Return to Video

(h) TROM - 1.3 Environment

  • 0:12 - 0:19
  • 0:21 - 0:26
    Let's take a look at old Siggy; Sigmund Freud, okay, who has definitely had his run.
  • 0:26 - 0:30
    He says behavior is influenced by parents, dreams, jokes, and sex;
  • 0:30 - 0:35
    not necessarily in that order, but, what does that say?
  • 0:35 - 0:38
    This is the environment camp once again, right?
  • 0:38 - 0:43
    Many scientific researches have shown an obvious fact,
  • 0:43 - 0:46
    that the behavior of a human being is created by the environment.
  • 0:47 - 0:52
    If genes predispose a certain behavior but the environment doesn't support it,
  • 0:52 - 1:00
    then that behavior won't manifest, so in this case, genes aren't important.
  • 1:05 - 1:06
    We live in a remarkable time
  • 1:07 - 1:08
    the age of genomics.
  • 1:10 - 1:13
    Your genome is the entire sequence of your DNA.
  • 1:13 - 1:16
    Your sequence and mine are slightly different.
  • 1:17 - 1:19
    That's why we look different.
  • 1:19 - 1:20
    I've got brown eyes,
  • 1:20 - 1:22
    you might have blue, or gray;
  • 1:23 - 1:24
    but it's not just skin-deep.
  • 1:25 - 1:26
    The headlines tell us
  • 1:27 - 1:29
    that genes can give us scary diseases,
  • 1:30 - 1:33
    maybe even shape our personality,
  • 1:33 - 1:35
    or give us mental disorders.
  • 1:36 - 1:37
    Our genes seem to have
  • 1:38 - 1:41
    awesome power over our destinies.
  • 1:43 - 1:46
    And yet, I would like to think that
  • 1:47 - 1:49
    I am more than my genes.
  • 1:58 - 2:00
    Likewise, every connectome
  • 2:00 - 2:02
    changes over time.
  • 2:04 - 2:05
    What kind of changes happen?
  • 2:05 - 2:06
    Well, neurons, like trees,
  • 2:06 - 2:08
    can grow new branches,
  • 2:09 - 2:11
    and they can lose old ones.
  • 2:12 - 2:15
    Synapses can be created,
  • 2:15 - 2:18
    and they can be eliminated;
  • 2:18 - 2:20
    and synapses can grow larger,
  • 2:20 - 2:22
    and they can grow smaller.
  • 2:23 - 2:25
    Second question:
  • 2:25 - 2:26
    What causes these changes?
  • 2:28 - 2:29
    Well, it's true;
  • 2:30 - 2:33
    to some extent they are programmed by your genes.
  • 2:33 - 2:34
    But that's not the whole story,
  • 2:35 - 2:37
    because there are signals: electrical signals,
  • 2:38 - 2:39
    that travel along the branches of neurons,
  • 2:39 - 2:40
    and chemical signals,
  • 2:41 - 2:43
    that jump across from branch to branch.
  • 2:43 - 2:45
    These signals are called neural activity.
  • 2:46 - 2:47
    And there's a lot of evidence
  • 2:48 - 2:49
    that neural activity
  • 2:50 - 2:54
    is encoding our thoughts, feelings, and perceptions,
  • 2:54 - 2:55
    our mental experiences.
  • 2:56 - 2:58
    And there's a lot of evidence that neural activity
  • 2:59 - 3:01
    can cause your connections to change.
  • 3:02 - 3:04
    And if you put those two facts together,
  • 3:05 - 3:07
    it means that your experiences
  • 3:07 - 3:09
    can change your connectome.
  • 3:10 - 3:12
    And that's why every connectome is unique,
  • 3:12 - 3:15
    even those of genetically identical twins.
  • 3:16 - 3:19
    The connectome is where nature meets nurture.
  • 3:20 - 3:22
    And it might be true
  • 3:22 - 3:24
    that just the mere act of thinking
  • 3:24 - 3:26
    can change your connectome;
  • 3:26 - 3:29
    an idea that you may find empowering.
  • 3:30 - 3:32
    Did you all hear that question about,
  • 3:33 - 3:39
    the issue about gender being socially created, versus being biological and hormonal?
  • 3:40 - 3:42
    Of course, I come down a bit more on the biological side, obviously, but..
  • 3:43 - 3:50
    I now believe, having come full circle after studying biology for many years,
  • 3:50 - 3:57
    and really believing in the way, that the nature-nurture debate, in a lot of ways, I think...is dead,
  • 3:57 - 4:00
    at this point, for the following reason:
  • 4:00 - 4:02
    the brain is very, very malleable;
  • 4:02 - 4:07
    we're all born with male or female predispositions,
  • 4:07 - 4:10
    and then we'll have hormones that increase that circuitry
  • 4:10 - 4:13
    for behavior, which is what a hormone is supposed to do.
  • 4:13 - 4:18
    A hormone's job is to make us predisposed to certain behaviors.
  • 4:18 - 4:22
    However, the way we're raised, for example, little boys:
  • 4:23 - 4:27
    Studies have shown that little boys who were told they're not supposed to touch something,
  • 4:27 - 4:34
    they often will grab it and touch it, whereas a little girl can be given a verbal demand not to touch it.
  • 4:34 - 4:38
    Little boys world-wide are punished more frequently, for, transgressions.
  • 4:38 - 4:45
    Little boys are told not to cry...that they're supposed to man-up, right?
  • 4:45 - 4:51
    Even at a young age, dads sometimes are very very scared if their little boy is
  • 4:51 - 4:55
    making any version of effeminate behavior.
  • 4:55 - 4:58
    For example, I remember flying coast to coast with a guy who sat next to me.
  • 4:59 - 5:07
    He said his 18 month-old son, when he saw his sister open a present, earlier that week
  • 5:08 - 5:10
    -it was a purse, she'd gotten a purse,
  • 5:10 - 5:14
    she was four years old- and he said, "Oh, can I have a purse too?"
  • 5:14 - 5:19
    And he said he found himself like someone had kicked him in the stomach,
  • 5:19 - 5:25
    and he just yelled at his 18 month-old son, "No, boys don't have purses!"
  • 5:25 - 5:31
    And he was reporting to me this event, and he felt so ashamed and embarrassed afterwards;
  • 5:31 - 5:39
    because he realized his little boy wasn't expressing anything in terms of being effeminate or not.
  • 5:39 - 5:43
    So, these things: the way we raise little boys, and we raise little girls,
  • 5:43 - 5:49
    our brain circuits are so malleable. For example, we weren't born learning to play the piano, right?
  • 5:49 - 5:51
    You do practice, practice, practice.
  • 5:51 - 5:55
    You can retrain brain circuits, to do a variety of things.
  • 5:55 - 6:01
    And I think all of our life we can be gender-trained, to be more one way or the other.
  • 6:02 - 6:08
    Males' facial expressions for example, when they measure them and put electrodes on them,
  • 6:08 - 6:14
    and show them a grizzly photograph that is supposed to make you cringe and emotional,
  • 6:14 - 6:20
    their facial expressions, versus females', actually show more emotional response
  • 6:20 - 6:27
    in the time before it becomes conscious. And right after the one second level when it becomes conscious,
  • 6:27 - 6:33
    they start to freeze down, their facial muscles, for frowning or smiling.
  • 6:33 - 6:37
    In females, facial muscles actually amplify, and the males' go down.
  • 6:37 - 6:43
    Scientists believe, the hypothesis is, that males have been trained to suppress their emotional feelings.
  • 6:43 - 6:48
    So, thanks for the question; it's a moving target for a lot of our lives.
  • 6:48 - 6:53
    And the ways we're raised, and what we're allowed to do, what boys are and not allowed to do,
  • 6:53 - 6:57
    has a lot to do with how they grow up to be men.
  • 6:58 - 7:01
    Think about the way you act, your facial expression,
  • 7:02 - 7:06
    the values accepted by you, the way you talk, everything,
  • 7:06 - 7:09
    and remember that they are a result of your environment.
  • 7:09 - 7:14
    The human brain has no mechanism to recognize what is relevant or not.
  • 7:20 - 7:24
  • 8:53 - 9:00
  • 9:28 - 9:30
  • 9:31 - 9:34
  • 9:37 - 9:43
  • 10:58 - 11:00
  • 12:33 - 12:37
  • 14:33 - 14:38
  • 18:15 - 18:21
  • 18:22 - 18:27
    There is no such thing as bad, criminal, lazy,
  • 18:27 - 18:32
    brilliant people, thieves, or racists.
  • 18:33 - 18:36
    Only people predisposed to such behavior.
  • 18:36 - 18:39
    But if the environment doesn't trigger them,
  • 18:39 - 18:42
    the behavior never manifests.
  • 18:51 - 18:53
    Remember:
  • 18:53 - 18:58
    the human brain has no mechanism to recognize what is relevant or not.
  • 19:04 - 19:08
  • 19:58 - 20:01
    The most extreme case is represented by feral children.
  • 20:01 - 20:06
    A feral child is a human child who has lived isolated
  • 20:06 - 20:09
    from human contact from a very young age,
  • 20:09 - 20:13
    and has no -or little- experience of human care,
  • 20:13 - 20:18
    loving or social behavior, and, crucially, of human language.
  • 20:19 - 20:22
    Feral children lack the basic social skills
  • 20:22 - 20:25
    which are normally learned in the process of enculturation.
  • 20:25 - 20:30
    For example, they may be unable to learn to use a toilet,
  • 20:30 - 20:33
    have trouble learning to walk upright
  • 20:33 - 20:38
    and display a complete lack of interest in human activity around them.
  • 20:44 - 20:47
    Oxana Malaya began her life living with dogs,
  • 20:47 - 20:51
    rejected by her mother and father, she somehow survived for six years,
  • 20:51 - 20:54
    living wild, before being taken into care.
  • 20:54 - 20:58
    There are few cases of feral children who've been able to fully compensate
  • 20:58 - 20:59
    for the neglect they've suffered.
  • 20:59 - 21:01
    Oxana is now 22,
  • 21:01 - 21:03
    but her future still hangs in the balance.
  • 21:03 - 21:08
    Have scientists learned enough from previous cases to rehabilitate her?
  • 21:08 - 21:13
    For six years, Oxana Malaya spent her life living in a kennel, with dogs.
  • 21:14 - 21:17
    Totally abandoned by her mother and father,
  • 21:17 - 21:20
    she was discovered, behaving more like an animal,
  • 21:20 - 21:22
    than a human child.
  • 21:22 - 21:26
    For two centuries, wild children have been the object of fascinating study.
  • 21:27 - 21:29
    Raised without love, or social interaction,
  • 21:29 - 21:32
    wild -or feral- children pose the question:
  • 21:32 - 21:34
    What is it that makes us human?
  • 21:34 - 21:37
    Oxana was born in November, 1983.
  • 21:38 - 21:40
  • 21:40 - 21:45
    When the baby girl was born, she weighed 5 pounds, 11 ounces, and didn't have any abnormalities.
  • 22:02 - 22:06
    Genie had spent 13 years, isolated,
  • 22:06 - 22:10
    in a nearly empty room, devoid of any social contact.
  • 22:10 - 22:14
    Although not suffering from any mental illness,
  • 22:15 - 22:19
    because of that environment, she behaved like a mentally ill person.
  • 22:20 - 22:23
    She could not create social connections,
  • 22:23 - 22:28
    she could not speak; even her walking was strange.
  • 22:29 - 22:34
    After a while, due to the insistence of others to rehabilitate her,
  • 22:34 - 22:37
    Genie began to express herself through sign language
  • 22:37 - 22:39
    and socialize with people.
  • 22:42 - 22:45
    They also took responsibility for Genie's therapy,
  • 22:46 - 22:49
    attempts to help her grapple with the horror of her childhood.
  • 22:49 - 22:51
    Okay baby, open your mouth!
  • 22:52 - 22:54
    In this primitive role-playing exercise,
  • 22:54 - 22:57
    Marilyn pretends to be Genie's mother.
  • 22:57 - 23:01
    Hurry up! Hurry up, because there isn't any time.
  • 23:01 - 23:03
    Father's gonna be angry.
  • 23:04 - 23:08
    Marilyn tries to elicit memories of Genie's past.
  • 23:08 - 23:13
    I wonder what you're thinking.
  • 23:26 - 23:30
    Genie is the extreme evidence of environmental influence.
  • 23:37 - 23:39
    Despite all she'd been through, Genie's troubles were not over.
  • 23:40 - 23:44
    In her first foster home, Genie was severely punished for vomiting.
  • 23:45 - 23:51
    The experience was so traumatizing, Genie ended up back in children's hospital,
  • 23:51 - 23:55
    where the Riglers offered assistance.
  • 23:56 - 23:58
    You couldn't help it.
  • 24:00 - 24:05
    So now you're keeping you're mouth closed so you won't vomit.
  • 24:06 - 24:07
    Genie was afraid to open her mouth.
  • 24:24 - 24:29
    If you do not expose a human being to murder, rape, pedophilia,
  • 24:30 - 24:32
    zoophilia, necrophilia, weapons, racism,
  • 24:32 - 24:35
    then he will not know what they are.
  • 24:35 - 24:37
    It's like trying to imagine
  • 24:37 - 24:39
    a color youâve never seen before.
Title:
(h) TROM - 1.3 Environment
Description:

http://tromsite.com - Full documentary, very well organized (download, youtube stream, subtitles, credits, share, get involved, and many more)

Documentary´s description :
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
TROM (The Reality of Me) represents the biggest documentary ever created, it is also the only one that tries to analyse everything : from science to the monetary system as well as real solutions to improve everyone's life.

A new and ´real´ way to see the world.

"Before the Big-Bang, till present, and beyond."
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

more » « less
Video Language:
English
Duration:
24:53
Tio Trom edited English subtitles for (h) TROM - 1.3 Environment
Tio Trom edited English subtitles for (h) TROM - 1.3 Environment
João Diogo edited English subtitles for (h) TROM - 1.3 Environment
Tio Trom added a translation

English subtitles

Revisions Compare revisions