1 00:00:08,588 --> 00:00:11,000 How do we really know, that that which we see, 2 00:00:11,000 --> 00:00:14,288 touch and taste really exists? 3 00:00:14,538 --> 00:00:16,544 What is reality? 4 00:00:16,550 --> 00:00:19,180 The objects or how we perceive them? 5 00:00:19,187 --> 00:00:21,973 Do we see the world as its is, or is the world what it is, 6 00:00:21,973 --> 00:00:23,531 because we perceive it as such? 7 00:00:23,531 --> 00:00:24,942 Let's imagine the following: 8 00:00:24,942 --> 00:00:27,296 We are in a cave, deep underground. 9 00:00:27,296 --> 00:00:28,864 There is no visible daylight. 10 00:00:28,864 --> 00:00:32,037 In this cave, people are tied to chairs in such a way 11 00:00:32,037 --> 00:00:34,408 that they can only look at the cave wall. 12 00:00:34,408 --> 00:00:35,898 From the time they are born, 13 00:00:35,902 --> 00:00:38,383 they are shown black-and-white movies continuously. 14 00:00:38,383 --> 00:00:42,161 The audience believes that the film is a true reflection of reality. 15 00:00:42,191 --> 00:00:44,843 What sounds like an experiment from the 3rd Reich, 16 00:00:44,843 --> 00:00:47,562 is actually a 2000-year-old mind game, 17 00:00:47,671 --> 00:00:49,596 conceived by Socrates' star pupil: 18 00:00:49,596 --> 00:00:50,429 Plato! 19 00:00:50,469 --> 00:00:51,532 Now suppose, 20 00:00:51,532 --> 00:00:55,188 that one of these bold youngsters actually escapes from the cave 21 00:00:55,188 --> 00:00:59,038 and sees the three-dimensional, colourful world for the first time. 22 00:00:59,038 --> 00:01:00,581 How would he feel? 23 00:01:00,589 --> 00:01:03,399 Probably similar to the brave Keanu Reeves in the "Matrix", 24 00:01:03,399 --> 00:01:06,413 in the scene where he wakes up in real world for the first time. 25 00:01:06,413 --> 00:01:07,317 And worst of all, 26 00:01:07,317 --> 00:01:10,395 if our ancient Neo were to return to his friends 27 00:01:10,695 --> 00:01:13,342 and tell them that the world as they know it 28 00:01:13,342 --> 00:01:14,628 isn't realâ€¦ 29 00:01:14,712 --> 00:01:17,112 then he would be dismissed as a madman. 30 00:01:17,221 --> 00:01:20,024 According to Plato, our reality is based on 'ideas' 31 00:01:20,305 --> 00:01:23,796 Objects, and how we experience them, are only their images. 32 00:01:24,003 --> 00:01:27,237 However, for Plato the term 'idea' represented more. 33 00:01:27,288 --> 00:01:29,214 It was about the essence of all things, 34 00:01:29,214 --> 00:01:32,425 that which we saw as part of an ideal world 35 00:01:32,545 --> 00:01:34,446 and that which we recalled from memory. 36 00:01:34,655 --> 00:01:37,085 What he pioneered with this is a doctrine 37 00:01:37,085 --> 00:01:38,081 called "idealism", 38 00:01:38,531 --> 00:01:41,135 to which Leibnitz and Kant later also subscribed to. 39 00:01:41,135 --> 00:01:43,467 However, this does not mean diligently donating 40 00:01:43,467 --> 00:01:45,228 to victims of natural disasters 41 00:01:45,228 --> 00:01:48,222 or serving soup to the homeless at Christmas. 42 00:01:48,390 --> 00:01:51,512 Just as the real meaning of "materialism", 43 00:01:51,512 --> 00:01:55,306 isn't the "My house, My boat, My investment advisor" song sung by Madonna 44 00:01:55,306 --> 00:01:57,295 or the meaning of the Yuppie Lifestyle. 45 00:01:57,693 --> 00:02:02,022 Materialism is the philosophical countermovement to idealism. 46 00:02:02,093 --> 00:02:05,542 Idealism sees the origin of reality in the "idea", 47 00:02:05,542 --> 00:02:08,839 whereas with materialism "matter" is decisive. 48 00:02:08,839 --> 00:02:11,598 Thus, reality arises due to the effect of the environment 49 00:02:11,598 --> 00:02:13,896 and not by the way in which we perceive it. 50 00:02:14,019 --> 00:02:17,478 To the question "What is?" materialism answers: 51 00:02:17,478 --> 00:02:18,582 Only matter. 52 00:02:18,582 --> 00:02:20,281 The world exists how it is 53 00:02:20,281 --> 00:02:22,555 and we must conform to its laws. 54 00:02:22,555 --> 00:02:24,941 Sounds bleak in the long run, though, doesn't it? 55 00:02:24,941 --> 00:02:27,932 So, are we just the ball in a cosmic pinball machine then? 56 00:02:27,932 --> 00:02:29,806 So where does reality lie? 57 00:02:29,806 --> 00:02:32,578 Within us or out there? 58 00:02:32,578 --> 00:02:34,784 This game ends in a draw