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Ukazujem Revíziu 2 vytvorenú 08/06/2020 od Stephanie Requena.

  1. My name is Natalia Rivera.
    I'm a doctoral student.
  2. And well, doctoral graduate, actually.
    And in the Department of Hispanic
  3. Languages and Literature at the
    University of Pittsburgh.
  4. I'm also a Spanish Instructor and I
    specialize in Latin American,
  5. Italian literature and
    critical disabilities studies.
  6. So my interests, my academic interests
    are intimately tied to my personal
  7. experience as a student and
    now instructor with
  8. a learning disability and co-occurring
  9. So, the first memory that I remember,
    just on a personal level,
  10. recognizing that there was some access
    issues or some degree of
  11. especially in the high school level.
    Some degree of
  12. a lack of knowledge, really, of
    different types of learning styles
  13. and different types of processing speeds
    because of my diagnosis of Attention
  14. Deficit Disorder. One of the key
    components of how that,
  15. you know, how ADD affects me is that
    I have a slower processing speed.
  16. So while my reading comprehension is
  17. my processing speed affects my
    writing speed so I'm not always
  18. able to produce a paragraph in a
    timely manner. So, we often
  19. had problems in English class. This
    was in tenth grade and
  20. the expectation was that we would be
    able to write a paragraph in half-hour.
  21. And often times I would need double
    amount of time. I would need an hour.
  22. And sometimes I wouldn't even be able
    to finish one simple paragraph
  23. in an hour.
  24. And I remember my English instructor,
    at the time,
  25. after class when I sort of approached her
    and said,
  26. "Uhm, hey. Not withstanding the
    original time. I wasn't
  27. really able to finish my paragraph."
    And I remember she looked at me
  28. incredulous and said to me,
    "If you can't even write a paragraph,
  29. a simple paragraph in one hour,
    I don't know what to tell you.
  30. So, I remember that moment. I
    also remember later on
  31. when I was preparing for her AP Exams.
    This also happened in high school.
  32. This was my junior year. I was taking
    an AP World History class
  33. And I remember that I approached my
    instructor, already knowing on my own
  34. 'cause I had already had plenty of
    experience advocating for myself since
  35. I was a child. I already knew that
    all standardized testing
  36. had a process for requesting
  37. So, I remember approaching my AP
    World History Exam and-
  38. I meant, my AP World History teacher
    and explaining to him
  39. that I was registered with disability
    resources, that I had a documented
  40. disability and that these were
    the particular accommodations I needed
  41. time and a half. It was a very common
  42. And I remember him telling me, "I don't
    have a problem providing you
  43. classroom accommodations. I'm just not
    sure that
  44. that extended time is provided on the
    AP Exam." And I was just
  45. flabbergasted that an instructor would
    actively misinform me that way
  46. because even I knew at the tender age
    of, I don't know, sixteen!
  47. that ATS always provided a process
    for requesting
  48. accommodation. So, I was stunned
    that an adult felt that he could
  49. just misinform me that way. And I
  50. that misinforming me not necessarily
    with a negative intent, but he
  51. genuinely had no notion of the
    process. And
  52. yeah. So, it's un-willful misinformation,
  53. the effect is similar. Because imagine
    had he said something like that
  54. to a student who had no idea how
    to request accommodations.
  55. You know, how to attain an
    evaluation to substantiate
  56. the need for accommodations. So
    it's just a lot of misinformation
  57. Enabled with ignorance, not so much
  58. But just the complete lack of information
    out there just really compromises
  59. student's ability to advocate for
  60. In my personal work with the
    disability rights
  61. community because I worked two
    and a half years at a disability
  62. rights organization called Autistic
    Self Advocacy Network
  63. and meeting a lot of people my age
  64. a lot of students don't find out that
    they have a diagnosis until much later
  65. in life. Once they start noticing, picking
    up on their own symptoms they seek
  66. out individually supports. So I
  67. certainly, on a personal level, benefited
    from my
  68. mother's knowledge and from her
    experiences as a parent advocate.
  69. I think my awareness of a level
    of discrimination
  70. even if it was kind of on the
    level of microaggression,
  71. I think I had more awareness of
    discrimination at the high school level
  72. but, my initial exposure to advocacy
    really happened when I was young
  73. and I remember going...
    There were some days off from school
  74. and I remember going to the office with
    my mom. And I remember meeting
  75. other moms and seeing her work part
    time at
  76. this parent advocacy group for parents
    with disabilities
  77. so I thank my mother for, you know,
    introducing me
  78. to the concept of self advocacy and
    for empowering me
  79. to use it in every aspect of my life and
    at a professional level
  80. and an academic level, as well.
  81. So, I don't really remember the day of
    the Americans with Disabilities Act
  82. 'cause I was just a couple of months
  83. But, the impact on me, basically
    I sincerely
  84. doubt had I been born, I don't know,
    forty years ago
  85. as opposed to thirty years ago, there's
    a possibility that I would not have
  86. attended college. And even if I had
    attended college,
  87. I just sort of feel that I would have
    never considered doing a
  88. PhD, if it hadn't been for the Americans
    with Disabilities Act.
  89. Because graduate school, the level of
    support at the undergraduate level
  90. at least at a liberal arts college
  91. that tends to be more supportive is
    radically different from graduate school
  92. where the level of support is practically
    non-existent, I feel
  93. and I think a lot of graduate students
    feel the same way.
  94. So without the ADA, I'm not even sure
    I would have been fortunate enough
  95. to attend college so I think that it
    offered me
  96. the protections that I needed to go
    beyond what my
  97. wildest dreams, right? So I feel like...
  98. I've had a very privileged life and I'm
    grateful for my academic
  99. opportunities that I know there are so
    many deserving students
  100. who didn't have the opportunities that I
    had and I'm not only grateful to my family
  101. for their unyielding dedication
  102. to advocacy and also very
  103. grateful for the ADA as well. I mean,
    disabilities definitely run in my family
  104. neuro-developmental disabilities, learning
    disabilities. I do have a cousin who
  105. was on the autism spectrum and
  106. I don't think, by no means, benefited
  107. by the protections offered by the
    Americans with Disabilities Act in the
  108. same degree that I did. I think
    unfortunately because I think there
  109. still cultural stigma
  110. particularly if an autism spectrum
  111. co-occurs with a intellectual disability,
    but he
  112. finished his associate's degree with
    minimal supports.
  113. I think because the ADA empowered me,
    I feel like
  114. I'm prepared as an instructor to offer
  115. to students with other disabilities. I
  116. students with documented disabilities
    and I feel that because
  117. of my personal experience as a
  118. with disability, I feel much more
    prepared to work with
  119. a wider range of students who need
    different needs and I'm prepared
  120. to be accommodating, I'm prepared
  121. at least endeavored to make students
    feel like they're valuable members of
  122. my classroom. I'm not a perfect
    instructor. I still have a lot to learn
  123. but, I think that level of
  124. humanity, I think, that speaks to a
    lot of students and I think that I'm
  125. better able to connect to connect with
    my students. So,
  126. the ADA allowed me to be useful as
    an instructor, basically. But, I
  127. remember one interview I did with
    a student on the
  128. autism spectrum, who was attending
  129. college specifically for students with
    learning disabilities.
  130. And she made a very astute observation
  131. learning disabilities under colleges and
    sort of their
  132. focus on vocational training as opposed to
    academic training and
  133. this was a smart girl who wanted to
  134. pursue a degree in humanities and she was
    doing an interdisciplinary liberal arts
  135. degree, but she couldn't take philosophy,
    for instance. Or
  136. she couldn't do a major in history.
    And I think the way
  137. the classes, the course work, the
  138. just how all the academic options were
    structured in this particular college
  139. it sort of reinforced this idea that
    traditional academic
  140. disciplines are somehow out of reach
    for a student who
  141. reads as having an intellectual disability
    or who reads as having
  142. potential learning difficulties and she
    lamented and I
  143. wholeheartedly agreed with her appraisal.
    She lamented the fact that she couldn't
  144. pursue a traditional discipline she would
    have wanted. She wanted to be a historian.
  145. So I think that in a way, people wouldn't
    really read the legislation
  146. very carefully.
    I guess in their attempt
  147. to sort of include people, they're
    inadvertently limiting the options
  148. for a lot of students because there
    are students who may need to
  149. do- There are students who may
    want to pursue
  150. physics, right? But they need a longer
    timeline to complete
  151. their coursework, but it's just in a
    traditional four-year
  152. college. Those mechanisms just
    aren't in place to provide
  153. that support system for a student who
    needs additional support, but
  154. who wants to pursue a traditional
    academic discipline. So, I think in that
  155. regard, even though the spirit of the
    ADA, you definitely get the sense
  156. with the wording of the legislation
    that it's intended to