 - 65:47
    if you stop kicking it, it stops by itself, isn't it?
  • 65:47 - 65:49
    You don't have to do anything.
  • 65:49 - 65:54
    This is why the Buddha said about the hen sitting on the eggs.
  • 65:54 - 65:59
    So eventually they sow(?). Lots of people think you cannot set, abandon...
  • 65:59 - 66:04
    no it's the gradual training because we've been conditioned countless lifetimes.
  • 66:04 - 66:14
    Habitual pattern is very ingrained. So we have to retrain the mind,
  • 66:14 - 66:18
    direct the mind to the wholesome. Of course we're still attached to the wholesome.
  • 66:18 - 66:25
    So eventually, when we go beyond wholesome and unwholesome, we don't even attach
  • 66:25 - 66:32
    to wholesome, that is the enlightenment, that is the goal, that is the nibbana.
  • 66:32 - 66:37
    Of course we still have attachments, just what you said, because
  • 66:37 - 66:42
    we cannot just let go immediately.
  • 66:42 - 66:49
    It's the gradual training. Does this answer your question, make sense to you?
  • 66:49 - 66:54
    Any more questions, comments? Yes?
  • 67:04 - 67:08
    Aha, aha
  • 67:17 - 67:24
    The wisdom arises when the mind is still.
  • 67:24 - 67:30
    Because when you have these five hindrances
  • 67:30 - 67:33
    it clouds the mind.
  • 67:33 - 67:36
    When your mind is cloudy it's very simple, you don't have to have
  • 67:36 - 67:39
    reached the state of absorption.
  • 67:39 - 67:44
    For example sometimes we are confused and you really stress out
  • 67:44 - 67:49
    and you can't think of a way to solve your problem. So when you walk away,
  • 67:49 - 67:55
    you put it aside, and you make your mind as peaceful as possible,
  • 67:55 - 67:59
    then ah, I think how to solve the problem!
  • 67:59 - 68:04
    Because you don't have the clarity, so when you're confused,
  • 68:04 - 68:08
    don't try to make any decisions when you're confused.
  • 68:08 - 68:15
    You have to make your mind as peaceful as possible, your mind as peaceful as possible,
  • 68:15 - 68:21
    and very calm. When you're calm, you can think, isn't it? You have the clarity.
  • 68:21 - 68:27
    That is where when you have abandoned the five hindrances the mind is clear.
  • 68:27 - 68:34
    It's just like the moon is so bright, the mind is very bright, without the clouds.
  • 68:34 - 68:40
    But with the five hindrances, it covers the moon, and it's not bright.
  • 68:40 - 68:46
    The mind, that is where your wisdom arises, through abandoning
  • 68:46 - 68:52
    the five hindrances. When you have a peaceful mind, the wisdom arises,
  • 68:52 - 68:59
    the insight arises. Does that answer your question?
  • 68:59 - 69:03
    Any more questions?
  • 69:03 - 69:09
    Okay, so we finish, then we pay respect to the Buddha
Title:
MN 16 Cetokhila Sutta- The Wilderness In The Heart
Description:

Sutta Study 27-05-2012
Facilitated By Bhikkhuni Hasapanna

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Video Language:
English
Duration:
01:09:10