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20 Tips for Instructors about Making Online Learning Courses Accessible

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    [Music]
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    >>Narrator: Sheryl Burgstahler
    shares historical highlights
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    and tips to create accessible
    online learning activities.
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    [Music]
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    >> Sheryl Burgstahler:
    I’m going to share with you
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    a little bit about
    access to online learning,
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    what instructional designers and
    faculty members need to know.
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    Often when I’m talking
    about this topic,
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    faculty members will say,
    "I don’t have enough time,"
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    and then, if it’s not that,
    "I don’t have enough funding."
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    That gets some support.
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    "And I don’t have enough
    technical support for me."
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    Well, what I can come back with,
    politely, of course,
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    is there are some things
    that we can all do.
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    We don’t need to
    do them all at once.
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    We can do them incrementally
    but make our courses accessible.
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    That led to this particular
    publication called
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    20 Tips For Teaching An
    Accessible Online Course.
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    And so I’m going to go
    through that a little bit.
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    It’s part of our
    AccessCyberlearning project,
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    one of our resources
    for other projects.
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    And I’ll just step back
    for a minute, back to 1995.
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    I actually taught
    the first online course
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    here at the
    University of Washington.
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    That’s kind of a little known
    fact about me.
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    It was in 1995 and I’m still
    shocked to this day
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    that they hired
    an 18-year-old girl
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    to be offering these courses!
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    [Audience laughs]
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    But I was quite precocious
    so, I offered the class
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    with Dr. Norm Coombs at the
    Rochester Institute of Technology.
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    He and I had been giving talks
    on accessible technology
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    around the country
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    and the University of Washington
    had a very extensive
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    distance learning program,
    all based on the postal mail system.
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    And so they mailed out things
    including videos to students.
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    And they proctored their exams in
    proctoring centers
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    around the country
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    so it was pretty elaborate
    what we had here.
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    And I wanted to make sure, my
    kind of somewhat hidden agenda was
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    I wanted to make sure
    these online courses
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    would be accessible to
    individuals with disabilities
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    but I also was kind of curious if you
    could really deliver a class online
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    that was anything close to
    what you could do onsite.
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    Particularly something like
    assistive technology,
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    which usually people touch things
    and manipulate things.
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    So I recruited Norm Coombs
    to teach this class with me,
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    Adaptive Technology for
    People With Disabilities.
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    Now back then, for those of you
    that are old enough to remember,
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    people communicated using email
    and we had discussion lists, email-based,
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    and we had a Gopher server - Gopher from
    the University of Minnesota, of course.
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    It was kind of an online
    catalogue system, all text-based.
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    We’d get into a little outline
    of your resources,
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    and then it would link to
    resources around the country.
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    And we actually received an award for
    having the most comprehensive Gopher server
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    for people with disabilities
    in the world.
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    And I don’t know if
    we had any competition.
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    But anyway, that was
    our course library.
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    Then we used Telnet,
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    which allowed us to log onto
    NASA and other big computing systems.
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    The students had to actually
    learn a different language
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    to correspond with these systems, with each
    one,
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    because they developed their own interface.
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    And then we used File Transfer Protocol
    to move files around,
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    to get images, whatever,
    that we wanted to move around.
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    So it was pretty basic technology.
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    All the materials that we had
    we put in text format.
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    You kind of had to.
    It was on Gopher.
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    So we did that.
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    We did use postal mail.
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    We mailed out publications,
    we mailed out videos.
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    DO-IT was around.
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    We had already made some
    DO-IT videos on VHS tapes
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    and they were captioned and
    audio described, believe it or not.
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    And we mailed those out to
    the participants in the class.
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    We kind of got the class
    pretty much together.
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    I gave them Norm Coombs’ resume
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    and they approved him as an instructor
    here at the University of Washington.
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    And then it sort of came out
    in the meeting one time
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    when we were talking about
    proctoring exams
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    and I said, "Well, we really
    can’t do proctoring exams
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    in these different locations because
    people write those out longhand
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    and Norm Coombs is blind
    so he won’t be able to read those
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    if they’re not in electronic form
    and I’ll have to grade all those myself
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    and I’m really not interested
    in having to do all that work.
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    Or we have to hire somebody
    to go over to RIT and read to him."
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    Now I have to say that the
    program people were not amused
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    by the fact that I kind of
    dropped this idea,
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    this piece of information about
    Norm Coombs being blind.
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    I thought it was a little bit humorous
    and I really didn't think
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    it had anything to do with them
    accepting him as an instructor
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    even back in those days.
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    And so they allowed us to go forward
    with this
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    and we offered this course
    to be fully accessible
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    and the distance learning program
    kind of the end of the first time we offered
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    it
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    she said, "Well tell me, Sheryl,
    I mean after all this work,
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    how many people with disabilities
    even took this course?
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    So how do you even know
    if it's successful?"
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    And I said, "Well I am proud to say
    we have absolutely no idea
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    how many people with disabilities
    took this course.
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    Because we just designed it
    to be fully accessible."
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    No one had to disclose.
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    So they weren't exactly amused
    but we continued to teach that class.
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    But I'm happy to say our
    first class was fully accessible.
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    In applying universal design
    to online learning,
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    we provide multiple ways to gain knowledge,
    interact, and demonstrate knowledge.
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    We have this publication
    that we've created on
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    20 tips for teaching an online course
    that is fully accessible
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    to people with disabilities.
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    Nine of the tips are about webpages
    and documents, images, videos;
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    and the other 11 are
    instructional methods.
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    And when I'm working with faculty
    who are reluctant to admit
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    that they might be able to adopt
    some accessible technology practices,
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    I ask them to really take the challenge
    of selecting a few of these
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    to make their courses accessible.
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    And it really points out
    how the faculty need
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    to work with the technology people
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    but also the designers in
    developing their online courses.
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    And I'm going to go
    through these fairly quickly.
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    But just to kind of
    give you an idea
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    of what things we tell
    faculty members and designers
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    to look for in online learning.
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    Providing clear and consistent
    layouts and organizational schemes.
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    That is something that
    every instructor should do
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    to present their material clearly.
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    Of course those layouts should be
    apparent to someone who is blind.
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    So we structure the headings to
    make sure that someone can access them
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    using screen readers and see
    organization of the content
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    rather than just dumping a bunch of text
    that would have to be read
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    from the beginning to the end.
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    So this faculty member would also use
    descriptive wording for hyperlinks.
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    Since someone using a screen reader
    might want to tab through
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    and go to each one of the
    web resources on a page
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    so they could see
    where they want to start
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    or whether they want to go
    to those resources at all.
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    And so if you use the wording
    on each of your underlined text,
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    "click here,"
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    that person is going to be able
    to read all those no problem
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    but what they will read is
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    "click here, click here,
    click here, click here."
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    In contrast if you provide
    descriptive wording that's underlined,
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    that link might say
    "DO-IT website."
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    Then, that person would know
    what they're going to be linking to
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    and can decide then if that's
    where they want to be.
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    A very simple thing.
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    This doesn't take any more time
    than putting the "click here" there.
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    But it makes it accessible
    to people using screen readers.
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    PDFs, kind of tricky.
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    We can make them accessible
    but you have to ask yourself,
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    why again was I creating that PDF?
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    Sometimes you're
    forced to do it
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    because it's a PDF that's
    out on the internet.
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    But if you're creating a lesson or even
    your syllabus in your online class,
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    do you want to include
    that as a PDF file
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    or do you want to cut and paste
    the content right into the
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    learning management system itself
    into that window so it is text
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    and then use the features within Canvas
    or what other system you're using
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    to structure the headings so you've
    made it accessible that way.
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    That's what I do.
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    The text descriptions of the content
    when images are provided.
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    Whenever there is an image that's presented,
    you just describe that text.
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    And some learning management systems
    actually prompt you to do that.
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    So you're reminded but
    even if it doesn't,
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    you can put that in.
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    So sometimes people will say,
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    "Well, but it's just
    a little logo here.
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    It doesn't mean anything.
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    Why do I have to have
    the text description?"
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    Well the person who's blind
    and trying to access your course
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    doesn't know that that image doesn't
    include anything really meaningful.
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    For our DO-IT website, we have on our logo
    on our website we have "DO-IT logo"
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    as an alternate text
    for that image.
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    Some people say we should
    describe what it looks like.
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    Other people would say it doesn't
    really matter what it looks like
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    but it's important that a person
    who is blind knows that it's a logo
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    that they do or don’t
    need to pay attention to.
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    Using large bold fonts on uncluttered
    pages with plain backgrounds.
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    With the PowerPoints we’re using,
    we're assuming that their vision is such
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    that it's difficult for them
    to see the content
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    and so we just automatically
    provide large bold fonts
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    on uncluttered pages
    with plain backgrounds.
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    High contrast color combinations.
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    You usually can figure
    this out on your own.
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    Sometimes you go to a website
    and it's light green on dark green.
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    It's like what were people
    thinking about that?
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    And to avoid the problematic ones
    for those are colorblind,
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    so red and green, for instance.
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    There are resources on the web actually
    that you can test some of these things
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    so it's not hard to find.
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    Content and navigation is accessible
    using the keyboard alone.
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    Sometimes there's not
    a lot you can do about that
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    if it's the product that
    you're using is the problem.
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    But if there are things that
    you have control over,
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    then you need to be aware of that.
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    But it's important to kind of
    remember that, that issue,
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    and to continually work like say
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    in this Canvas work group
    that we have going nationwide
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    to give input to Canvas creators and others about the inaccessibility of something
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    So it's good to kind of know that.
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    Make sure that the videos are
    captioned and audio described.
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    Captioning first. Audio described
    is important, too, but as I said
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    if you're creating your own video,
    often you can create it in a way
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    that it's fairly accessible for people
    who are blind right from the beginning.
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    That is going to take some
    technical support probably.
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    You can read the content on
    our Accessible IT website
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    but you might have to have
    somebody help you do that.
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    Make sure that your course is designed
    for a wide range of technical skills.
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    This is another thing that doesn't take a
    rocket scientist to figure out how to do this
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    but so often we’re used to using
    the technology that we’re using
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    and we don't tell students
    how to use it.
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    We have to remember that even if you have
    some tech savvy students in your course,
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    they might never have
    used that product.
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    This might be the first
    Canvas class that they've taken.
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    So providing a little overview
    of the technology you're using
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    to deliver that class
    and where they can get help,
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    just include that in the syllabus or
    in early instruction in a lesson or two.
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    Make sure the content is
    presented in multiple ways
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    and so if you're using
    a video in the class,
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    make sure it's captioned.
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    A transcript is nice
    but I also recommend
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    that you provide sort of a
    different version of it
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    because we present content
    differently when we're writing
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    than is presented in a video.
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    So many of our videos have a handout
    connected with them online.
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    I guess it's not a handout but it's
    a publication with that content.
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    But it's written in a way that you
    normally would write that content.
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    And so just because you have a video
    doesn't mean you shouldn't do that other,
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    and that can be within your lesson in a class
    or it can be a separate document.
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    So that's providing that
    content in multiple ways.
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    Acronyms and jargon,
    we talked about that.
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    Make sure you spell them out or
    don't use them. And define them.
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    Instructions and expectations.
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    Make sure that they're really clear.
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    Sometimes putting content
    in the syllabus
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    that maybe years ago
    I would've maybe given later.
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    I’d think maybe this assignment’s
    only going to take a week
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    so I'll give it in
    the middle of the class.
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    Well maybe it's going to take
    somebody longer than that
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    so give them the assignment
    at the beginning.
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    They shouldn't be penalized
    for actually working ahead.
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    Even if they can't do all parts of it
    they can at least be thinking about it
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    in terms of what you’re teaching.
    And make the expectations clear.
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    Use a rubric or use other techniques
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    to make sure they know what they're
    supposed to be able to produce.
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    Make sure that examples and assignments
    are relevant to a diverse audience.
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    And so just sit back and think about it.
    You don't have to survey your students.
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    You can just think of a variety of people
    that might be accessing that class.
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    It might be an older student.
    You've got male and female students.
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    You might know that people from a lot
    of different disciplines take your course
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    whatever it happens to be on,
    so try to have a few examples
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    of a concept that might appeal
    to a different audience.
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    Make sure that outlines and other
    scaffolding tools are provided
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    so that's what would apply to online learning.
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    Be sure to provide adequate
    opportunities for practice
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    so in an online class sometimes I would have
    something required like required reading
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    and then if I think some people might
    want to have more instruction
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    or it might be just a little diversion
    of what we're talking about,
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    then I put in all caps
    the name of that lesson
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    and in parentheses "optional"
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    and so that is a cue for someone
    who wants to do a little bit more,
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    feels like they need more practice
    or a little more information.
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    But I’m not requiring that
    all the students do that.
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    People have different levels of knowledge
    coming into your course
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    but also different learning styles
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    and it might take them longer
    or a shorter period of time
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    to learn something
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    but also people require, some
    require more practice than others.
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    Provide adequate time for activities
    and projects and tests.
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    A lot of this as I said can be solved
    by just putting it in the syllabus.
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    Another thing that I've done
    in teaching online learning
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    is asked the program managers
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    if I can open my class
    a week before it really starts.
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    And I've always gotten
    permission for that.
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    It makes it more difficult for
    the instructor, I'll say that,
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    because you've got students
    who start early and move forward.
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    Well, I figure that's my problem.
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    And so I don't want to discourage
    people from moving forward.
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    Maybe they're going to be
    really busy in a couple of weeks.
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    So they want to get ahead but
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    I make it real clear
    what discussion we’re on
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    and when we're discussing
    certain topics
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    so they have to kind of stay
    with the class in that regard.
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    And I always send out a notice
    to the whole class
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    saying "I opened this class a week early
    so you people can get started.
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    If you haven't started
    you’re not behind.
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    We're starting today."
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    And so I kind of don't let
    the class get away from me
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    even if I’m letting
    some students work ahead.
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    Providing feedback on
    parts of an assignment
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    and corrective opportunities
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    and so if you're assigning
    a big project for a class
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    to at least invite students
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    to give you a draft of
    what they're going to do
  • 15:26 - 15:29
    and you can give feedback on it
    or part of it say you're open to that
  • 15:29 - 15:31
    or you can actually build it
    into the assignments
  • 15:31 - 15:34
    and say everyone has to turn in
    an outline or whatever
  • 15:34 - 15:35
    by such and such a date.
  • 15:35 - 15:37
    So the students don't have
    that experience
  • 15:37 - 15:41
    where they finish the whole project
    and then you look at it and say,
  • 15:41 - 15:45
    "Oh they didn't understand
    what I was asking for."
  • 15:45 - 15:48
    And for options for
    communicating and collaborating
  • 15:48 - 15:55
    and for demonstrating learning so
    sometimes you can just give students options
  • 15:55 - 15:58
    and say the test is going to be
    three different choices.
  • 15:58 - 16:02
    You can present your knowledge
    in three different ways.
  • 16:02 - 16:04
    Or projects - the same thing.
  • 16:04 - 16:06
    You can give them options for
    what project they want to do
  • 16:06 - 16:10
    or another way to do it is to have
    just multiple things throughout the course
  • 16:10 - 16:13
    so because sometimes you want everybody
    to do things in a certain way.
  • 16:13 - 16:17
    So you want projects and you want
    to have short answer tests
  • 16:17 - 16:21
    and you want to have true and false
    and multiple choice and whatever it is,
  • 16:21 - 16:24
    or students creating videos or
    whatever you have in the class.
  • 16:24 - 16:27
    Just make sure there's a variety
    so that if someone isn't very good
  • 16:27 - 16:31
    at one of those things, they can still
    end up doing well in the class.
  • 16:31 - 16:37
    So that's just a simple overview
    of what you can do in an online course
  • 16:37 - 16:41
    to make it more accessible
    to students with disabilities.
  • 16:41 - 16:44
    Not too difficult and
    not too technical.
  • 16:44 - 16:46
    And what I challenge
    faculty members to do then,
  • 16:46 - 16:48
    particularly the ones that say, "Well,
    I just don't have time to do this,"
  • 16:48 - 16:52
    is to look through here
    and circle a few things,
  • 16:52 - 16:57
    circle a few numbers of things
    that they can do like right away.
  • 16:57 - 17:01
    And no one has trouble finding them,
    but even if you just did a few of these things
  • 17:01 - 17:06
    given you aren't doing them already,
    it would make a better class.
タイトル:
20 Tips for Instructors about Making Online Learning Courses Accessible
概説:

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Video Language:
English
Team:
DO-IT
Duration:
17:50

English subtitles

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