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← Was ist Idealismus? Philosophisches Kopfkino (3sat)

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Mostrare Revisione 7 creata 09/06/2021 da NadjaWieser.

  1. How do we really know, that that
    which we see,
  2. touch and taste really exists?
  3. What is reality?
  4. The objects or how we perceive them?
  5. Do we see the world as its is,
    or is the world what it is,
  6. because we perceive it as such?
  7. Let's imagine the following:
  8. We are in a cave, deep underground.
  9. There is no visible daylight.
  10. In this cave, people are tied
    to chairs in such a way
  11. that they can only look at the cave wall.
  12. From the time
    they are born,
  13. they are shown black-and-white
    movies continuously.
  14. The audience believes that the film
    is a true reflection of reality.
  15. What sounds like an experiment
    from the 3rd Reich,
  16. is actually a 2000-year-old mind game,
  17. conceived by Socrates' star pupil:
  18. Plato!
  19. Now suppose,
  20. that one of these bold youngsters
    actually escapes from the cave
  21. and sees the three-dimensional, colourful
    world for the first time.
  22. How would he feel?
  23. Probably similar to the brave Keanu Reeves
    in the "Matrix",
  24. in the scene where he wakes up in
    real world for the first time.
  25. And worst of all,
  26. if our ancient Neo were to
    return to his friends
  27. and tell them that the world
    as they know it
  28. isn't real…
  29. then he would be dismissed as a madman.
  30. According to Plato, our reality
    is based on 'ideas'
  31. Objects, and how we experience them,
    are only their images.
  32. However, for Plato the term 'idea'
    represented more.
  33. It was about the essence of all things,
  34. that which we saw
    as part of an ideal world
  35. and that which we recalled from memory.
  36. What he pioneered with this is a doctrine
  37. called "idealism",
  38. to which Leibnitz and Kant
    later also subscribed to.
  39. However, this does not mean
    diligently donating
  40. to victims of natural disasters
  41. or serving soup to the homeless
    at Christmas.
  42. Just as the real meaning of "materialism",
  43. isn't the "My house, My boat, My
    investment advisor" song sung by Madonna
  44. or the meaning of the Yuppie Lifestyle.
  45. Materialism is the philosophical
    countermovement to idealism.
  46. Idealism sees the origin
    of reality in the "idea",
  47. whereas with materialism "matter"
    is decisive.
  48. Thus, reality arises due to the
    effect of the environment
  49. and not by the way in which
    we perceive it.
  50. To the question "What is?"
    materialism answers:
  51. Only matter.
  52. The world exists how it is
  53. and we must conform to its laws.
  54. Sounds bleak in the long run, though,
    doesn't it?
  55. So, are we just the ball
    in a cosmic pinball machine then?
  56. So where does reality lie?
  57. Within us or out there?
  58. This game ends in a draw