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← Introduction to Communication Science week 5: 5.3 Making Sense of the World

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Afficher la révision 2 créée 02/12/2014 par Claude Almansi.

  1. You might recall from our first class the
    Newcomb model.
  2. One of the basic models we covered in our first
    week.
  3. The model contains the elements A, B and X.
  4. A is the sender, B is the receiver and X is some
    shared social factor that
  5. 1) influences the relationship between A & B and
  6. 2) is influenced itself by this relationship.
  7. Let’s say A is Anton and B is Barbara.
  8. Anton and Barbara are friends and both like the
    movies of the famous director Xavier.
  9. Xavier’s new movie comes out and Barbara
    absolutely hates it,
  10. she thinks it’s pretentious and boring.
  11. The relationship between Barbara and Xavier has
    changed.
  12. She is not such a big fan anymore.
  13. As a result the relationship between Anton and
    Barbara might change as well,
  14. since they now completely disagree on their
    appreciation of this movie and Xavier’s directing.
  15. Also, Anton’s relationship with Xavier might
    change,
  16. perhaps he will start to see this movie in a new
    light as a result of Barbara’s criticism
  17. or he will defend him avidly and as a result
    become an even bigger fan.
  18. Newcomb's model is important because it's one
    of the first communication models
  19. that includes the idea of a social environment
    that influences the communication process
  20. and is itself influenced by the communication
    process.
  21. It contains the idea that communication is used
    to construct and maintain a social reality.
  22. A reality that’s very personal for every individual.
  23. This theory, that communication is a building
    block of a social reality,
  24. became popular in the nineteen sixties.
  25. In their influential book ‘The Social Construction
    of Reality’,
  26. Berger and Luckmann's argue that all knowledge
    about everyday reality,
  27. all knowledge that we take for granted,
  28. even simple and even objective ‘truths’,
  29. are actually born from and maintained by social
    interactions.
  30. We ‘know’ that lying is wrong,
  31. that boys play with cars,
  32. that motorcycles are cool.
  33. and that we should obey the law,
  34. because as children and adults
  35. we are programmed by parents, friends, family,
    classmates,
  36. and indirectly by mediated communication,
  37. with ideas of what is real.
  38. We are socially taught seemingly fixed ‘rules’
  39. and ‘truths’ that in reality are social constructs.
  40. This reality is unique for every individual.
  41. Our own reality lives, evolves and dies with us
    and in a way we are at the center of it.
  42. This is the theory of social constructionism that
    was further developed
  43. by scholars in the sixties and seventies.
  44. A key element of social constructionism is that
    people do not construct reality by themselves.
  45. We need to communicate with others to make
    sense of the world.
  46. To understand the ‘rules of live’ and know where
    we belong and don’t belong.
  47. This perspective completely challenged the idea
    that reality is fixed and objective,
  48. and that the truth of that reality can be proven by
    scientists.
  49. This meant that scientists – according to social
    constructionists -
  50. had to study how reality was formed in the mind
    of people,
  51. how they use social interaction and mediated
    communication
  52. to create and maintain their personal image of
    reality.
  53. New, more qualitative, deeper and explorative
    methods were required for this.
  54. Communication scientists borrowed new
    methods from anthropology,
  55. sociology, political sciences and literature
    studies
  56. to gain insight in how reality, or culture, is
    formed with use of communication.
  57. New popular methods were in-depth interviews,
  58. textual analysis
  59. and historical and socio-political analysis.
  60. Scientists were also more and more interested
    in the social and political context
  61. in which communication was produced and
    received.
  62. We will discuss that further next.