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MEEZAN - Preamble - Part 25 - Principles of Understanding Quran - Javed Ahmed Ghamidi

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    Meezan - Tadabbur-e Quran
    (Understanding the Quran)
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    Meezan and Furqan, Disputes of recitation.
    Lecture. 13 A. 12-04-2002
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    Scholar. Javed Ahmed Ghamidi
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    [Javed Ahmed Ghamidi] Alhumdulillah
    All Praise is due to Allah,
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    Peace and Blessings be upon His
    Trustworthy Prophet Muhammad.
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    I seek refuge with Allah from the
    accursed Satan.
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    In the name of Allah, Most Beneficent
    and Ever Merciful.
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    Ladies and gentlemen,
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    In the debate about Meezan
    and Furqan,
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    we have been studying the various
    points of views about Qiraat of the Quran.
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    We saw in it that even though it is
    usually thought that
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    there is more than one single
    recitation of the Quran,
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    but when we look at it in light
    of the Quran itself
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    as well as in light of the entire history
    which we have with us,
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    when we study this whole issue, then an
    entirely different scenario emerges.
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    Hence we also saw in great detail
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    what the Quran itself says about its
    recitation and
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    its process of compilation and order.
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    We then also saw that the corpus that we
    possess with us with respect to
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    Uloon-ul-Quran (sciences of the Quran),
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    what are the historical traditions written
    in it conveying?
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    From that it became clear that one reading
    of the Quran is that
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    in which it was being revealed
    during the first stage.
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    After that, Allah Himself gave it a
    new order and arrangement.
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    And based on that order, a second
    recitation of the Quran was revealed.
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    And even in that, due regard was taken
    to reveal that second recitation twice.
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    And there was a group from among
    the Companions
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    who were present with the Prophet (pbuh)
    during that event
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    when in the last year of the Prophet's
    life, Archangel Gabriel recited it twice.
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    Along with this historical record, we had
    also seen previously
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    that the Quran itself says the same
    thing about itself.
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    And it has made it absolutely clear
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    that the Almighty also knew what the
    contemporary situation was,
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    and is revealing the Quran
    accordingly.
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    And 'Sanuqri'uka fala tansa Illa
    masha'allah
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    innahoo ya'lamul jahra wa
    ma yakhfa'.
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    And later, the things
    which were hidden
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    those which were not told to the
    Prophet or the Companions,
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    but which Allah is well aware of,
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    and the tribulations which the Muslims
    will be faced with till Judgement Day,
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    which Allah knows too,
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    hence taking into consideration
    these factors,
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    He would give the whole of Quran a
    new order.
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    This is something which the Quran
    has stated itself.
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    It has also made it clear that it then
    becomes imperative
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    that only the second recitation
    should be followed.
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    So this second recitation which is termed
    as arzah al-akhirah (final presentation),
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    we have read about this
    in great detail.
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    Towards the end of it, this question
    had come up that
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    what would be said about that
    narration
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    which is written in the books
    of Hadith
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    about the Quran being revealed
    in Seven Ahruf.
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    Thus we were highlighting certain critical
    points about this narration
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    based on the contents of its text.
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    In this, two aspects had come under
    discussion.
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    The first point that came under
    discussion was that
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    there is no doubt that this narration can
    be found
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    in the primary books of Hadith.
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    At the moment, the science of Hadith
    which we have with us,
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    in light of that, the chain of
    transmission of this narration
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    cannot be brought under question in a way
    that would
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    make it stand abolished or rejected.
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    In its chain of transmission, such
    trusted personages are found
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    whole reports are generally considered
    trustworthy and acceptable.
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    Nor is there any kind of a break in
    the chain of transmission, apparently.
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    But what does it mean? What is
    the meaning of this report?
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    The report does not mean anything
    in itself.
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    There is a verse of the Quran and if no
    one in the world
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    can understand its meaning, then what
    opinion can be formed about it?
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    What exactly is it then?
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    So the first thing we read about it was,
    what is its subject matter?
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    What is its meaning?
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    What is it trying to say? What does
    'Seven Ahruf' in it imply?
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    When it is said that the Quran is
    revealed in Seven Ahruf (Seven Ways),
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    there must be some referent in
    light of which this claim is being made.
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    What is it? So we saw that in the
    last fourteen centures,
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    no consensus has been achieved
    about it.
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    Moreover, it is a wilderness of opinions
    in which ones finds himself confounded.
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    Hence I had stated that Al-Suyuti who is
    a very well read and erudite person,
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    in fact it is absolutely correct about
    Imam Ibn Taymiyyah and Al-Suyuti,
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    that in our historical corpus and in
    our traditions,
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    if they don't know something, then it
    is not known to anyone else either.
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    Both of them are very widely read
    and erudite.
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    It is a very famous saying about
    Imam ibn Taymiyyah,
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    that 'Ammal Hadees fala yaa'rifu
    ibn Taymiyyah falaysa bi-Hadees.'
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    It means that a Hadith not known to
    ibn Taymiyyah,
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    is simply not a Hadith report.
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    It speaks of his reach and erudition.
    And the case with al-Suyuti is the same.
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    One can have a discussion about
    his understanding,
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    the way he collated information, and
    his method of critique and analysis used,
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    those can be discussed too.
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    But he too was an extremely well read
    and erudite.
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    In his book Al-Itqaan,
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    and Al-Itqaan which we have,
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    in addition to al-Burhan by
    Zarkashi,
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    and Al-Itqaan by Suyuti,
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    these two books are actually central
    to the discipline of Uloom ul-Quran.
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    So they are the primary texts,
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    Al-Itqaan by Suyuti, and al-Burhan
    by Zarkashi.
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    Uloom ul-Quran means that whatever
    commentaries and materials
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    we have with us about the Quran,
    all of it is collated together.
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    About how the Quran was revealed,
    which verses are there in it,
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    what is the history of its
    compilation and arrangement,
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    what have been the different styles
    of commentaries on it,
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    and what is the issue around
    its recitations.
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    All of these aspects are brought together
    under a discipline,
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    and these two texts are the primary
    books of that discipline.
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    So naturally Suyuti has discussed about
    it in his Al-Itqaan.
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    It is a very comprehensive debate in
    which he elaborates
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    on what this narration says,
    and what is its subject matter.
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    So in that he acknowledges the fact that
    there are about forty different opinions
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    which have been formed about the
    narration up till then.
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    But not even a single opinion is such
    which does not fall short of adequate.
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    At the very first glance it can be seen
    that it is not a suitable stance.
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    That the narration is still an enigma.
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    It is as if an utterly senseless opinion
    has been given
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    only to satisfy oneself, but that
    has not worked successfully.
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    This is what Suyuti himself has
    acknowledged!
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    And after that acknowledgement,
    the last point he has made
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    in his commentary on Al-Muwatta,
    titled Tanwir al-hawalik,
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    so he has a commentary on Al-Muwatta
    as well.
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    And the text which I have cited from the
    narration is from Al-Muwatta.
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    I have also mentioned that this text can
    be found in other Hadith collections too.
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    But since Al-Muwatta is the primary book,
    so I have copied the text from it.
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    And Suyuti's Tanwir al-hawalik is the
    commentary of that very book.
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    So when he has come to this narration
    in his book,
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    he has acknowledged that it must
    be accepted that
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    even though this narration exists,
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    but it must be regarded as being from the
    matters which are mutashabihat.
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    It means that no one can know
    what it means. This must be accepted.
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    And if the meanings cannot be known,
    then the debate comes an end here.
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    What can be further said about
    this narration?
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    Because whatever we have to believe or
    know about the narration,
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    has to be based on its very meaning.
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    The narration has been written down,
    and it can remain there.
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    This is the first point, that no one has
    succeeded in offering an explanation
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    of its meaning.
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    Even the people who have worked
    extraordinarily hard for it.
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    In the modern era too, the scholars
    who believe this narration to be true,
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    or based on this narration they hold a
    positive viewpoint
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    regarding multiple recitations.
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    I have seen all of their reasonings
    as well.
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    And even in that, there is the same
    kind of acknowledgement to be found.
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    Even in our contemporary times, the
    people who wrote some books
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    on Uloom ul-Quran, including
    the ones written in Urdu,
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    they too find themselves forced to admit
    that it has no meaning.
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    What the meaning of the narration is,
    is hard to figure out.
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    Then it also happens that they sometimes
    consider a worthless opinion
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    to be the closest to being adequate.
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    That is, comes close to being the
    correct understanding. Yes?
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    [Student] Sir when people say about this
    narration that it is hard to understand,
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    do they still abide by the idea that
    it was revealed in seven ways?
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    [Ghamidi] Well their being convinced by
    this notion is a separate story.
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    I am only talking about what the meaning
    of this narration is.
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    Everyone actually accepts it,
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    we have already stated that previously
    and we will summarize it again later on.
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    There is no dispute among people when
    it comes to believing in it.
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    But what is the meaning of
    this narration?
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    [Student] His question was that
    if we say that
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    this narration is such that no one can
    understand its meaning,
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    then on what basis do they claim to
    abide by the Seven recitations?
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    [Ghamidi] What do you mean by
    Seven recitations?
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    No one believes in seven recitations.
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    People believe in dozens of recitations
    actually.
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    [Student] That there is another recitation
    of the Quran apart from this one reading.
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    [Ghamidi] Yes that is what you
    should say.
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    About that, people say it exists.
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    And I have already discussed that and
    explained to you that they say it exists.
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    And those other readings people are
    relating and they are found in some books,
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    and some people are narrating it with
    its oral chain of transmission,
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    or someone is teaching it.
    People do say all these things.
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    In fact I have already told you that on
    the basis of it
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    an official Quran has been published
    in our contemporary times.
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    I have placed that Quran before you
    as well.
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    So there is no denying that other
    readings exist.
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    And based on the fact of their existence,
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    people believe that these recitations
    exist.
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    It is something which is lying before us.
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    And some people present this narration
    too as a source of that.
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    What I am saying is that this narration
    should not be a matter of confusion.
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    [Student] So people cite this report as
    as a support for other recitations?
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    [Ghamidi] No there is no need to present
    it as a support,
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    but since there is a mention of difference
    over recitations,
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    it naturally becomes a matter of
    concern for us, doesn't it?
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    It would be presented as a supportive
    evidence when it would have any meaning.
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    So firstly the meanings should be
    clear. Does it even mean something?
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    You might have missed this sentence.
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    I had started the debate about this
    narration by saying that
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    here it is possible that the narrative on
    the Seven Ahruf
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    might cause some confusion for some
    people in this regard.
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    So it is quite possible that after
    listening to this whole debate on Qirat,
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    one might say this narration which is
    found in the books of Hadith
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    that there was a dispute which arose over
    the recitations of the Quran,
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    or disagreements of this kind
    were present,
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    so could it be referring to those
    very disagreements?
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    That is possible right?
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    So we have to discuss this narration
    from that aspect.
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    On the basis of this narration,
    I have told you
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    what can anyone say, for people
    had to acknowledge
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    that it holds no meaning at all.
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    So how can anyone present it
    as an evidence?
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    Since it does not seem to have
    any meaning in its substance.
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    Whatever this narration is conveying,
    that itself is impossible to determine.
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    Hence we must acknowledge that it is from
    the verses related to mutashabihat matters
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    and its meaning is only known
    to Allah.
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    Because we know about the
    mutashabihat
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    that it is said that their meanings are
    known only to God.
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    So when something can be known
    by God alone,
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    there is no way after the finality of
    Prophethood to know its meaning.
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    Only after the veil of the Judgement
    Day will be lifted,
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    and we will have the honor to
    talk to Allah,
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    does it seem possible that its
    meaning can be conveyed.
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    As of now, it holds no meaning.
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    This is what I am saying about
    this narration.
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    The second point about this which
    I had presented before you was,
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    that one explanation of this narration
    is there which could have been plausible.
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    And people did try to explain it
    that way.
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    That explanation could have been that
    actually the disagreement which is in it,
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    where Syedna Umar heard the
    recitation and
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    Hisham ibn Hakeem ibn Hizam was
    reciting,
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    which Umar felt was different from
    his own and he responded angrily.
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    He dragged Hisham over to the
    Prophet (pbuh).
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    So this actually wasn't a dispute over
    the meanings or of the words,
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    but rather was one of pronunciation.
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    This could have been a very
    plausible explanation.
  • 12:19 - 12:22
    Because disagreements over
    pronunciations in reading a language
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    or in speaking it, is a very natural
    thing which can occur.
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    If the people of one geographical
    area speak a word in one way,
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    people from another area can
    pronounce it in another way.
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    Even today we see that the same Arabic
    is written, and the word Hajj is there,
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    but Egyptians will still pronounce
    it as 'Hagg'.
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    The reason for that is that
    they cannot pronounce the letter 'J'.
  • 12:41 - 12:44
    Similarly you can see in Urdu
    language,
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    the people from Hyderabad will
    pronounce 'K' as 'kh' only.
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    You can force them as much as
    you want,
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    but that is the sound they produce.
  • 12:52 - 12:54
    So this is the case with pronunciations
    and dialects.
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    Even with Arabs, they have numerous
    dialects.
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    A lot of people are there, when we
    read the history of Arabic language,
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    or the history of their dialects,
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    a lot of books have been published
    on this.
  • 13:06 - 13:10
    So from those we know that for instance
    the people from Banu Taym tribe,
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    on the contrary to the people
    from the Hijaz,
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    like we say in Arabic,
    'akram tuk'.
  • 13:14 - 13:18
    'I give you respect,
    I hold you in high esteem.'
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    So in the Hejazi dialect, this
    sentence is enough to convey this.
  • 13:21 - 13:24
    But the Banu Taym people will
    say 'akram tukas'.
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    So in their dialect, after the sentence is
    said, a sound of 's' is produced.
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    Even though they are saying
    that same Arabic sentence.
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    Similarly, there are many Arabic
    dialects in which
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    the letters 'alif' and 'laam'
    of Arabic,
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    turns into 'alif meem'.
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    That famous incident is there when
    some people came to the Prophet (pbuh),
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    and 'laysam im birrim tamum
    bi l safar'.
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    'Laysa minal birri taamu
    fi l safar'
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    So 'alif laam' became 'alif
    meem' in their dialect.
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    This incident has been recorded
    in the Hadith as well.
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    So this is not an isolated incident,
    there are numerous dialects in fact.
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    Even in the current era you can see,
    there are so many dialects of English,
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    even Urdu has some dialects
    although there are not many.
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    And Punjabi of course has many.
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    You can see the Punjabi of Khushab,
    or the one spoken in Majha,
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    or in Kallar, or you can see the Punjabi
    inspired by Gulabi Urdu of Lahore.
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    So there are dozens of dialects
    of the Punjabi language as well,
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    in which people converse.
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    So this could have been a plausible
    explanation,
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    that Syedna Umar felt that Hisham
    is not reading the Quran in our dialect.
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    This could have been a very
    probable reasoning.
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    And this could be conveyed in
    Arabic by saying that
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    I heard him reciting the Quran in
    a different way.
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    This can be said.
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    When we Hindi speaking people
    speak Arabic,
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    so if we do not speak Arabic with
    the Arabs' pronunciation,
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    or if we haven't practiced it well, then
    they would find it hard to understand us.
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    This is what we call tajweed.
    What exactly is it?
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    It is actually an imitation of the
    Arabic dialect.
  • 14:53 - 14:56
    What is the Arabic dialect? That is
    what we train ourselves to speak in,
  • 14:56 - 14:59
    as a proper science. Even in that,
    how far we manage to succeed,
  • 14:59 - 15:01
    that is a separate debate, but the fact
    is we have to learn it.
  • 15:01 - 15:05
    The art of Qirat, of Tajweed, this is
    the reason we have to learn these things.
  • 15:05 - 15:10
    So this could have been a plausible
    explanation, it could have been acceptable
  • 15:10 - 15:12
    had it been said that there was a
    difference of dialect
  • 15:12 - 15:14
    between these two Companions.
  • 15:14 - 15:17
    One was from the tribe of Quraysh
    and the other was from Banu Taym.
  • 15:17 - 15:19
    Or one was a Qurayshi and the other
    was from Banu Hudhayl.
  • 15:19 - 15:21
    Or one was a Qurayshi and the other
    had migrated from somewhere in Iraq,
  • 15:21 - 15:25
    or from Syria. So since there was a
    difference between their pronunciations,
  • 15:25 - 15:26
    hence Syedna Umar felt a difference
    in recitation.
  • 15:26 - 15:30
    And that is a very natural fact, it is
    not something improbable.
  • 15:30 - 15:33
    But then, the text of the narration,
  • 15:33 - 15:37
    as I had said, it dismisses this
    explanation.
  • 15:37 - 15:41
    The reason for that is that both the
    Companions were Qurayshi.
  • 15:41 - 15:44
    So either one of the individuals would
    have to be changed in the narration.
  • 15:44 - 15:49
    For it is not possible that people of
    the same community, of the same tribe,
  • 15:49 - 15:52
    have such a difference in their
    pronunciations.
  • 15:52 - 15:54
    To make a mistake is a separate
    thing,
  • 15:54 - 15:56
    but the dialect simply cannot be
    distinct.
  • 15:56 - 15:59
    And it was not like a modern
    nation or community,
  • 15:59 - 16:01
    where 'community' is used to refer
    to a population of 140 million people.
  • 16:01 - 16:03
    These were people living in the same
    area, in the same village.
  • 16:03 - 16:05
    After all, what was the total population
    of Mecca?
  • 16:05 - 16:07
    Despite their best efforts, how many
    fighters could the Quraysh bring together
  • 16:07 - 16:09
    in the battles of Badr and Uhad?
  • 16:09 - 16:10
    You can get an idea of their population
    from this.
  • 16:10 - 16:12
    The men of fighting age who
    came on the battlefield,
  • 16:12 - 16:14
    their numbers were not more
    than a thousand.
  • 16:14 - 16:16
    So within such a small community,
    that difference is simply not possible.
  • 16:16 - 16:19
    It is the same tribe, and they have such
    a small population,
  • 16:19 - 16:21
    and for them to have such a huge
    difference in their dialect is impossible.
  • 16:21 - 16:24
    So this explanation does not seem
    acceptable to the text of the narration.
  • 16:24 - 16:27
    If you were to remove the names of
    both of the Companions from the report,
  • 16:27 - 16:30
    and for instance the situation is that
    one person learnt the Quran from someone,
  • 16:30 - 16:34
    and heard another person reciting it, and
    felt there was a difference in dialect.
  • 16:34 - 16:36
    Then this explanation would become
    acceptable.
  • 16:36 - 16:41
    After this, the third aspect towards which
    I have tried to bring your attention,
  • 16:41 - 16:43
    in relation to this narration,
  • 16:43 - 16:44
    is that
  • 16:45 - 16:48
    suppose for a while that this was in
    fact a difference of pronunciations.
  • 16:48 - 16:51
    Let us ignore the obvious
    contradictions.
  • 16:51 - 16:53
    Ignore for a while the fact that both
    the Companions were Qurayshi.
  • 16:53 - 16:56
    And let us accept this explanation,
    let us suppose it for the sake of argument
  • 16:56 - 16:58
    for a while we accept that it
    was the case.
  • 16:58 - 17:02
    But the narration does not speak
    of a difference in their dialects.
  • 17:02 - 17:06
    The narration says that the Quran itself
    was revealed in a different dialect.
  • 17:06 - 17:08
    This is what the narration is saying.
  • 17:08 - 17:10
    That one Quran was revealed in
    one way,
  • 17:10 - 17:13
    and the other Quran was revealed
    in another way.
  • 17:13 - 17:16
    So now naturally if it were to be said
  • 17:16 - 17:20
    that the people were permitted to recite
    the Quran in various ways and dialects,
  • 17:20 - 17:22
    for this is what would follow right?
  • 17:22 - 17:24
    That there were different
    pronunciations,
  • 17:24 - 17:25
    if someone wants to read it in the
    Iraqi dialect, he may.
  • 17:25 - 17:27
    Or someone else can recite it in
    the Egyptian dialect if he wants to.
  • 17:27 - 17:30
    They why is the word 'unzila' (revealed)
    used in the narration?
  • 17:30 - 17:33
    This makes no sense, no matter
    what explanation you offer.
  • 17:33 - 17:35
    The reason being that its revelation
    is something entirely different.
  • 17:35 - 17:38
    The revelation has been done in the
    language of the Quraysh.
  • 17:38 - 17:41
    It is absolutely correct that the people
    were told
  • 17:41 - 17:43
    that you may recite it with your own
    pronunciations and in your own dialects.
  • 17:43 - 17:48
    Bismillah. But to say that Quran itself
    has been revealed in various dialects,
  • 17:48 - 17:50
    what is the reason for that claim?
  • 17:50 - 17:52
    One fails to understand this.
  • 17:52 - 17:58
    So these are the three aspects which are
    in the way of introduction to this debate.
  • 17:58 - 18:03
    But the last aspect which calls for
    serious deliberation,
  • 18:03 - 18:06
    and which holds extraordinary
    elegance,
  • 18:06 - 18:11
    is that the Companion
    Hisham ibn Hakeem ibn Hizam,
  • 18:11 - 18:14
    the one about whom it is
    being narrated
  • 18:14 - 18:18
    that Syedna Umar heard him reciting
    the Quran.
  • 18:18 - 18:20
    About him, all the historians who have
  • 18:20 - 18:23
    collected material about the lives of the
    Companions,
  • 18:23 - 18:25
    all of them agree on the fact that Hisham
    converted to Islam
  • 18:25 - 18:27
    on the day Mecca was conquered.
  • 18:28 - 18:32
    Hisham ibn Hakeem ibn Hizam, the
    person who is reciting the Quran,
  • 18:32 - 18:35
    converted to Islam on the day
    Mecca was conquered.
  • 18:35 - 18:37
    This means that he converted in
    eighth Hijri year.
  • 18:37 - 18:39
    That is what it would imply right?
  • 18:39 - 18:44
    Now imagine for a while, that there is
    no need for a debate
  • 18:44 - 18:49
    about this fact of Quran's revelation that
    it was revealed to the Prophet (pbuh)
  • 18:49 - 18:52
    for ten years while he was in Mecca.
  • 18:52 - 18:53
    More or less.
  • 18:53 - 18:58
    After that, till the day Mecca was
    conquered, eight more years had passed.
  • 19:00 - 19:04
    So this means that there is a long
    period of Quran's revelation
  • 19:04 - 19:05
    which has already passed.
  • 19:05 - 19:08
    And this is also well known that there
    was very little Quran
  • 19:08 - 19:09
    which was revealed after that period.
  • 19:09 - 19:12
    The inherent testimony of the Quran itself
    tells us
  • 19:12 - 19:15
    how much it was revealed after
    Mecca was conquered.
  • 19:15 - 19:18
    After that event, there would be at
    most one or two Surahs
  • 19:18 - 19:22
    which were revealed. Most of the Quran
    had already been revealed.
  • 19:22 - 19:25
    Now who was Hazrat Umar?
  • 19:25 - 19:29
    About him too, there is no debate
    about when he came to Islam.
  • 19:29 - 19:31
    He certainly did not convert on the
    day Mecca was conquered.
  • 19:31 - 19:34
    He was among one of the first few
    people of Mecca who converted.
  • 19:34 - 19:38
    He was among those who did not
    travel anywhere after he converted.
  • 19:38 - 19:41
    He stayed with the Prophet (pbuh)
    day and night.
  • 19:41 - 19:43
    He spent the Meccan era with
    the Prophet (pbuh),
  • 19:43 - 19:46
    he migrated to Medina with him.
  • 19:46 - 19:49
    He used to be with the Prophet (pbuh)
    in such a way that
  • 19:49 - 19:53
    historians relate that the situation was
    such that
  • 19:53 - 19:57
    people would say, the Prophet (pbuh) had
    come along with Abu Bakr and Umar.
  • 19:57 - 19:59
    The Prophet (pbuh) had come along with
    Abu Bakr and Umar, always.
  • 19:59 - 20:03
    That is, he was a Companion of the
    Prophet (pbuh) and such a close one too.
  • 20:03 - 20:06
    He was present in all the battles,
    he heard all the Friday sermons,
  • 20:06 - 20:08
    he heard the Prophet's (pbuh)
    call to embrace Islam.
  • 20:08 - 20:09
    He was among the Huffaaz
    (memorizers of the Quran),
  • 20:09 - 20:11
    he learnt the Quran from the
    Prophet (pbuh) himself.
  • 20:11 - 20:15
    He read the Quran. This was his
    extraordinary station.
  • 20:15 - 20:18
    Syedna Umar is not some
    common man.
  • 20:18 - 20:23
    So can it be accepted that Quran was
    being revealed in more than one Qirat,
  • 20:23 - 20:26
    and it did not come to Umar's knowledge
    for eighteen years?
  • 20:28 - 20:31
    Eighteen years is not a small period
    of time.
  • 20:31 - 20:35
    It would mean that if he would not have
    prayed Salat behind Hisham ibn Hakeem,
  • 20:35 - 20:38
    and if two more years would
    have passed,
  • 20:38 - 20:40
    then suddenly fifteen more people could
    have claimed that
  • 20:40 - 20:43
    the Prophet (pbuh) was teaching us the
    Quran in secret on a different Qirat.
  • 20:43 - 20:47
    And is the Quran something to
    be taught in secret?
  • 20:47 - 20:53
    Whoever will read the Quran will know
    that it is not a book
  • 20:53 - 20:57
    that a writer is writing it while sitting
    in isolation.
  • 20:57 - 21:00
    The situation with the Quran is that
    those Surahs are being read
  • 21:00 - 21:02
    before its addressees.
  • 21:02 - 21:05
    So debates are being held about those
    Surahs, questions are raised about them,
  • 21:05 - 21:06
    all of these things are happening
    constantly.
  • 21:06 - 21:10
    So if it was stated that in the Meccan
    period itself
  • 21:10 - 21:12
    one Qirat was revealed at one point of
    time and another at a different time,
  • 21:12 - 21:14
    alright, we will hold our tongue
    about it for sometime.
  • 21:14 - 21:17
    But this narration itself is telling us
    that for eighteen years,
  • 21:17 - 21:20
    even Syeda Umar did not know
    of it.
  • 21:20 - 21:22
    And if Syedna Umar did not come to
    know of it,
  • 21:22 - 21:24
    when and where did this whole incident
    take place?
  • 21:24 - 21:26
    Where exactly did that revelation
    take place then?
  • 21:26 - 21:29
    On a rational plain, this narration
    is so improbable,
  • 21:29 - 21:31
    that it cannot be accepted under
    any circumstances.
  • 21:31 - 21:35
    Either one has to believe that
    Syedna Umar did not hear of it.
  • 21:35 - 21:38
    So the one listening to the recitation
    by Hisham was not Syedna Umar.
  • 21:38 - 21:39
    Either one has to believe this.
  • 21:39 - 21:43
    Or you would have to believe that
    Syedna Umar also converted that very day.
  • 21:43 - 21:48
    If you look at all the narrations about
    the recitations of the Quran,
  • 21:48 - 21:50
    all of them go back to Syedna Umar
    himself!
  • 21:50 - 21:52
    That is, he is among the great Ulama
    of the Quran.
  • 21:52 - 21:54
    He was a Companion of the Prophet (pbuh)
    day and night.
  • 21:54 - 21:58
    He has been granted the great honor of
    being buried next to the Prophet (pbuh).
  • 22:00 - 22:02
    So what is this incident that has
    occurred?
  • 22:02 - 22:03
    What does it mean exactly?
  • 22:03 - 22:07
    What impression does the narrator of
    this report intend to convey?
  • 22:07 - 22:11
    Does he want to say that the Prophet
    (pbuh) used to teach the Quran
  • 22:11 - 22:16
    to some people separately in secret with a
    different recitation?
  • 22:16 - 22:21
    And neither Abu Bakr, nor Umar,
    nor any other people found out about it?
  • 22:21 - 22:24
    What does it mean to say that Umar
    did not know of it?
  • 22:24 - 22:27
    It means that he never heard the
    Prophet (pbuh)
  • 22:27 - 22:30
    recite the Quran in a different way
    in the Friday sermons,
  • 22:30 - 22:33
    nor did he see him read it differently
    during the prayers.
  • 22:33 - 22:34
    This is what it would mean right?
  • 22:34 - 22:37
    But Syedna Umar is one who used to
    read behind the Prophet (pbuh)
  • 22:37 - 22:40
    day and night. And we know about the
    Prophet (pbuh)
  • 22:40 - 22:42
    that he would recite the Quran
    for a long time.
  • 22:42 - 22:44
    Moreover, he was one of those Companions
    who would join the Prophet (pbuh)
  • 22:44 - 22:46
    during Tahajjud prayers!
  • 22:46 - 22:48
    'Taa'ifatum minallazina ma'ak'.
  • 22:48 - 22:51
    During which the Prophet (pbub) would
    recite approximately the entire Quran.
  • 22:51 - 22:54
    He is also among those Companions whom
    the Prophet (pbuh) would often call
  • 22:54 - 22:56
    to listen to and to recite the Quran.
  • 22:56 - 22:59
    So this incident does not make sense
    in any way.
  • 22:59 - 23:02
    Only if someone closes his eyes to
    the truth of the matter,
  • 23:02 - 23:04
    can he possibly come to believe it.
  • 23:04 - 23:07
    But it cannot be taken to make
    sense otherwise.
  • 23:07 - 23:09
    Hence I have written about it here,
  • 23:16 - 23:20
    Fourthly, it is known that Hisham had
    accepted Islam
  • 23:20 - 23:21
    on the day Mecca was conquered.
  • 23:24 - 23:26
    This is on page number thirty one.
  • 23:26 - 23:28
    Fourthly, it is known that Hisham had
    accepted Islam
  • 23:28 - 23:30
    on the day Mecca was conquered.
  • 23:30 - 23:36
    Hence if this Hadith is accepted, it would
    mean that even after the conquest of Mecca
  • 23:36 - 23:42
    that is, for 18 years, the illustrious
    Companions of the Prophet (pbuh)
  • 23:42 - 23:47
    and even a close associate like Umar
    was unaware of the fact
  • 23:47 - 23:53
    that the Prophet (pbuh) secretly taught
    the Quran in some other form and reading
  • 23:53 - 23:58
    from the one openly heard from him for
    about twenty years
  • 23:58 - 24:02
    and preserved it in writing and in memory
    according to his guidance.
  • 24:04 - 24:08
    So the Quran was being heard all the
    time, was being recited,
  • 24:08 - 24:09
    it has been read out loud
    during prayers,
  • 24:09 - 24:11
    its preservation has always been
    ensured properly.
  • 24:11 - 24:15
    There is this whole chronicle on the
    one hand,
  • 24:15 - 24:17
    and on the other hand is
    this Hadith narration.
  • 24:17 - 24:20
    Every person can realize how grave
    this claim is
  • 24:20 - 24:23
    and how far reaching
    its affects are.
  • 24:23 - 24:29
    The outcome of this can be
    imagined by every intelligent person.
  • 24:29 - 24:33
    Hence this narration, about the Quran
    being revealed
  • 24:33 - 24:35
    in Seven Ahruf (Seven ways),
  • 24:35 - 24:38
    cannot be acceptable in
    any sense of the term.
  • 24:38 - 24:42
    It is logically flawed, it is
    meaningless from a scholarly view,
  • 24:42 - 24:45
    and there is no circumstance
    in which it can be accepted.
  • 24:45 - 24:48
    It would be akin to saying that with
    regards to the narrations,
  • 24:48 - 24:51
    we decide that if its chain of
    transmission is reliable,
  • 24:51 - 24:52
    then it should be seen as an
    authentic report.
  • 24:52 - 24:56
    And then just like Suyuti we acknowledge
    that only Allah knows its meaning.
  • 24:56 - 25:00
    There is that one position where one can
    make peace with this narration.
  • 25:00 - 25:03
    But if one tries to determine its
    meaning,
  • 25:03 - 25:07
    then after that one would have to
    let go of the entire religious tradition.
  • 25:07 - 25:11
    For then one would have to accept
    that nothing remains in it anymore.
  • 25:11 - 25:15
    Because if Syedna Umar did not know
    even after twenty years
  • 25:15 - 25:17
    that Quran was being revealed in
    another recitation as well,
  • 25:17 - 25:19
    then how can we rely on anyone
    else's knowledge at all?
  • 25:19 - 25:21
    What is there to believe at all then?
  • 25:21 - 25:25
    Even he was not aware. And as I
    said, if two more years had passed
  • 25:25 - 25:29
    and there wouldn't have been anyone
    going to the Prophet (pbuh) to ask!
  • 25:29 - 25:31
    What has happened right now is that
    the narration tells us
  • 25:31 - 25:33
    that Umar took Hashim to the
    Prophet (pbuh).
  • 25:33 - 25:37
    And you can listen to this as well
    with bated breath.
  • 25:37 - 25:42
    This narration which I have taken,
    since it relates to Syedna Umar
  • 25:42 - 25:44
    and therefore I have taken this
    as the topic.
  • 25:44 - 25:47
    Otherwise this same narration about
    multiple recitations,
  • 25:47 - 25:53
    becomes even more preposterous with
    respect to another Companion.
  • 25:53 - 25:57
    That narration says that when
    Hazrat Ubay Bin Ka'ab
  • 25:57 - 26:01
    saw a similar incident before him,
  • 26:01 - 26:04
    naturally when this would be seen to
    be happening after 19 or 20 years,
  • 26:04 - 26:05
    what would happen?
  • 26:05 - 26:09
    So he too went to the Prophet (pbuh)
    in a similarly agitated manner.
  • 26:10 - 26:14
    And he asked the Prophet (pbuh)
    about what this is.
  • 26:14 - 26:17
    And that is what he should have
    asked too.
  • 26:17 - 26:20
    Because for twenty years I was
    reading the Quran in a certain way,
  • 26:20 - 26:24
    but some person is reading the Quran
    in a different manner.
  • 26:24 - 26:26
    So the Prophet (pbuh) told him,
    the Quran was revealed thus.
  • 26:26 - 26:28
    Just like it says in this narration too.
  • 26:28 - 26:30
    He told them both that it was
    revealed thus.
  • 26:30 - 26:34
    So he said that 'I felt I have
    lost my faith'.
  • 26:34 - 26:38
    The narration says that 'I felt that
    I am no longer a believer'.
  • 26:40 - 26:43
    So you can imagine his condition
    yourself.
  • 26:43 - 26:47
    So after that the Prophet (pbuh)
    touched my chest and I was cured.
  • 26:47 - 26:48
    Because it was imperative to
    cure him,
  • 26:48 - 26:52
    and without a healing touch, our
    minds wouldn't believe that miracle.
  • 26:52 - 26:54
    There was no other way to
    play it out.
  • 26:54 - 26:56
    There was no other option, and the
    reason for that is
  • 26:56 - 26:59
    that this situation gives rise to such
    a delicate question,
  • 26:59 - 27:02
    that after that question, only that
    action should have followed,
  • 27:02 - 27:04
    which has been narrated in
    that report.
  • 27:04 - 27:07
    One figures from this that the people
    who have written this narration,
  • 27:07 - 27:10
    they themselves realized what
    would follow as a consequence.
  • 27:10 - 27:13
    So they have provided a cure for it
    in this other narration.
  • 27:13 - 27:17
    That if your faith too comes under
    doubt, you can know that
  • 27:17 - 27:19
    it will be only by the Prophet's (pbuh)
    touch.
  • 27:19 - 27:22
    There is no other way for it to go.
  • 27:22 - 27:24
    Because one cannot convince oneself
    based on reason and rationality.
  • 27:24 - 27:27
    The reaction of Syedna Umar too
    which has been mentioned here
  • 27:27 - 27:28
    is similarly grave and extreme.
  • 27:28 - 27:31
    In this narration, he says it
    was difficult for him,
  • 27:31 - 27:33
    if you were to believe the tradition,
  • 27:33 - 27:35
    he says he finished his prayers with
    much difficulty,
  • 27:35 - 27:38
    and then he dragged Hashim to
    the Prophet (pbuh).
  • 27:38 - 27:41
    In a way saying, come with me,
    I will teach you a lesson.
  • 27:41 - 27:43
    Just imagine for a while, it has
    been twenty years,
  • 27:43 - 27:45
    and it is the Quran after all.
  • 27:45 - 27:48
    If someone had said to Syedna Umar,
    and it has happened,
  • 27:48 - 27:50
    that for instance some people said
    to Syedna Umar,
  • 27:50 - 27:54
    that the Prophet (pbuh) had said that
    if you go to visit someone at their house,
  • 27:54 - 27:58
    and you knock there three times,
    but you get no response,
  • 27:58 - 28:00
    then turn around and come back.
  • 28:00 - 28:03
    So Umar investigated this, because this
    is a statement
  • 28:03 - 28:05
    which can be said to anyone.
  • 28:05 - 28:07
    It is something which can be told
    to one person as advice.
  • 28:07 - 28:10
    A person like Syedna Umar can be
    unaware of it.
  • 28:10 - 28:12
    That does not go against reason.
  • 28:12 - 28:15
    One statement related to etiquette
    the Prophet (pbuh) told to someone,
  • 28:15 - 28:17
    and Umar did not hear about it.
  • 28:17 - 28:20
    And even in that the reaction he had,
    it is said that he ordered the man,
  • 28:20 - 28:23
    bring a second witness otherwise
    I will teach you a lesson.
  • 28:23 - 28:27
    Because you people relate such
    reports, then bring another witness.
  • 28:27 - 28:30
    Even in this he reacted, although one
    cannot rationally object to that,
  • 28:30 - 28:32
    for it is possible it could have
    happened.
  • 28:32 - 28:33
    There are many such things that
    could occur.
  • 28:33 - 28:36
    For instance I have told you something
    and no one else hears of it.
  • 28:36 - 28:39
    And it is related to general etiquette.
    But the Quran!
  • 28:39 - 28:43
    That Quran about which it says itself
    that the Prophet (pbuh)
  • 28:43 - 28:47
    took the trouble to convey each and every
    word of it to the people.
  • 28:47 - 28:51
    It was being recited, it was being
    conveyed, it was being read aloud.
  • 28:51 - 28:55
    And this narration tells us that for
    twenty years he was unaware of it.
  • 28:55 - 28:57
    Who? Umar was not aware of it!
  • 28:57 - 29:01
    So if Umar was not aware of it, then
    keep these recitations at your home.
  • 29:01 - 29:05
    The ones that Umar was unaware of,
    for twenty years!
  • 29:05 - 29:08
    So no thread of this narration is
    correct.
  • 29:08 - 29:12
    In every sense, it is an unacceptable
    opinion to hold.
  • 29:13 - 29:18
    After that, I have written that same is
    the case of the narratives,
  • 29:18 - 29:20
    similar is the case of the narratives
  • 29:20 - 29:24
    which in the time of the Caliphs Abu Bakr
    and Uthman,
  • 29:24 - 29:30
    record the collection and arrangement of
    the Quran in the books of Hadith.
  • 29:30 - 29:34
    If you go to this chapter in the books
    of Hadith,
  • 29:34 - 29:39
    you will see that the way this narration
    is utterly opposed to reason,
  • 29:39 - 29:41
    it goes against all knowledge.
  • 29:41 - 29:45
    And to go against reason and knowledge
    does not mean
  • 29:45 - 29:47
    that it is against the knowledge
    of Einstein.
  • 29:47 - 29:51
    It is against the common sense, which
    God has given to every human being,
  • 29:51 - 29:54
    and in light of which we believe in
    the religion of Allah, Islam.
  • 29:54 - 29:58
    This narration is akin to saying that for
    twenty three years
  • 29:58 - 30:00
    the Prophet (pbuh) taught about
    prophethood,
  • 30:00 - 30:02
    and all of a sudden, after twenty three
    years Umar found out that
  • 30:02 - 30:05
    God have mercy, he was teaching
    about idolatry!
  • 30:05 - 30:08
    This narration creates a similar
    outrageous kind of situation.
  • 30:08 - 30:12
    So a scenario of this kind which we
    have seen in this narration,
  • 30:12 - 30:15
    exactly the same situation is of those
    narrations too
  • 30:15 - 30:18
    in which the account of the compilation
    and arrangement of Quran is given.
  • 30:18 - 30:21
    The Quran is being recited day and night,
    it is being memorized by the people,
  • 30:21 - 30:23
    the Quran is being read in
    prayers.
  • 30:23 - 30:26
    On the one hand we see the Quran
    is making a claim
  • 30:26 - 30:28
    that O Prophet, you need not
    worry at all,
  • 30:28 - 30:35
    for We will compile the entire Quran
    and the situations you are unaware of,
  • 30:35 - 30:38
    that is, the Prophet was receiving the
    Quran is his own time and age,
  • 30:38 - 30:39
    but the other situations God
    knows very well.
  • 30:39 - 30:42
    So accordingly We will give it to
    you again with another recitation.
  • 30:42 - 30:47
    And after arranging it, the second
    recitation is the one you have to follow.
  • 30:47 - 30:49
    All of this the Quran has stated itself.
  • 30:49 - 30:51
    Compiling it, ordering and arranging it.
  • 30:51 - 30:55
    In fact it even says that if there is
    a question you still have about this,
  • 30:55 - 30:59
    if there is still a doubt you have
    not understood,
  • 30:59 - 31:01
    then We will clarify that for
    you as well.
  • 31:01 - 31:02
    This is what the Quran is telling us.
  • 31:02 - 31:03
    And this is just what history
    also tells us,
  • 31:03 - 31:05
    that there was only one recitation
    according to which
  • 31:05 - 31:07
    Abu Bakr read the Quran, and Umar
    and Uthman did too.
  • 31:07 - 31:09
    We have already studied all
    this in the previous session.
  • 31:09 - 31:12
    All of this can be seen. After that
    what suddenly happens is,
  • 31:12 - 31:15
    that the work of compiling and
    arranging the Quran is being done,
  • 31:15 - 31:18
    but sometimes a verse is misplaced
    and can't be found,
  • 31:18 - 31:20
    or some Surah is missing and that
    is being searched.
  • 31:20 - 31:22
    Sometimes two or four went missing.
  • 31:22 - 31:24
    This was the story that we confront
    after this.
  • 31:24 - 31:30
    And then, in the time of Syedna Uthman,
    there is this same story again.
  • 31:30 - 31:32
    Same is the case of the narratives
    which
  • 31:32 - 31:35
    in the time of the caliphs Abu Bakr
    and Uthman,
  • 31:35 - 31:39
    record the collection and arrangement of
    the Quran in the books of Hadith.
  • 31:39 - 31:41
    These narrations too...
  • 31:41 - 31:45
    Well the implication of the
    usage of this word is that
  • 31:45 - 31:49
    it has come through different chains.
    Otherwise the narration is the same.
  • 31:49 - 31:52
    Actually the narration is the same
    in its substance.
  • 31:52 - 31:57
    So it is just one same narration, and
    I have not done any debate about it here.
  • 31:57 - 31:58
    The reason for that is that
  • 31:58 - 32:01
    it would come under the topic of
    compilation and arrangement of the Quran,
  • 32:01 - 32:03
    but I am only discussing about
    the recitations of the Quran here.
  • 32:03 - 32:07
    Otherwise I would have shown you
    that it is word for word the same one.
  • 32:07 - 32:10
    So those things are found in its
    very text, the same as in this narration.
  • 32:10 - 32:12
    That you can try your best to explain
    it by saying that
  • 32:12 - 32:14
    it is a difference of pronunciation
    and dialect,
  • 32:14 - 32:16
    but the very text of the narration is
    telling us that that cannot be the case.
  • 32:16 - 32:18
    The same is the situation with
    the other narration.
  • 32:18 - 32:23
    As mentioned in the beginning of this
    discussion, the Quran specifies clearly
  • 32:24 - 32:28
    that it was arranged and collected
    under the direct guidance of Allah,
  • 32:28 - 32:32
    during the lifetime of the Prophet (pbuh).
  • 32:32 - 32:37
    So in this regard, there is no need to
    even turn to any historical narration.
  • 32:37 - 32:40
    Quran itself makes it very clear.
  • 32:40 - 32:44
    The Quran has told us, it has made
    it absolutely clear,
  • 32:44 - 32:47
    that We will recite the entire Quran
    for you,
  • 32:47 - 32:50
    and then you will read the Quran
    according to that recitation,
  • 32:50 - 32:54
    and its compilation and the second
    reading, that is Our responsibility.
  • 32:54 - 32:58
    In fact, if there is a need to further
    elaborate and explain anything,
  • 32:58 - 33:00
    that too will be our responsibility.
  • 33:01 - 33:04
    [Student] If this narration has been
    under question,
  • 33:05 - 33:08
    why didn't the scholars simply
    reject it then?
  • 33:08 - 33:11
    [Ghamidi] Let it remain, how is it
    bothering you?
  • 33:11 - 33:13
    It is enough that we have
    critiqued it.
  • 33:13 - 33:16
    As mentioned in the beginning of
    this discussion,
  • 33:16 - 33:19
    the Quran specifies clearly that it was
    arranged and collected
  • 33:19 - 33:24
    in the lifetime of the Prophet (pbuh)
    under the direct guidance of Allah.
  • 33:24 - 33:28
    On the other hand, these narratives
    present an entirely different picture
  • 33:28 - 33:33
    which is not only against the Quran
    but also against common sense.
  • 33:35 - 33:37
    In 'si'aah',
  • 33:37 - 33:41
    'Si'aah' means the six canonical books
    of Hadith,
  • 33:41 - 33:46
    which are considered the most reliable
    ones based on their chain of transmission.
  • 33:46 - 33:50
    The principles which the scholars of the
    science of Hadith have laid down
  • 33:50 - 33:52
    to evaluate the chain of transmission,
  • 33:52 - 33:56
    based on those the books of Hadith
    which are available to us today,
  • 33:56 - 33:59
    they are not one or two but are
    dozens of them.
  • 33:59 - 34:03
    But out of them, six books have the
    stature of credibility,
  • 34:03 - 34:06
    for most of the narrations in them
    are reliable.
  • 34:06 - 34:09
    And in Bukhari and Muslim collections,
    there are very few narrations
  • 34:09 - 34:12
    about which one can debate the credibility
    of their chain of transmission.
  • 34:12 - 34:14
    Otherwise usually, they are reliable
    as far as their Isnaads go.
  • 34:14 - 34:17
    Therefore those books are
    called 'si'aah'.
  • 34:17 - 34:22
    In the six canonical books this particular
    narrative as well as the other narrations,
  • 34:22 - 34:24
    in the six canonical books they
    are primarily recorded
  • 34:24 - 34:26
    on the authority of Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri.
  • 34:26 - 34:29
    So these are the few words about the
    chain of transmission of the narration.
  • 34:29 - 34:34
    You know about this chain that even if it
    might have begun with Umar or Abu Bakr,
  • 34:34 - 34:37
    the question is how did it reach us?
  • 34:40 - 34:41
    Yes?
  • 34:41 - 34:43
    I mean according to the Muhaddisiin
    (Hadith experts).
  • 34:43 - 34:47
    According to the Muhaddisiin, it is
    not an objectionable narration.
  • 34:47 - 34:50
    They accept the authority of Ibn
    Shihab al-Zuhri.
  • 34:50 - 34:53
    I am going to talk about him now,
    and the Muhaddisiin say about him
  • 34:53 - 34:55
    that he is ameer-ul-momineen fil hadith
    (chief of Muslims in hadith).
  • 34:55 - 34:58
    But listen to a few things
    about him.
  • 35:00 - 35:02
    In the six canonical books, these
    narrations are primarily recorded
  • 35:02 - 35:04
    on the authority of Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri.
  • 35:04 - 35:05
    That is, he is the one who has
    narrated them, really.
  • 35:05 - 35:07
    If you were to compile all the
    chains of transmissions,
  • 35:07 - 35:09
    then they are the actual reliable
    ones. The only authentic ones.
  • 35:09 - 35:11
    So there are some other chains of
    transmissions as well.
  • 35:11 - 35:14
    But in the primary canonical texts, they
    have come from him.
  • 35:16 - 35:19
    Yes? Yes, those are the reports
    which have come down from him.
  • 35:19 - 35:21
    In the six canonical books, these
    narrations are primarily recorded
  • 35:21 - 35:23
    on the authority of Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri.
  • 35:23 - 35:26
    Scholars of rijaal, the people who are
  • 35:26 - 35:29
    authorities on the research
    regarding rijaal (Narrators),
  • 35:29 - 35:33
    all fully concur on the fact that
    Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri
  • 35:33 - 35:36
    is guilty of two things for certain.
  • 35:36 - 35:40
    One is tadlis (hiding mistakes) and the
    other is idraaj (interpolation).
  • 35:40 - 35:43
    Tadlis is a terminology of the
    science of Hadith.
  • 35:43 - 35:48
    Tadlis means that the one who
    is narrating,
  • 35:49 - 35:53
    hides a link in the chain of transmission,
    i.e. a name of one person, in the report.
  • 35:55 - 36:00
    In the chain of transmission, he does not
    want to mention the authority of someone.
  • 36:01 - 36:04
    If that link in the chain is mentioned, it
    might create some issues.
  • 36:04 - 36:05
    This is called tadlis.
  • 36:06 - 36:10
    It is something that calls for
    strong condemnation.
  • 36:10 - 36:15
    You are narrating a report, so you must
    say from whom you have heard it.
  • 36:15 - 36:19
    If there is an opportunity that someone
    in the chain will be removed, then he is.
  • 36:19 - 36:21
    What does it mean to say
    'if there is an opportunity'?
  • 36:21 - 36:26
    For instance, these two people are
    contemporaries of each other.
  • 36:26 - 36:29
    I have actually gotten this narration
    from this person.
  • 36:29 - 36:32
    And he has gotten it from this
    other person.
  • 36:32 - 36:38
    But since I knew that people will object
    to the authority of the first person,
  • 36:38 - 36:41
    when I related the narration,
    I say I got it from him instead.
  • 36:41 - 36:45
    Now it is not so easy to catch this
    deception.
  • 36:47 - 36:50
    The reason for that is, all of us
    are contemporaries.
  • 36:50 - 36:54
    And there is proof of my meeting
    with both these gentlemen.
  • 36:54 - 36:57
    So one would think that alright,
    it is fine.
  • 36:57 - 36:59
    The narration is correct, there can't
    be a break in it.
  • 36:59 - 37:03
    So this is just one example, but it
    happens in many different ways too.
  • 37:07 - 37:11
    Yes. So doing this is naturally a crime.
    But it occurs in many other forms.
  • 37:11 - 37:15
    I have only told you this as an
    example, that the narrator is concealed.
  • 37:15 - 37:20
    For instance, Hazrat Imam Malik in
    his al-Muwatta,
  • 37:20 - 37:27
    related at some places that the narration
    I am doing is 'amman assiku-hu'.
  • 37:27 - 37:30
    That is, I am referring to the authority
    of someone who I consider trustworthy.
  • 37:33 - 37:35
    He has said this himself. There are
    many narrations in
  • 37:35 - 37:40
    al-Muwatta of Imam Malik, in which
    he has said 'amman assikuhu'.
  • 37:40 - 37:43
    Now when Imam Malike says
    'amman assikuhu',
  • 37:43 - 37:45
    then of course many people of
    subsequent generations
  • 37:45 - 37:48
    wanted to see who that
    narrator was.
  • 37:48 - 37:51
    So that 'amman assikuhu' in al-Muwatta
    of Imam Malik
  • 37:51 - 37:54
    refers to Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri
    ninety nine percent of the time.
  • 37:55 - 37:58
    Now this is not something over which
    there is any need to investigate.
  • 37:58 - 38:02
    Because for all those narrations, we know
    from their other chains of transmissions
  • 38:02 - 38:05
    through other sources, and the latter
    Muhaddisiin have mentioned them.
  • 38:05 - 38:09
    Imam Malik's 'Amman assikuhu' is
    referring to Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri usually.
  • 38:09 - 38:13
    Similarly, what Imam Malik sometimes
    does is that
  • 38:13 - 38:15
    he removes the narrators in the middle
    of the chain,
  • 38:15 - 38:17
    and after that he would relate it
    on the authority of the original source.
  • 38:17 - 38:20
    That he heard it directly from so and so.
    This is called 'balaaghaat-e Imam Malik'.
  • 38:20 - 38:23
    So in that he does not convey the entire
    chain of narration,
  • 38:23 - 38:25
    but rather removes one or two
    people from the middle.
  • 38:25 - 38:28
    Moreover, in his time since this
    science hadn't been fully established,
  • 38:28 - 38:30
    so this was not considered
    objectionable.
  • 38:30 - 38:33
    So leave it aside. Because back then
    people used to think
  • 38:33 - 38:35
    that a statement has reached them
    and they have related it.
  • 38:35 - 38:39
    This can be placed in the category of
    having an 'opitimistic view' of someone.
  • 38:39 - 38:43
    But phrase 'amman assikuhu'
    itself is telling us
  • 38:43 - 38:47
    that others object to it but he
    himself did not.
  • 38:47 - 38:50
    And this truth will be revealed
    to you soon enough.
  • 38:50 - 38:53
    In the 6 Hadith books they are recorded
    on the authority of Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri.
  • 38:53 - 38:56
    All of these narrations, so the ones
    about the compilation of the Quran,
  • 38:56 - 38:58
    as well as these ones have in reality
    come from him.
  • 38:58 - 39:01
    And I will tell you the truth of this
    'in reality' that I have said as well.
  • 39:01 - 39:04
    When an absurd narration such as this
    one comes from somewhere,
  • 39:04 - 39:07
    then to legitimize it, a lot of chains of
    transmissions are invented.
  • 39:07 - 39:09
    But that is a separate debate.
  • 39:09 - 39:11
    So actually they come on the authority of
    Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri.
  • 39:11 - 39:12
    Authorities of rijaal regard him to be
    guilty of tadlis.
  • 39:12 - 39:16
    Tadlis I have already explained to you.
    Let us also see what idraaj means.
  • 39:16 - 39:20
    Both of these terms, usually one
    reads in the books of rijaal
  • 39:20 - 39:23
    that so and so used to do tadlis, or
    someone else did idraaj,
  • 39:23 - 39:27
    and the reader thinks tadlis must be a
    great thing.
  • 39:27 - 39:29
    Because after all it used to
    be acceptable.
  • 39:29 - 39:31
    But tadlis is in fact worthy of
    great condemnation.
  • 39:31 - 39:35
    Even about tadlis some people keep
    an optimistic view,
  • 39:35 - 39:37
    some of the experts of the science
    of Hadith,
  • 39:37 - 39:39
    that since this science was not
    established in that time,
  • 39:39 - 39:42
    so it is possible that the narrator was
    not removed from the middle
  • 39:42 - 39:43
    with any bad intention.
  • 39:43 - 39:46
    So this is fine, this can be said.
  • 39:46 - 39:48
    But nevertheless, why was someone
    removed at all?
  • 39:48 - 39:50
    What was the reason? This question
    remains right?
  • 39:50 - 39:53
    And if the narration that is being
    related, is this one,
  • 39:53 - 39:56
    then that creates a lot of issues.
  • 39:57 - 40:00
    So this is one aspect. The meaning
    of idraaj is,
  • 40:01 - 40:04
    suppose I am narrating a tradition.
  • 40:04 - 40:09
    I started relating a statement of
    the Prophet (pbuh).
  • 40:09 - 40:12
    In between I added my own words.
  • 40:13 - 40:16
    Or added some explanation.
  • 40:16 - 40:21
    And I did not specify if the Prophet
    (pbuh) had said it or I am saying it.
  • 40:22 - 40:28
    Similarly, I got part of a narration from
    him, and then from him,
  • 40:28 - 40:31
    and some parts from a third and
    a fourth person.
  • 40:31 - 40:35
    Now the science of Hadith requires
    that whatever I have gotten from him,
  • 40:35 - 40:40
    I should specify it. And then specify
    what I got from the second person.
  • 40:40 - 40:43
    And then again relate the part I
    got from the third person separately.
  • 40:43 - 40:45
    So when I am relating a narration,
  • 40:45 - 40:47
    and I am not talking about the issues
    which arise about it today.
  • 40:47 - 40:49
    Today we talk from the standpoint
    of meaning.
  • 40:49 - 40:51
    But when I am narrating a Hadith
    about the Prophet (pbuh),
  • 40:51 - 40:53
    I would mention all this right?
  • 40:53 - 40:57
    I would tell that I got this part of the
    narration from so and so person,
  • 40:57 - 40:58
    and this much from a second person.
  • 40:58 - 41:02
    But Imam Zuhri did not follow
    this protocal. Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri.
  • 41:02 - 41:06
    What he evidently does is that he
    would combine narrations of 4 people
  • 41:06 - 41:08
    and make a story out of it and then
    relate it.
  • 41:08 - 41:14
    Hence, a very evident example of this
    is Hadith al-ifk in Bukhari.
  • 41:14 - 41:20
    The infamous incident about Syeda Ayesha
    that she was subject to an accusation
  • 41:20 - 41:23
    and the Quran then clarified the
    incident.
  • 41:23 - 41:26
    That narration also comes from
    Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri.
  • 41:26 - 41:30
    So this accusation against
    Syeda is also related by him.
  • 41:30 - 41:33
    So if you open Bukhari, you'll find that
    this narration starts like this...
  • 41:33 - 41:36
    he is saying that I heard from so
    and so,
  • 41:36 - 41:39
    and I left something from the first
    narration, added something to the second,
  • 41:39 - 41:41
    and bringing it all together I am
    relating this narration to you.
  • 41:41 - 41:43
    These are the actual words in
    the text.
  • 41:43 - 41:46
    So he is stating his 'idraaj' himself.
  • 41:46 - 41:49
    The way it is mentioned in the Quran
    about the Prophet (pbuh),
  • 41:49 - 41:52
    he told one of his wives a secret and
    she did not keep the secret.
  • 41:52 - 41:55
    So he reprimanded her a little and then
    did not share the whole secret with her.
  • 41:55 - 42:00
    That is a very laudable thing in that
    situation, but here,
  • 42:00 - 42:01
    what are you narrating?
  • 42:01 - 42:05
    The story you are making up would
    completely change the events as a result.
  • 42:05 - 42:08
    You must relate all four reports
    separately first.
  • 42:08 - 42:12
    And only after that you can give
    it a comprehensive form.
  • 42:12 - 42:16
    Then we will have a way to investigate
    what you have added into it.
  • 42:16 - 42:18
    So these are the various ways of
    doing idraaj.
  • 42:18 - 42:24
    Authorities of rijaal concur on the fact
    that he was guilty of tadlis and idraaj.
  • 42:24 - 42:28
    The scholars of rijaal, the authorites of
    the science of rijaal,
  • 42:28 - 42:31
    Zuhri is their ameer-ul- momineen fil
    hadith as well,
  • 42:31 - 42:35
    and simultaneously they hold him guilty
    of these two acts too.
  • 42:35 - 42:39
    There is no dispute about this,
    every single person concurs with this.
  • 42:39 - 42:43
    No one defends it. And defense is what
    I already told you.
  • 42:43 - 42:45
    That he is from among the learned
    men of that era,
  • 42:45 - 42:47
    about whom it is better to hold
    a favorable opinion.
  • 42:47 - 42:49
    And because the science of Hadith
    hadn't been born yet.
  • 42:49 - 42:53
    Alright, let us accept this reasoning
    for a while
  • 42:53 - 42:57
    and look upon it favorably since in that
    time, the methodology hasn't established
  • 42:57 - 43:00
    and people used to convey such narration
    without proper regard.
  • 43:00 - 43:03
    Let us accept it. But what he narrates
    is always of this nature. Why so?
  • 43:03 - 43:08
    Be it is the absurd, illogical account
    of the accusation on Syeda Ayesha,
  • 43:08 - 43:10
    or this narration regarding the Quran,
  • 43:10 - 43:13
    or whether it was about the Prophet (pbuh)
    on his deathbed,
  • 43:13 - 43:16
    asking for a sheet of paper, and the reply
    of Syedna Umar Farooq,
  • 43:16 - 43:20
    'God's refuge! God have mercy!
    He seems to be in delirium'.
  • 43:20 - 43:22
    Why are there always these kinds
    of narrations by him?
  • 43:22 - 43:25
    By Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri. And why doesn't
    anyone else relate such things?
  • 43:25 - 43:30
    When we look at any narration, there
    is either Hazrat Umar being reproached,
  • 43:30 - 43:33
    or Syeda Ayesha is being accused.
    What is the reason for this?
  • 43:33 - 43:36
    This is the question and I have placed
    it before you.
  • 43:36 - 43:39
    Authorities of rijaal regard him to be
    guilty of tadlis and idraaj.
  • 43:39 - 43:40
    Yes?
  • 43:41 - 43:45
    Authorities of rijaal mean the
    scholars
  • 43:45 - 43:50
    who study and investigate the narrators
    in a Hadith's chain of transmission.
  • 43:50 - 43:54
    They tell you who that person was,
    can he be considered trustworthy,
  • 43:54 - 43:56
    what was the reliance over his
    memory, they study all this.
  • 43:56 - 43:59
    This is an extraordinary discipline.
    Something we Muslims can take pride in.
  • 43:59 - 44:02
    See nothing is devoid of flaws, but it is
    an esteemed science,
  • 44:02 - 44:04
    and a lot of work has been done
    in this.
  • 44:04 - 44:09
    To determine the life conditions of
    32,000 people, to convey them,
  • 44:09 - 44:14
    and then to investigate them as
    far as possible, is an immense task.
  • 44:14 - 44:18
    So this is one thing. This is something
    which the Muhaddisiin state themselves.
  • 44:18 - 44:20
    The authorities of rijaal state this
    themselves
  • 44:20 - 44:23
    that he was guilty of both tadlis
    and idraaj.
  • 44:23 - 44:26
    Both of these things have been
    established about him.
  • 44:26 - 44:29
    This debate, the one about tadlis
    and idraaj,
  • 44:29 - 44:32
    if you want to read it in
    great detail,
  • 44:32 - 44:35
    and of course most of these are
    in Arabic language,
  • 44:35 - 44:38
    and in the books of rijaal which
    are of a very specialized nature,
  • 44:38 - 44:43
    and in which the method of debate
    is also very technical and specialized,
  • 44:43 - 44:46
    so a common man does not find it
    easy to read them.
  • 44:46 - 44:50
    But two people have done extraordinary
    debates about these.
  • 44:50 - 44:54
    First are the scholars who have written
    about hadith al-ifk in our times,
  • 44:54 - 44:57
    among them is Hakeem Niaz Sahab too
    who has a book as well
  • 44:57 - 44:58
    about the incident of Ifk (slander
    against Ayesha).
  • 44:58 - 45:00
    There are other scholars too
    who have written about it.
  • 45:00 - 45:01
    So naturally he had to address
    the whole debate.
  • 45:01 - 45:04
    So he has collected a lot of material
    about it.
  • 45:04 - 45:08
    And the second, and a lot of
    people would know about it,
  • 45:08 - 45:12
    that there is a great esteemed scholar
    from our Punjab itself,
  • 45:12 - 45:16
    who has written a great book entitled
    Ruhama'u Baynahum.
  • 45:16 - 45:20
    It is about the interpersonal relations
    of the Companions.
  • 45:20 - 45:23
    He has written about that.
    Usually, since in the later eras,
  • 45:23 - 45:26
    the discord among them became the
    main subject of discourse,
  • 45:26 - 45:27
    so he has focused on their relations.
  • 45:27 - 45:31
    Even in that, since most of the narrations
    about the Companions
  • 45:31 - 45:34
    which are the basis of reproach against
    them, come from him only,
  • 45:34 - 45:37
    so Maulana Muhammad Nafe' also
    wrote three or four volumes
  • 45:37 - 45:39
    of Ruhama'u Baynahum, in which he has
    done a very refined discussion
  • 45:39 - 45:41
    about Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri.
  • 45:41 - 45:45
    So if anyone wants to read about it in
    more detail, you can refer to those books.
  • 45:46 - 45:49
    Yes Tamanna Imadi also has a whole
    book, but who will read him?
  • 45:49 - 45:52
    The issue with Tamanna Imadi is that
    he is a great researcher,
  • 45:52 - 45:56
    a highly esteemed person, but it seems
    that there is a junkyard of information,
  • 45:56 - 45:59
    of ideas and thoughts, of critique
    and analysis,
  • 45:59 - 46:01
    which he has dumped onto
    some pages.
  • 46:01 - 46:04
    Now it is your tenacity whether you
    can manage to comprehend it.
  • 46:04 - 46:08
    So there is no style of composition,
    of compilation or order to be found in it.
  • 46:08 - 46:09
    So it is quite difficult to read.
  • 46:12 - 46:14
    Yes? No his book is in Urdu.
  • 46:14 - 46:18
    That is why I said that the ones who
    want to read in Urdu, they can.
  • 46:18 - 46:20
    Along with this, so it is a given
    that both of these things are there.
  • 46:20 - 46:22
    Tadlees and idraaj are a given.
  • 46:22 - 46:25
    There is no dispute about them.
  • 46:25 - 46:28
    Besides these, if some other facets of
    his personality are kept in consideration,
  • 46:28 - 46:34
    which are referred to by Imam al-Layth ibn
    Sa'd in his letter to Imam Malik,
  • 46:34 - 46:38
    then none of the narratives reported by
    him regarding such important issues
  • 46:38 - 46:40
    can be seen as acceptable.
  • 46:40 - 46:46
    Imam al-Layth ibn Sa'd himself is an
    Imam of the same stature as Imam Malik.
  • 46:46 - 46:49
    He is among the most esteemed scholars.
  • 46:49 - 46:53
    Imam al-Layth ibn Sa'd wrote a letter to
    Imam Malik,
  • 46:53 - 46:56
    which has been archived in our
    historical records.
  • 46:56 - 46:59
    And here I have cited it as well, you
    can see the whole letter yourself.
  • 46:59 - 47:02
    It is available written in his own hand.
  • 47:02 - 47:06
    In that, he has commented upon
    Zuhri as well.
  • 47:06 - 47:09
    And it seems that since Imam Malik
    trusted Zuhri,
  • 47:09 - 47:13
    and Imam al-Layth ibn Sa'd used to
    criticize him.
  • 47:13 - 47:17
    So because of this, Imam Malik
    used to be unhappy with Sa'd.
  • 47:17 - 47:19
    So this letter has been written
    in the backdrop of this entire context.
  • 47:19 - 47:23
    I have excerpted a part of the letter
    here.
  • 47:23 - 47:26
    This is the letter of Imam al-Layth
    ibn Sa'd,
  • 47:26 - 47:30
    and the book is I'lamul Muqayin,
    written by Ibn-e-Qayyim.
  • 47:30 - 47:33
    Two pronunciations of this book title
    are correct,
  • 47:33 - 47:37
    I'lamul Muqayin and I'lamul
    Muwaqi'in.
  • 47:37 - 47:41
    The reason for that is I'qaa and
    tau'qee are synonyms,
  • 47:41 - 47:44
    which mean mul'himeen.
  • 47:45 - 47:47
    So this is the book by Ibn-e Qayyim.
  • 47:47 - 47:51
    In its third volume, on page numbers
    84 and 85, this whole letter is copied.
  • 47:51 - 47:54
    Now see what he writes.
  • 47:54 - 47:58
    He says about Ibn Shihab, that I do not
    consider him worthy of consideration.
  • 47:58 - 48:00
    I do not accept anything that he says.
  • 48:00 - 48:03
    And he says to Imam Malik
    that this distresses you,
  • 48:03 - 48:06
    this attitude of mine. And I will
    tell you the reason for it.
  • 48:06 - 48:09
    So the reason he gives is, 'wakaana
    yakoon min Ibn Shihab
  • 48:09 - 48:12
    ikhtilaf katheer iza laqeenahu.'
  • 48:12 - 48:16
    When we would meet Ibn Shihab, there arose
    a difference of opinion in many issues.
  • 48:16 - 48:19
    But that is no big deal.
  • 48:19 - 48:23
    He then says, 'wa iza kaatabahu baazuna
    farubamaa katabaa alayhi fi l shayl
  • 48:23 - 48:27
    wahid ala fazil raai'hi wa ilmihi
    bisalasaati anwa yanquzu
  • 48:27 - 48:29
    baazahu baaza.'
  • 48:29 - 48:33
    In that era, knowledge comprised
    of collecting these narrations.
  • 48:33 - 48:38
    So he says that when any one of us would
    ask him in writing about some issue,
  • 48:38 - 48:42
    in spite of being so learned, and he
    certainly was a learned scholar,
  • 48:42 - 48:46
    he would give three very different
    answers to the same question,
  • 48:46 - 48:49
    each of which would negate
    the other.
  • 48:49 - 48:52
    So if I asked something he would give
    one answer,
  • 48:52 - 48:54
    if someone else asks the same thing
    he would give another answer.
  • 48:54 - 48:57
    And by a different answer I mean
    the Hadith narrations.
  • 48:57 - 48:59
    So he would give one narration to someone
    and another to someone else.
  • 48:59 - 49:01
    This was his response.
  • 49:01 - 49:03
    And then he says that the situation
    was that
  • 49:03 - 49:06
    'wala yashiro billazii maza min raa'i
    fi zalik.'
  • 49:06 - 49:09
    So what opinion and statement he had
    given prior to that,
  • 49:09 - 49:13
    and what he had told us earlier,
    he would not even be aware of that.
  • 49:13 - 49:17
    This was the situation. Then he writes
    'fahaaz alladi yadooni ila tarki ma'an
  • 49:17 - 49:18
    tartu tarki-iyaa.'
  • 49:18 - 49:21
    It is because of these things that I had
    left him,
  • 49:21 - 49:23
    something which you did not like.
  • 49:23 - 49:28
    This issue with him, is actually the cause
    of me leaving him.
  • 49:28 - 49:35
    And now in the contemporary times,
    the books about Shia Rijaal are known too,
  • 49:35 - 49:37
    earlier there weren't many that
    we knew about,
  • 49:37 - 49:43
    so this too you must know that
    Shias consider him as one of their Imams.
  • 49:43 - 49:45
    The way we consider him as our
    ameer-ul-momineen fil hadith,
  • 49:45 - 49:48
    he is one of their Imams of Hadith too.
  • 49:48 - 49:51
    So this session comes to an end.
    I think time is up?
  • 49:51 - 49:53
    Now there is a half hour break.
Title:
MEEZAN - Preamble - Part 25 - Principles of Understanding Quran - Javed Ahmed Ghamidi
Description:

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Video Language:
Urdu
Duration:
49:54

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