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Daniel Lange (DLange), Felix "tmbinc" Domke: The exhaust emissions scandal („Dieselgate“)

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    ♪ (preroll music) ♪
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    Angel: After half a year, Volkswagen committed
    to tweaks to their emission readings.
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    Those two boys, Daniel Lange and
    Felix Domke here on my left,
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    will share some insights with us.
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    Daniel will not only focus on the ECUs,
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    which is the acronym for the
    Electronic Control Unit,
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    and I think we're seeing one
    over here already,
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    whereby Felix will show us some tricks
    to extract and tweak the firmware.
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    On both sides we will see how many people
    have been involved in the entire process
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    and we would get an idea what everything
    is involved in there.
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    So, you applause and I'm gonna take over
    the Bildschirm.
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    Good luck!
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    Felix: Alright. Hello? Okay.
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    Hey, so, I'm Felix Domke.
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    Do we see the video output yet?
    No.
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    Anyway, I'm Felix Domke.
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    I'm here on my own
    because I was personally interested
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    in how Volkswagen is cheating
    on their emission control.
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    And maybe we get video at some point.
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    I want to stress that I was self-funded.
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    I did this with my own money because I was
    personally interested in this.
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    So I did not do this on behalf of anyone else.
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    Daniel: Let's start the Keynote again and
    see whether that one works better then.
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    F: I am sure we figure this out.
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    D: Oh, it worked before?
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    Yes, that's because one of us two wanted
    to use a Mac.
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    audience laughs
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    F: But I wanted to use Keynote,
    I don't care which operating system.
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    D: This one works.
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    F: Anyway. So I will now hand off to Daniel
    which will give the first part of this talk
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    and after that I will give
    the second part of this talk.
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    D: Okay, thanks Felix.
    My name is Daniel.
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    I used to work for a big Bavarian auto
    manufacturer which is not Audi...
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    audience laughing
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    ...for 14 years.
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    I've been running the IT strategy,
    I've been doing IT architecture.
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    And most relevant to this talk,
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    I've been responsible for the
    process chain electronics and electric.
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    I've done the rollout of
    Connected Drive in China.
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    So I kind of have quite deep insight into
    how the automotive industry works
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    and I'd like to share a bit with you.
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    I'm an Engineer by training,
    I guess many of you are.
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    And I want to share
    how the engineers think
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    inside such a big corporation
    like Volkswagen,
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    and what pressures, what boundary
    conditions they are working on.
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    I have my own company now
    which makes my life a bit easier
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    than Felix's, as you see
    in the legal disclaimer.
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    Those are folks from the UK.
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    They're called "Brandalism", I hope you
    notice the "McDonald's"-M at the end.
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    Those are folks who started a few years
    ago to reclaim the public space.
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    They were just annoyed by
    all of that advertising.
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    And when the Paris negotiations
    for the eco treatment came,
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    they just felt a big invitation to
    use the opportunity
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    that Volkswagen has created
    for all of us
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    and make advertising in their style, but
    perhaps not in the message
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    they would usually have conveyed.
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    I'm a strategist.
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    So what is the thing that defines how the
    automotive indusry works today?
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    We are in a saturated market.
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    In the developed countries, so everywhere
    in Europe, in the North Americas,
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    everybody has a car that wants one.
    Some have two.
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    So when you want to sell another car
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    you're basically talking about replacing
    an existing car with another one.
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    The only growth you have
    is in the BRIC states.
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    BRIC is: Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
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    And, here, especially in China.
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    You have a big overcapacity. There's just
    too many automotive manufacturers
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    and there's too many plants they have.
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    So all of them basically struggle
    to get the loads on the plants,
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    to produce enough cars and to have
    those cars sold at some point in time.
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    Because the queueing in between
    production and sales
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    is actually the big parking spaces you see
    in Bremerhaven or so
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    where there's ten thousands, in some
    countries even hundreds of thousands of cars
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    basically stored in between
    production and sales.
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    Ten years ago, fifteen years ago,
    that didn't exist.
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    The cars were basically sold off the factory.
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    But people have been moving away
    very, very slowly from cars.
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    They have, as I said, a saturated market.
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    It's just not that easy
    to sell a car anymore.
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    That is because of social shifts.
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    When I was young, there was
    "The Dukes of Hazzard",
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    there was "General Lee", this car
    that basically is the star of the show.
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    There was "Knight Rider" and nobody watched
    it for David Hasselhoff, not even the girls.
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    They watched it for KITT.
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    When I was young, I wanted to own a car.
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    I wanted to have KITT, possibly.
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    And when I grew old enough, I found out
    I can get a car that looks like KITT
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    but, you know, all the
    fun stuff is not in there,
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    so I turned to computers.
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    The next thing is organization,
    megacities.
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    We live in very condensed spaces
    in those cities.
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    If you talk about a place like Beijing
    where there's like 21 million people
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    in an area that is one city,
    where there's nothing big inbetween,
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    there's no river, there's no forest,
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    it's just like one city.
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    If you go to Tokyo, Yokohama,
    you can drive on the motorway
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    for nearly three hours when you enter
    the city before you leave the city.
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    And you're driving on the motorway,
    you're driving on an elevated road
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    for which you paid toll
    so you actually can drive.
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    But it's three hours before
    you leave the city again.
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    And in these cities owning a car
    and operating a car
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    is about the worst thing you can do.
    You just don't want to do that.
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    The average speed of a car in Beijing
    these days is 12 km/h.
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    If you're a good runner you can beat that.
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    And incidentally this is exactly the speed
    that a horse carriage makes.
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    audience laughs and applauds
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    We have managed to undo
    all of the innovation of the last 200 years,
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    it's just the interior
    is a little bit more comfortable.
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    The actual getting from A to B is the same
    as with a horse carriage these days.
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    And then there's technology shifts.
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    The problem is, there are big things,
    big visions that everybody follows,
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    like electric mobility.
    Electric mobility means:
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    You buy a car that's one and a half times
    the price of your standard car,
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    you lug around 300 kg of batteries for
    no apparent reason to do so,
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    and you now need to install something
    in your garage —
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    which you most probably don't have,
    look at megacities —
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    to be able to recharge the car
    because it only goes a hundred miles.
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    So it's currently not a very compelling
    thing to sell to the end customer.
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    There's self-driving cars, which is kind of
    a great, big vision.
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    But I would really call that a "vision".
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    A "vision" is something that's not being
    implemented in my lifetime.
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    And then there's downsizing.
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    Downsizing means ...
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    Everybody wanted to have
    the biggest engine,
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    everybody wanted to have the
    biggest car, let's say, 10 years ago.
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    You wanted to have that six cylinder
    that was giving you status.
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    But now the automotive industry
    has an overall cap
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    on how much emissions the average
    new car fleet my have.
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    And they can only reach that if they manage
    to sell smaller engines to you.
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    Because for everybody who buys
    a really big engine
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    that will never ever make that emission cap,
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    they need somebody whom they've
    sold a small car to —
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    preferrably an electric car, because
    they even have statistical advantages
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    to make them a bit more attractive —
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    to set that off.
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    So very literally the poor guy
    with the small car needs to exist
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    for the rich guy that drives the
    eight cylinder and doesn't give a shit.
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    Strategy-wise, there's only two things
    that an automotive car company is driven in.
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    And that's really everything there is.
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    There is "reach a target ROCE".
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    ROCE is: Return on Capital Employed.
    That is just two numbers:
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    your EBIT, which is your Earnings
    Before Income Tax,
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    and the amount of money you have
    in your company, the employed capital,
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    which you got from people
    that lent it to you
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    or from your stakeholders, from your investors.
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    And that is what the company
    is measured against.
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    Every automotive company
    basically runs like this.
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    Just this one figure,
    it's a percentage like "30%."
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    "30%" means: On the money you have
    you made a 30% return during that year.
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    The downside of measuring in ROCE is that
    everytime you use that Euro or Dollar
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    it counts again because
    the money works for you.
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    That means what you're looking at
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    is a company that gradually moves
    from a very industrial type of application
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    to something that tries to move faster,
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    that tries to be quick and
    regain money faster.
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    And then there's
    "outperform the competition."
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    You have to understand the situation
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    that there's a good dozen companies
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    and everybody has the
    same strategic position:
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    "We will outperform the competition."
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    So statistically, you will know that
    half of them are going to fail
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    because that won't happen, right?
    Somebody has to be the lower half.
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    But the only thing I have seen
    in about five or six companies
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    where I know the strategy in detail,
    is: the sequence.
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    Is the first or is the latter
    the more important one?
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    And sometimes that depends on markets.
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    There's this new emerging market and
    you want to outperform the competition,
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    you want to grow more.
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    And then there's this laggard market somewhere
    in the European Union
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    where you just look at the money, you know,
    how much money are we making on this.
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    But that's all, that is how an engineer is
    basically steered, that is the strategy.
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    And that means when you break that down
    through the levels of hierarchy, what is counting is:
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    How much money do you
    need to make this?
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    How much money are you
    gonna make on this?
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    Those two divided will be
    contributing to the ROCE.
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    And do you deliver anything that can
    help us outperform the competition?
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    You notice that there is a lack, which is,
    you know: What does the customer want?
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    Or: What is good for associates?
    Or something like that.
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    Just in case you hadn't noticed before.
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    Okay, I'd like to do a bit of a quiz with
    you before you all fall asleep after lunch.
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    Eleven million.
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    "Eleven million" in the context of the
    exhaust emission scandal.
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    What is that number?
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    Audience: Cars affected!
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    Correct! Cars affected.
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    Eleven million is actually the
    Volkswagen cars
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    which need to be recalled world-wide
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    to get this little filter thing fixed
    and their software updated
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    to meet the emission targets which they
    had been produced against.
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    1500 ...?
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    A: Number of engineers!
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    Number of engineers?
    No, not correct.
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    Number of engineers would be above 10000
    for a car in Volkswagen Group. Sorry?
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    A: Cost for fixing it per car?
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    Cost for fixing it per car? No, that's
    maximum 600, we're gonna see later.
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    unintelligible suggestion from audience
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    No? Well that was too difficult then,
    and that was a bit intentional.
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    That's the amount of hard disks they
    collected from the associates.
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    audience laughs and applauds
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    Now the thing is, we've had in the press
    that there is maximum 13 managers
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    which are responsible for this
    emission scandal within Volkswagen.
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    But then they collect 1500 hard disks and
    USB sticks from 380 associates,
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    and that number is a month old because
    they haven't reported newer numbers.
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    So something is mismatching there, right?
    Something is mismatching there.
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    So the first number we have is
    for how many associates
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    are actually somehow
    affected by this is 380.
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    Because you come to work somewhere in
    Wolfsburg I think, right?
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    And then there's this nice chap coming up
    and telling you,
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    "Uhm, actually we took
    the hard disk off your PC,
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    you're gonna get a new one from IT,
    we guess tomorrow,
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    they're a bit behind with, you know ..."
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    6.7 billion ...?
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    Just shout!
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    unintelligible suggestions from audience
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    Fine? No that will be less, much less.
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    unintelligible suggestions from audience
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    Yes, you're getting close.
    It's the money they put back,
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    they set aside to actually pay
    for the recall and the legal fees.
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    Now if you divide that by 11 million
    you get about €600 per car.
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    So it's not that much money per car.
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    In Europe, the plan is basically that you
    go to the dealer and get a software update.
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    In the States, people already got $1000
    in cash and in coupons
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    as a goodwill measure.
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    So something I learnt from Martin Haase
    here going to the CCC Congress all the time
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    is that we need to read text really well.
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    So the upper one is the original in German,
    the lower one is my English translation.
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    The English translation is as accurate as
    possible, so it's not good English.
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    Please excuse that, it is so you get the gist
    in case you can only read the English.
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    So that is Mr. Pötsch, he's the president
    of the Volkswagen supervisory board.
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    He is the poor guy that now
    has to sort it all out.
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    He used to be the CFO. We're gonna see why
    that is important a little bit later.
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    And he has made this analysis:
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    It was "individual misbehaviour",
    so it's not an organizational problem,
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    it's "weaknesses in particular processes",
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    and it's "the attitude in
    particular sub-partitions" ...
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    "Teilbereiche des Unternehmens",
    it's impossible to translate in English,
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    it's actually impossible in German, but,
    you know, the legal team came up with that.
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    So the "attitude in particular sub-partitions
    of the company to tolerate rule violations."
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    Now, if we go through this very quickly:
    It's not a rule violation,
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    you violated the fucking law.
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    The other thing is, if you have particular
    processes, you have particular associates,
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    and you have particular sub-partitions
    of the company,
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    That tells you something, right?
    That just tells you something.
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    This was probably two days' work of
    somebody in the legal team,
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    and I guess you noticed, right?
    I guess you notice.
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    "Legal team" is probably these people.
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    Jones Day is a big American lawyer company
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    and they've asked them to help
    with sorting out this.
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    Now the funny thing is, there's public prosecutors
    all over the planet interested in Volkswagen
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    but Volkswagen thinks it's
    not really clever
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    to have those people come in
    and find all the info,
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    it's better to have Jones Day,
    their own kind of bought-in legal team,
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    ask the associates first.
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    Now the problem is, whenever the let's say
    German prosecutors wake up and go in there
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    and say, like, "We would like
    to see what has happened,
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    so please hand over the material,
    please hand over the hard disks,"
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    they would get a very, very nice reception,
    be greeted with coffee and shown a room
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    where all of the hard disks
    and everything is stored,
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    "We collected it for you."
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    I have no idea whether they gonna show
    everything to them
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    I have no idea whether there may be
    some material lost in between.
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    We've heard from Anna earlier
    in Germany it seems to be
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    that things hit the shredder and
    hard disks get lost and everything.
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    So if it works like that in the government
    I have no idea how it works in companies.
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    But if I was on the prosecutors I'd
    probably see that I speed up a little
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    because otherwise you'll get
    all pre-prepared material.
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    And because Jones Day
    can't do all of that —
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    you have to interview all of those people,
    and you have to look through the hard disks —
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    they asked Deloitte
    to come in and help them.
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    Now Deloitte are a very good company,
    they have very, very good forensic teams,
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    so that's a very good choice.
    But the important thing here is:
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    Out of the four big consulting companies
    that do finance analysis and stuff
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    those are the only Americans. The others
    are headquartered somewhere else.
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    So what it tells you here —
    American legal teams, American auditors —
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    that's where Volkswagen looks.
    Volkswagen is actually afraid of America.
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    They are not that afraid of Europe or some
    other country in some other continent.
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    Now, let's talk text a bit again.
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    "We have no findings on the involvement
    of the supervisory board
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    or the board of management presented."
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    Now, again, "no findings", okay,
    "presented", right?
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    It's not "we don't have any findings"
    or "there is nothing",
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    it says "we have no findings presented."
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    And the other thing is "involvement",
    that's an odd term.
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    In German, "Involvierung",
    that's not even German, right?
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    If you look it up, "Involvierung", nobody
    of you talks of "Involvierung"
  • 18:41 - 18:44
    when you talk to your family or
    when you do something at work.
  • 18:44 - 18:50
    The trick here is, the supervisory board
    has a reason for existing: supervision.
  • 18:50 - 18:54
    audience laughs and applauds
  • 18:54 - 18:59
    The board of management has a reason for
    existing and that is: decision.
  • 18:59 - 19:01
    They are the deciding body.
  • 19:01 - 19:04
    None of them are ever "involved", right?
  • 19:04 - 19:08
    When you work on something
    in a big hierarchical company
  • 19:08 - 19:11
    there is no "involvement"
    of your board member,
  • 19:11 - 19:14
    there is no "involvement"
    of your supervisory board member.
  • 19:14 - 19:18
    So per definition, they cannot
    have an involvement, right?
  • 19:18 - 19:21
    If he wanted to be straight
    he would have said:
  • 19:21 - 19:27
    "I, as a former board of management director
    and now as the head of the supervisory board,
  • 19:27 - 19:33
    I guarantee there was no involvement
    of my or my colleagues in this.
  • 19:33 - 19:37
    And if there was, I would pay back my
    salary, I will go to jail, I will ... whatever."
  • 19:37 - 19:40
    Right, sacrifice a goat?
  • 19:40 - 19:43
    But that would have been
    straight communication.
  • 19:43 - 19:47
    But this is not straight communication,
    this is... bullshit.
  • 19:48 - 19:52
    Okay, quiz time!
    10 ...?
  • 19:52 - 19:59
    You remember, this guy here told us there's
    no involvement in anything fishy, right?
  • 19:59 - 20:03
    It's all those small engineers,
    all those bad, bad people down there.
  • 20:03 - 20:05
    But they are gonna hunt 'em down, right?
  • 20:05 - 20:08
    So there's no involvement
    with anything fishy here.
  • 20:08 - 20:11
    So, in that context, what is "10"?
  • 20:11 - 20:12
    A: Board members!
  • 20:12 - 20:14
    10 board members?
    Close, they have a little more.
  • 20:14 - 20:16
    A: Levels of hierarchy.
  • 20:16 - 20:20
    Levels of hierarchy — quite good. It's,
    I think, eight or so, but you're quite close.
  • 20:20 - 20:29
    No, it's actually the amount of planes
    that Volkswagen owns.
  • 20:29 - 20:31
    All of them are jet planes.
  • 20:31 - 20:35
    Because if you're a board member
    you have to, you know, fly in style.
  • 20:35 - 20:39
    And because there's nothing
    ever fishy at Volkswagen
  • 20:39 - 20:44
    it's run by Lion Air Services
    out of the Braunschweig airport.
  • 20:44 - 20:50
    And obviously, Lion Air Servives is registered
    in Georgetown on the Cayman Islands.
  • 20:50 - 20:53
    applause and laughter
  • 20:53 - 20:55
    Nothing fishy ever in that company.
  • 20:55 - 20:58
    Okay, let's get back to topic. I have
    about another ten minutes
  • 20:58 - 21:03
    before I want to get Felix the chance to
    show you what he has done on the ECUs.
  • 21:03 - 21:10
    So I need to get you up to speed
    about how all of this context here works.
  • 21:10 - 21:16
    And this here is called the NEDC,
    it's the New European Driving Cycle.
  • 21:16 - 21:21
    This is what your car is tested
    against for emissions.
  • 21:21 - 21:25
    It works like that: You condition
    the vehicle a day before.
  • 21:25 - 21:27
    Which means you really
    drive it hard on the Autobahn
  • 21:27 - 21:31
    so the exhaust is really free
    and everything.
  • 21:31 - 21:37
    And then you do these cycles here where
    you basically accelerate the vehicle,
  • 21:37 - 21:40
    slow down, accelerate the vehicle,
    slow down, accelerate the vehicle,
  • 21:40 - 21:44
    slow a bit down, slow a bit more down,
    and then you cycle again.
  • 21:44 - 21:47
    And the last, cycle 5, is an optional one,
    depending on what you measure,
  • 21:47 - 21:49
    that is actually going to the autobahn
  • 21:49 - 21:56
    and you're going up to a top speed of
    120 km/h for a very short period of time.
  • 21:56 - 22:05
    The people that have detected the
    tweaked emissions
  • 22:05 - 22:11
    in the VW Jetta and Passat they looked at,
    they have called this
  • 22:11 - 22:16
    "a very light usage cycle,"
    and they called it "unrealistic".
  • 22:16 - 22:21
    Because basically nobody drives the car
    like this, it's a very artificial thing.
  • 22:21 - 22:23
    And that is the problem
    for the engineer, right?
  • 22:23 - 22:28
    The engineer looks at this and says,
    "Yeah, you know, it's a standard.
  • 22:28 - 22:30
    It's something we do to measure against."
  • 22:30 - 22:33
    But nobody drives like this.
    It's not realistic, right?
  • 22:33 - 22:38
    So if you fake the data in this we're not
    actually faking something our customer uses
  • 22:38 - 22:42
    because no customer drives like this,
    it's very artificial.
  • 22:42 - 22:46
    And there's a very good report by ICCT
    which is, "Mind the Gap".
  • 22:46 - 22:49
    Which is what you hear in London when you
    go into the Tube.
  • 22:49 - 22:55
    And what they mean is the gap between what
    gets out when you measure emissions like this
  • 22:55 - 22:58
    and what gets out when you
    actually drive the car.
  • 22:58 - 23:01
    And that gap is widening
    year by year by year.
  • 23:01 - 23:06
    Because engineers get better and better
    at optimizing for this cycle.
  • 23:06 - 23:11
    The cars on the street? Phhh, they do get
    better as well, but less, right?
  • 23:11 - 23:14
    That's why the gap widens.
  • 23:14 - 23:17
    And trickery on those tests
    is very common.
  • 23:17 - 23:21
    I'm sorry you can't probably
    read that in the stream
  • 23:21 - 23:24
    and probably can't read that
    when you're back down there.
  • 23:24 - 23:27
    But that's an original slide I had to take
    from Transport & Environment,
  • 23:27 - 23:29
    from that report which I just named.
  • 23:29 - 23:33
    And what it says there is
    what tricks people are doing
  • 23:33 - 23:35
    to actually drive down the emissions.
  • 23:35 - 23:38
    For example, they blow up the tyres
  • 23:38 - 23:42
    by 3 bars more than you could
    actually use them on the road.
  • 23:42 - 23:46
    Now when you do, the bottom of the tyre
    looks like this, right?
  • 23:46 - 23:48
    So that means you only have a very, very
    small portion of the tyre
  • 23:48 - 23:53
    that still touches the ground,
    so your resistance gets reduced.
  • 23:53 - 24:00
    They put diesel into the oil beause diesel
    is lighter than the oil which you are using
  • 24:00 - 24:03
    inside the vehicle, so friction gets reduced.
  • 24:03 - 24:07
    They take off the mirror, the side mirror
    on the passenger side
  • 24:07 - 24:10
    because that is not legally
    required to be existing,
  • 24:10 - 24:14
    so, you know, it's resistance,
    so get away with it.
  • 24:14 - 24:18
    They tape close all of the
    openings of the vehicle
  • 24:18 - 24:20
    because obviously when the
    wind goes over it
  • 24:20 - 24:23
    it goes much smoother
    once you have everything taped.
  • 24:23 - 24:30
    Now all of these things are either okay or
    they are kind of borderline grey area.
  • 24:30 - 24:33
    And they do this. This is how
    actually emissions are tested.
  • 24:33 - 24:36
    So this is why an engineer,
    when he looks at this, says,
  • 24:36 - 24:40
    "Yeah, it's an optimization problem. They
    want me to get a low number
  • 24:40 - 24:46
    and I have pretty clever ideas, which involve
    diesel and sticky tape and everything,
  • 24:46 - 24:47
    to reduce the number."
  • 24:47 - 24:50
    sighs
  • 24:50 - 24:53
    The results are this.
  • 24:53 - 24:59
    That's from a 2012 report from — a 2013
    report, I'm sorry — from ADAC,
  • 24:59 - 25:03
    the German MRT company.
  • 25:03 - 25:07
    And what you see, the lighter blue ones
    are actually the emissions
  • 25:07 - 25:12
    which the car produces in this cycle.
  • 25:12 - 25:14
    The darker blue ones are the ones
    which are produced
  • 25:14 - 25:17
    when you just go on the motorway
    and drive them.
  • 25:17 - 25:19
    And you see that there is a discrepancy
  • 25:19 - 25:27
    which is ten times, twenty times, thirty
    times what is the measured data.
  • 25:27 - 25:32
    So what you need to understand is that
    even in the past nobody ever thought,
  • 25:32 - 25:36
    nobody in the industry ever thought that
    the data which was measured
  • 25:36 - 25:40
    had any real connection with reality, right?
  • 25:40 - 25:44
    The only connection was, you knew that
    what you're measuring
  • 25:44 - 25:48
    within the duty cycle NEDC
    is definitely less
  • 25:48 - 25:51
    than what you would ever see
    in any realtime use.
  • 25:51 - 25:54
    But that's it, that's it.
    That's no secret, right?
  • 25:54 - 25:58
    It's something that has been
    out there for years.
  • 26:00 - 26:05
    Now the folks at Deutsche Umwelthilfe,
    which are actually people that helped
  • 26:05 - 26:09
    find out what Volkswagen did, they wanted
    to see that others do it as well.
  • 26:09 - 26:12
    And because I wanted to give you as much
    information as possible
  • 26:12 - 26:18
    we are going to look at this product here now,
    which is not a Volkswagen as you may see.
  • 26:18 - 26:22
    And when you measure this car
    it actually looks like this.
  • 26:22 - 26:27
    So that means when the car is thinking it
    is running an NEDC —
  • 26:27 - 26:31
    because it is conditioned to do so,
    it is the right temperature,
  • 26:31 - 26:35
    it is the right setup —
    it actually delivers the blue bars.
  • 26:35 - 26:40
    And if you run it because you just run it
    and you don't do the conditioning
  • 26:40 - 26:42
    it delivers the grey bars.
  • 26:42 - 26:46
    Now there's many things you can say
    about how they measured this
  • 26:46 - 26:52
    because, obviously, this is not science to
    the best level of accuracy.
  • 26:52 - 26:55
    But you do see a pattern here,
    and you do see the pattern
  • 26:55 - 27:00
    of the 30-, 35-fold emissions.
    And that is what you always see
  • 27:00 - 27:03
    because this is what an engine
    like the one in this car —
  • 27:03 - 27:06
    a 1.6 l diesel engine
    if I remember correctly —
  • 27:06 - 27:11
    actually does when it's just
    operated normally.
  • 27:11 - 27:17
    And the lower ones are the ones which you
    get when the engineers did all the good tweaking.
  • 27:18 - 27:24
    Now why has all of this ...
    Oh sorry, so this is just one test, right?
  • 27:24 - 27:29
    And you see that this test,
    when the vehicle is cold,
  • 27:29 - 27:35
    you get fresh air with a nice rose smell
    out of the exhaust.
  • 27:35 - 27:39
    And when the vehicle is operated normally
    you basically get what you expect,
  • 27:39 - 27:42
    you get the combustion products
    out of burning diesel.
  • 27:42 - 27:45
    Now why is all of this now a problem?
  • 27:45 - 27:48
    This is now a problem because of the
    American legal system.
  • 27:48 - 27:50
    The American legal system is
    very, very different
  • 27:50 - 27:55
    from what people in the European Union
    are used to.
  • 27:55 - 28:00
    In America, there are two things which are
    a bit strange perhaps
  • 28:00 - 28:04
    to somebody who's accustomed with a
    German legal system.
  • 28:04 - 28:06
    The first thing is, there's jurys.
  • 28:06 - 28:10
    So there's common people that actually
    decide about what's right or what's wrong.
  • 28:10 - 28:14
    And that means, what they
    award as compensation
  • 28:14 - 28:20
    to people that have had a disadvantage
    are often astronomic figures.
  • 28:20 - 28:24
    Now these figures are sometimes
    reduced again by the judges,
  • 28:24 - 28:30
    but it's not uncommon that if something
    hurt you or you got into an accident
  • 28:30 - 28:33
    you're awarded million dollar sums.
  • 28:33 - 28:37
    In Germany, if somebody shoots your
    eye out, you may be getting €100,000.
  • 28:37 - 28:40
    So there's a huge discrepancy there.
  • 28:40 - 28:43
    And the other thing is, in America
    there are punitive damages.
  • 28:43 - 28:48
    "Punitive damages" means: You did
    something wrong, you did it on purpose,
  • 28:48 - 28:50
    and you're punished for it.
  • 28:50 - 28:54
    In Europe, a company basically is,
    you did something wrong
  • 28:54 - 28:59
    so now you have to compensate the
    disadvantage somebody else had.
  • 28:59 - 29:03
    So to a certain extent,
    a company that doesn't try to trick
  • 29:03 - 29:10
    actually kind of loses an opportunity because
    if they are not detected to be tricking
  • 29:10 - 29:11
    they have just saved money.
  • 29:11 - 29:15
    There's no punitive element, there's no
    "You will go to jail for this."
  • 29:15 - 29:20
    At least in this context of
    environmental regulation.
  • 29:20 - 29:24
    Now in case you couldn't read that, that's
    actually a sign I took in california.
  • 29:24 - 29:28
    You go into a store and it tells you
    that basically everything you see there
  • 29:28 - 29:34
    and touch there is giving you cancer and
    your unborn children will be damaged.
  • 29:34 - 29:36
    This is what it says there: Belts, shoes,
    jewellery, handbags,
  • 29:36 - 29:38
    all products with metal, and everything
  • 29:38 - 29:42
    causes cancer, birth defects,
    and other reproducive damages.
  • 29:42 - 29:44
    So this is America, right?
  • 29:44 - 29:51
    Their view of protecting the consumer is
    completely different from Europe.
  • 29:51 - 29:55
    And this is why Volkswagen goes and says,
    "We will show good faith.
  • 29:55 - 30:00
    We will give you, American Volkswagen
    owner, a thousand dollars
  • 30:00 - 30:05
    because we just wanna make sure that
    you at least know we care."
  • 30:05 - 30:08
    It's important that you care because
    the jury will say,
  • 30:08 - 30:11
    "Well at least they awarded $1000,
    maybe a little too little,
  • 30:11 - 30:13
    but at least they did something."
  • 30:13 - 30:18
    The jury would say that. A professional
    judge in Germany would say, "Pshh, why?"
  • 30:18 - 30:23
    So this is why as a European customer
    you actually go to the dealership,
  • 30:23 - 30:25
    and if that guy is really nice
    you may be getting a coffee
  • 30:25 - 30:29
    while you wait the hour
    that he flashes your car.
  • 30:29 - 30:34
    So that's the only thing you're currently
    supposedly getting in Europe.
  • 30:34 - 30:39
    Okay, now the problem is:
    What they did hurts.
  • 30:39 - 30:42
    And it hurts because,
    if you do the statistics ...
  • 30:42 - 30:50
    Very nice people have published a
    publication here, a real scientific publication
  • 30:50 - 30:52
    where they did the maths,
    and they say:
  • 30:52 - 30:56
    59 people may be dying
    earlier in the United States
  • 30:56 - 30:59
    because of the additional emissions
    in the environment
  • 30:59 - 31:03
    which they took in and which may
    damage their body.
  • 31:03 - 31:06
    The social cost of treating those people —
    because they may be developing cancer,
  • 31:06 - 31:08
    they may be going to a hospital,
    and so on —
  • 31:08 - 31:12
    is about 450 million Euros.
    Now that's statistics, right?
  • 31:12 - 31:17
    "Lies, damn lies, and statistics."
    Mark Twain is often quoted with that.
  • 31:17 - 31:21
    But the problem is: That is a real cost,
    it is a real damage.
  • 31:21 - 31:28
    If you do violate emission laws it is
    something that is damaging people's health.
  • 31:28 - 31:31
    It may be something that is difficult
    to prove statistically,
  • 31:31 - 31:36
    but it is something which you don't only
    do to save money here or there,
  • 31:36 - 31:39
    it is something which you do
    to actually hurt people.
  • 31:41 - 31:47
    Okay, I need to speed up a bit. Very
    sorry, skip this, that's the next quiz.
  • 31:47 - 31:51
    15.9 million is actually the salary
    of this guy here.
  • 31:53 - 31:57
    That's a lady from BMW,
    I just wanted to put that out there.
  • 31:57 - 32:00
    She says, "It shouldn't be called
    Dieselgate, it's Volkswagen-Gate.
  • 32:00 - 32:03
    We never did anything wrong at BMW."
  • 32:03 - 32:07
    And the SZ, actually, yay, they follow,
    right? In November, it was "Abgasskandal",
  • 32:07 - 32:10
    in December, it's "Volkswagen-
    Abgasskandal".
  • 32:10 - 32:16
    The only problem is that even in 2000,
    BMW was cought cheating on the Motorrad.
  • 32:16 - 32:21
    So this is 15 years ago. 15 years ago
    BMW actually put the same code
  • 32:21 - 32:30
    which we are now seeing in Volkswagen
    into their ECUs for the F 650 motorcycle.
  • 32:30 - 32:36
    And we will see again here the same 34,
    in this case, -fold increase
  • 32:36 - 32:40
    in between real use and test bench use.
  • 32:40 - 32:45
    Now, honestly, they've been caught, they've
    been caught earlier, and they fixed it.
  • 32:45 - 32:49
    So in 2001, they actually
    brought a new version
  • 32:49 - 32:53
    and apparantly that didn't have
    this cheat code anymore.
  • 32:53 - 32:57
    But here we see a pattern again:
    too little time for development,
  • 32:57 - 33:00
    too little money willing
    to be spent on this,
  • 33:00 - 33:02
    so engineers try to trick.
  • 33:02 - 33:04
    When you get caught,
    and you get caught early
  • 33:04 - 33:07
    nobody probably of you
    remember this here.
  • 33:07 - 33:10
    It's fine, it kinda fades away into history.
  • 33:10 - 33:14
    If you're Volkswagen, if you have
    11 million cars out of there,
  • 33:14 - 33:16
    you have a big problem.
  • 33:16 - 33:20
    Okay, I'll skip this one, it's really
    nice, you can see it in the slides.
  • 33:20 - 33:26
    But I have to go to this here
    to give Felix enough time.
  • 33:26 - 33:28
    So how does component development work?
  • 33:28 - 33:34
    There's a huge set of legal frameworks.
    It's a very structured top-down process.
  • 33:34 - 33:39
    You get requirements from the people
    that represent the market in the company,
  • 33:39 - 33:43
    you get requirements from the CFO,
    from the finance director.
  • 33:43 - 33:48
    And these are broken down into documents
    which are more than a thousand pages long.
  • 33:48 - 33:54
    And there's every single detail that
    could exist in this ECU written out.
  • 33:54 - 33:58
    There's a piece of paper
    for everything it does.
  • 33:58 - 34:03
    Everything. There's not a bit in this thing
    which is not pushed down
  • 34:03 - 34:07
    into a very hard set of requirements.
  • 34:07 - 34:12
    This is then put into a tool,
    often Rational DOORS by IBM or something,
  • 34:12 - 34:15
    and then every time something changes
    this is documented.
  • 34:15 - 34:18
    There's a complete paper trail, right?
  • 34:18 - 34:21
    So that means unless there
    will be a cover-up,
  • 34:21 - 34:24
    unless we're not given all the information
    as a public,
  • 34:24 - 34:29
    there's no way Volkswagen cannot find out
    who did exactly what at what point in time,
  • 34:29 - 34:32
    which level of management was involved.
  • 34:32 - 34:36
    Because every step of the development goes
    through a Q-Gate, a Quality Gate.
  • 34:36 - 34:40
    There's managers sitting there and they're
    approving everything it does,
  • 34:40 - 34:43
    every progress that has been made,
    and they're getting reports,
  • 34:43 - 34:46
    at least bi-weekly, on the progress.
  • 34:46 - 34:51
    And these reports go up the ladder, they
    are copied to the next levels of management.
  • 34:51 - 34:55
    So this is a fully transparent process and
    this is a fully top-down driven process.
  • 34:55 - 35:00
    It is completely impossible that you have
    an engineer that sits there and says, like,
  • 35:00 - 35:05
    "Well, I wanna cheat," and does the code.
    There's no motivation for him to do either.
  • 35:05 - 35:11
    He doesn't get any money for it, he would
    only be risking his career, so he won't do.
  • 35:11 - 35:15
    And this is why we have paper trails,
    and this is why engineers have written down,
  • 35:15 - 35:18
    "I'm doing this because my
    manager told me to do this."
  • 35:18 - 35:23
    And this is why you have Bosch sending
    a letter in 2007 to Volkswagen which says,
  • 35:23 - 35:28
    "We delivered you this code you
    requested. We're your supplier, we do.
  • 35:28 - 35:31
    But if you send it into production
    it will be illegal."
  • 35:31 - 35:33
    And they did.
  • 35:35 - 35:41
    So this is how actually this
    exhaust system works.
  • 35:41 - 35:44
    And this is a little bit important to
    understand what Felix is now doing
  • 35:44 - 35:50
    and showing you how the ECU
    that manages this all works.
  • 35:50 - 35:53
    To the left would be the engine,
    to the right is the exhaust,
  • 35:53 - 35:57
    the end of the exhaust
    where the remainders come out.
  • 35:57 - 36:03
    And the first thing is,
    you have diesel oxid cathalytic
  • 36:03 - 36:07
    and it basically takes out ...
    The interesting stuff here is CO,
  • 36:07 - 36:13
    so carbon oxide, and PM, the
    particle mass, through 98%, 50%.
  • 36:13 - 36:17
    The hydrocarbonides before that,
    they just kind of don't go through
  • 36:17 - 36:22
    the rest of the process anymore.
  • 36:22 - 36:27
    Then you have a filter that basically
    traps all of the diesel particles,
  • 36:27 - 36:30
    the stuff that causes
    cancer in your lungs.
  • 36:30 - 36:35
    But you have to burn them out at some
    point in time, about every 700 km,
  • 36:35 - 36:37
    when there have been enough collected.
  • 36:37 - 36:38
    So it's a bit a trick, right?
  • 36:38 - 36:44
    The trick is: You collect them so they
    don't exit the exhaust
  • 36:44 - 36:48
    but at some point in time you have to burn
    them again, so they do exit the exhaust.
  • 36:48 - 36:53
    Now the positive thing here is,
    they get larger, and the larger they are,
  • 36:53 - 36:59
    the less risk they — at least as much
    as we know — cause as a health hazard.
  • 36:59 - 37:05
    So this is the DPF here. And then at the end,
    this is the really interesting thing,
  • 37:05 - 37:08
    this is what most of the
    scandal now focuses on:
  • 37:08 - 37:11
    There's a selective catalytic reduction.
  • 37:11 - 37:14
    And what this thing does is,
    it does reduce the particle mass,
  • 37:14 - 37:16
    it does reduce the particles.
    That's nice.
  • 37:16 - 37:23
    But the interesting thing is NOx.
    It goes against this to about 90%.
  • 37:23 - 37:27
    So this is what it is made for.
  • 37:27 - 37:36
    It basically injects urea into the airflow
    and helps to reduce the NOx content
  • 37:36 - 37:42
    by creating by-products
    which are mostly water
  • 37:42 - 37:45
    that comes out the end of the exhaust.
  • 37:45 - 37:48
    And this is the system, this is a very
    complex technical system
  • 37:48 - 37:52
    that has to be managed,
    and this is managed by an ECU.
  • 37:52 - 37:56
    This ECU which they selected to do this,
    and everybody does, is the engine ECU.
  • 37:56 - 38:00
    Because to the left of the diagram before
    was this big engine, you didn't see it,
  • 38:00 - 38:05
    it fell off the diagram, but that's
    actually the fan blowing into the system.
  • 38:05 - 38:11
    So this is what you want to manage to
    actually control what happens there.
  • 38:11 - 38:16
    Now this thing is quite
    a sophisticated processor,
  • 38:16 - 38:20
    it's about the most complex device
    outside multimedia and entertainment
  • 38:20 - 38:25
    which we find in the car, and it is a
    very proprietory thing
  • 38:25 - 38:28
    because it contains a
    physical model of engines.
  • 38:28 - 38:32
    So there have been hundreds, if not
    thousands of engineers sitting there
  • 38:32 - 38:37
    and modelling how an engine works,
    really physically modelling it.
  • 38:37 - 38:42
    And the things that an OEM —
    an original equipment manufacturer,
  • 38:42 - 38:45
    a car maker — can actually tweak
    are variables.
  • 38:45 - 38:49
    They can say,
    "My engine has this and this size,
  • 38:49 - 38:52
    my combustion cycle looks like this and that."
  • 38:52 - 38:55
    But the code itself is opaque to the OEM.
  • 38:55 - 39:02
    It's a proprietory product which you can
    buy from Continental, or Bosch, or so.
  • 39:02 - 39:07
    And there's about 20,000 variables
    which you can tune.
  • 39:07 - 39:13
    And this thing is simulated and tested
    to death. Because it is hugely important.
  • 39:13 - 39:17
    Because you have this machine here
    that has like 100, 200 horsepowers
  • 39:17 - 39:22
    and if you steer it wrong it will blow up,
    and it will blow up really hard.
  • 39:22 - 39:29
    So this is why this thing is about the best
    tested piece of software you will ever find.
  • 39:29 - 39:35
    Which also again means there's everything
    documented, everything is written down,
  • 39:35 - 39:39
    everything is seen by everybody
    who's working with these,
  • 39:39 - 39:42
    whether it's in development,
    whether it's in integration,
  • 39:42 - 39:46
    whether it's in the plants that
    flash these things, and so on.
  • 39:46 - 39:48
    There's nothing secret here in this, right?
  • 39:48 - 39:51
    The functions which are there are
    actually there to be seen,
  • 39:51 - 39:59
    well, seen if they are named apparantly, and
    that is something that Felix will talk about.
  • 40:01 - 40:10
    audience applauds
  • 40:10 - 40:13
    F: Thank you. Hey, okay.
    So I will do the second part of this talk.
  • 40:13 - 40:15
    I'm Felix, by the way.
  • 40:15 - 40:18
    So my motivation with this
    was a little bit different.
  • 40:18 - 40:26
    I'm curious, and, I mean, we can find a lot
    of source material for this whole scandal.
  • 40:26 - 40:28
    We can find a lot of
    information in the press,
  • 40:28 - 40:32
    a lot of information in the
    Volkswagen press releases.
  • 40:32 - 40:37
    However, it should be easier
    because all the cars are there,
  • 40:37 - 40:43
    the 11 million cars are out there
    that have the cheat code in them.
  • 40:43 - 40:47
    And we are hackers, and we know code,
    and the truth is in the code.
  • 40:47 - 40:53
    So my approach was, well,
    let's take a car, let's take it apart,
  • 40:53 - 40:56
    let's take the firmware out of it,
    let's throw it in a disassembler,
  • 40:56 - 40:59
    maybe get some measurements, and
    then look at what the car is actually doing
  • 40:59 - 41:05
    instead of relying on all of this
    second-hand, third-hand information.
  • 41:05 - 41:07
    So what do we need for this approach?
  • 41:07 - 41:11
    So first of all, we need a car
    that's affected.
  • 41:11 - 41:15
    You need to drive that car somehow,
    and driving a car on an open road
  • 41:15 - 41:18
    can be dangerous if you have to follow
    particular driving cycles.
  • 41:18 - 41:22
    So there's a "dyno" you can put the car on
    and then you can just drive
  • 41:22 - 41:24
    without the car physically moving.
  • 41:24 - 41:26
    The wheels are moving,
    but the car isn't moving.
  • 41:26 - 41:28
    And this is what other people have done,
  • 41:28 - 41:31
    and they have taken very interesting
    measurements out of this.
  • 41:31 - 41:34
    However, we as hackers,
    we can go one step further.
  • 41:34 - 41:38
    We can take a look at the ECU itself.
  • 41:38 - 41:45
    And not only that, we can also ask
    other people who worked with these things
  • 41:45 - 41:50
    and may be able to get
    more information about them.
  • 41:50 - 41:52
    I will talk about this in a minute.
  • 41:52 - 41:58
    So first of all, this is my car, luckily that
    car was affected by the recall.
  • 41:58 - 42:02
    So I was very happy when I got the letter
    telling me I have to go to the shop in January
  • 42:02 - 42:06
    and get a firmware update because
    firmware updates are exciting, right?
  • 42:06 - 42:10
    I love updating things,
    so updating a car seems great.
  • 42:10 - 42:14
    Yeah, it sucked that my car was putting out
    more emissions than it should have,
  • 42:14 - 42:18
    but otherwise, it gave me the chance
    to actually look at the car.
  • 42:18 - 42:25
    I mean, I could have rented a car or
    something, but that makes it much easier.
  • 42:25 - 42:28
    I also went on a dyno with my car.
    On a dyno, there are no speed limits
  • 42:28 - 42:33
    or no people to run over when you just
    have to keep a constant speed or something,
  • 42:33 - 42:35
    so it makes things much easier.
  • 42:35 - 42:40
    And I talked about ripping apart
    my car and disassembling it.
  • 42:40 - 42:44
    I didn't really want to do that,
    so what I did instead was what I always do:
  • 42:44 - 42:50
    I go to eBay and I bought an extra ECU.
  • 42:50 - 42:55
    Here it is, maybe you can show it?
  • 42:55 - 42:58
    You can go here after the talk
    and take a look at it.
  • 42:58 - 43:04
    This is the ECU. This here is the main CPU
    that also includes the flash.
  • 43:04 - 43:10
    On the other side there are the power drivers
    that drive the actual stuff in the car.
  • 43:10 - 43:12
    And then there's other
    watchdog circuits and so on.
  • 43:12 - 43:15
    Okay, thank you.
  • 43:17 - 43:23
    So, the ECU was built by Bosch,
    it's an EDC17C46,
  • 43:23 - 43:25
    that's the name of the hardware.
  • 43:25 - 43:29
    And it can easily be obtained on eBay,
    and you can put it on your desk,
  • 43:29 - 43:32
    you apply 12 volt to it and then it boots.
  • 43:32 - 43:34
    It will complain about a lot of
    sensors being missing and so on
  • 43:34 - 43:38
    but you can see it executing code.
  • 43:38 - 43:43
    And it doesn't have the very same
    firmware as my car, but it's very close.
  • 43:43 - 43:46
    The flash chip is unfortunately in the
    same pakage as the main CPU,
  • 43:46 - 43:50
    which is an Infineon TriCore chip,
  • 43:50 - 43:52
    which is apparantly only used
    in automotive equipment,
  • 43:52 - 43:56
    or at least I'm only aware of it
    being used there.
  • 43:56 - 43:59
    And I was able to dump the flash by
    attacking the hardware
  • 43:59 - 44:04
    and exploiting a bug in the hardware
    that I haven't found documented anywhere,
  • 44:04 - 44:06
    but it was not that complicated.
  • 44:06 - 44:10
    And then I had a firmware dump, I had a
    2 megabit binary,
  • 44:10 - 44:12
    and I throw it in a disassembler.
  • 44:12 - 44:17
    And what we see is interesting because
    the code is written very different
  • 44:17 - 44:19
    from other code that we know.
  • 44:19 - 44:21
    So usually, code has
    a lot of flow control
  • 44:21 - 44:24
    and usually more or less
    resembles spaghetti code.
  • 44:24 - 44:27
    This was the exact opposite.
  • 44:27 - 44:32
    It's more like someone took electrical
    schematics and put them into code.
  • 44:32 - 44:36
    There's a set of input signals,
    there's a set of processing on it,
  • 44:36 - 44:37
    and there's a set of output signals.
  • 44:37 - 44:42
    That gets updated every 10 ms or
    once per rotation depending on processoids.
  • 44:42 - 44:47
    Really interesting way of writing software
    and building this.
  • 44:47 - 44:52
    Also it's very data-driven, so a large
    part of the firmware is not code but is data.
  • 44:52 - 44:56
    All of the computations,
    they don't use constants at all,
  • 44:56 - 44:59
    they always refer to something
    from the data section.
  • 44:59 - 45:07
    As Daniel said, Bosch writes this code,
    the code is not directly visible to Volkswagen,
  • 45:07 - 45:10
    but they have visibility into this data,
    and they know what the data does.
  • 45:10 - 45:12
    They have tools to change the data.
  • 45:12 - 45:17
    Volkswagen and other companies
    can customize this,
  • 45:17 - 45:20
    really they cannot just customize it,
  • 45:20 - 45:24
    they can change the whole
    behaviour of this ECU
  • 45:24 - 45:30
    by changing just the data, not the code.
  • 45:30 - 45:34
    The ECU really is a small embedded machine
    in your car that takes care of the engine,
  • 45:34 - 45:39
    it's an Engine Electronic Control Unit,
    there are multiple names for it.
  • 45:39 - 45:42
    The most important thing that it does is
    that it takes sensor input,
  • 45:42 - 45:46
    for example the throttle, and then it
    applies control to the system.
  • 45:46 - 45:49
    For example it calculates the amount of fuel
    to inject, the amount of air to inject
  • 45:49 - 45:55
    to make the motor running at the speed
    you want it to run.
  • 45:55 - 45:57
    These days it's much more complicated.
  • 45:57 - 46:02
    One important thing the ECU does
    these days is emission control.
  • 46:02 - 46:07
    This is why we would expect to find the
    "cheat code", the code that cheats
  • 46:07 - 46:10
    that Volkswagen used to
    cheat in the whole thing,
  • 46:10 - 46:13
    we would expect to find it in the ECU.
  • 46:13 - 46:17
    Now taking a look at
    two megabyte firmware binaries
  • 46:17 - 46:20
    that doesn't have any visible strings in it,
  • 46:20 - 46:23
    it's kind of painful if you're just suscepting
    a code analysis.
  • 46:23 - 46:30
    So what I did was to do realtime logging.
  • 46:30 - 46:35
    You can actually read data from your ECU
    by plugging into this OBD-II port
  • 46:35 - 46:37
    which is next to your steering wheel.
  • 46:37 - 46:40
    And while the engine is running you can
    read out certain data.
  • 46:40 - 46:43
    Usually you can read out boring data
    like RPM, and speed,
  • 46:43 - 46:47
    and some things that the
    vendor wants you to see.
  • 46:47 - 46:49
    But there's also a mode that's
    a little bit hidden,
  • 46:49 - 46:51
    but you can get pretty easily into it,
  • 46:51 - 46:55
    where you can read by address,
    where you can just read the whole memory.
  • 46:55 - 46:59
    Well, not everything.
    Some security data is locked out.
  • 46:59 - 47:03
    But the data we are interested in,
    we can read that memory.
  • 47:03 - 47:08
    Now we still need to understand
    where the interesting stuff is.
  • 47:08 - 47:10
    We can disassemble the firmware,
    and that's all fine.
  • 47:10 - 47:13
    We can also get a little help
    from something called "A2L files".
  • 47:13 - 47:18
    The chip tuners use them extensively
    when they change the mappings,
  • 47:18 - 47:21
    they want to optimize an engine
    for a different goal,
  • 47:21 - 47:25
    for example for more power instead of
    long lifetime, or something.
  • 47:25 - 47:29
    They change things in the ECU firmware.
  • 47:29 - 47:34
    They do reverse engineer a lot,
    but they also got these files.
  • 47:34 - 47:37
    And I'm not sure how they got them,
    but they are out there.
  • 47:37 - 47:41
    And if you use the right Google terms
    you will find them.
  • 47:41 - 47:43
    They are specific to each firmware.
  • 47:43 - 47:45
    I wasn't able to find one for
    my actual firmware
  • 47:45 - 47:50
    but I was able to find one for
    firmware that is close to mine.
  • 47:50 - 47:53
    And if you look into this file,
    what you see is the symbol names,
  • 47:53 - 47:55
    it's basically a fancy map file.
  • 47:55 - 48:01
    You see the symbol names, you see a
    mostly German description of that symbol,
  • 48:01 - 48:06
    you see a real-use unit, and you see the
    adress in memory that we can read at.
  • 48:06 - 48:12
    So with the help of these files we can read
    out almost any internal state in the ECU.
  • 48:12 - 48:17
    We still have to make sense out of that,
    but at least we know where the data is
  • 48:17 - 48:20
    and what to look for.
  • 48:20 - 48:26
    It's surprising how complex an ECU is.
    For example, this thing, what does it display?
  • 48:26 - 48:32
    Everybody would say it's a function of RPM,
    it shows you how fast the engine is running.
  • 48:32 - 48:37
    Well, it's not quite the case,
    and if we look careful we see that
  • 48:37 - 48:42
    this code is post-processing
    the RPM signal.
  • 48:42 - 48:47
    It's 12 kilobyte of densely written code
    that has a lot of internal state
  • 48:47 - 48:50
    that tries to make the RPM value,
  • 48:50 - 48:53
    convert it to something
    that the customer wants to see.
  • 48:53 - 48:57
    For example, you want your idle speed
    to be stuck at 780, you don't want it to oscillate.
  • 48:57 - 49:01
    But in reality it does,
    and this code takes away all of that
  • 49:01 - 49:06
    and makes it flat 780.
  • 49:06 - 49:10
    You realize probably at this point that there
    is a lot of cheating that could go on here
  • 49:10 - 49:12
    without most people noticing.
  • 49:12 - 49:18
    You don't really believe that the speedometer
    in your car displays your actual speed, right?
  • 49:18 - 49:22
    It displays something related to speed ...
  • 49:23 - 49:25
    But let's get back to topic.
  • 49:25 - 49:29
    Selective Catalytic Reduction is the process
    of, well, if you don't have it
  • 49:29 - 49:34
    you get a lot of NOx, of nitrogen oxides
    at the end of the exhaust.
  • 49:34 - 49:37
    That's bad, you don't want that.
  • 49:37 - 49:42
    There is one way of getting rid of this,
    is to add an SCR catalyst.
  • 49:42 - 49:46
    And the SCR catalyst —
    I simplified this a lot,
  • 49:46 - 49:49
    you can find a lot more information
    about this —
  • 49:49 - 49:57
    SCR is a process that reduces the NOx
    using something called DEF,
  • 49:57 - 50:01
    or AdBlue is a term for it.
    It's some fluid that you put in there.
  • 50:04 - 50:07
    Basically it's an Urea/water solution.
  • 50:07 - 50:13
    And the AdBlue, at a high temperature,
    converts to Ammonia
  • 50:13 - 50:16
    and then it reacts with the NOx
    to nitrogen and water.
  • 50:16 - 50:22
    Which is great because that's not
    in any way harmful to us.
  • 50:22 - 50:26
    However, there's a problem here because
    the dosage of the AdBlue needs to be correct
  • 50:26 - 50:29
    and it's very hard to do.
  • 50:29 - 50:34
    If we dose too little of that
    the conversion is not perfect
  • 50:34 - 50:36
    and we will still get
    a lot of NOx at the output.
  • 50:36 - 50:38
    Which is better than not doing anything.
  • 50:38 - 50:42
    It's not perfect,
    but it's not more harmful than before.
  • 50:42 - 50:45
    However, if you put in
    too much of the AdBlue
  • 50:45 - 50:50
    what you get at the output is ammonia,
    and you really don't want that.
  • 50:50 - 50:55
    So the primary goal of emission control
    is, if you have the SCR system,
  • 50:55 - 50:59
    is to eliminate as much
    as possible of the NOx
  • 50:59 - 51:03
    and minimize the amount of ammonia
    that comes out of the exhaust pipe.
  • 51:03 - 51:07
    Ammonia is NH3.
  • 51:07 - 51:11
    Calculating the right dosage works
    with a model again.
  • 51:11 - 51:13
    They modeled everything that happens
    in the exhaust process,
  • 51:13 - 51:17
    they have a model of the catalyst,
    they have a model of the internal state,
  • 51:17 - 51:23
    they do have a number of sensors and
    outputs from the other models
  • 51:23 - 51:25
    that tell them a lot of values.
  • 51:25 - 51:30
    And the model uses this with a lot of
    internal storage, internal state.
  • 51:30 - 51:35
    And the model then calculates
    the amount of AdBlue to dose
  • 51:35 - 51:43
    to convert as much NOx as possible
    without leaking any ammonia.
  • 51:43 - 51:47
    The way things usually work in an ECU is,
    there's one system that controls things
  • 51:47 - 51:50
    and there's another system
    that monitors things.
  • 51:50 - 51:54
    It's independent from the main system,
    it tries to be as independent as possible.
  • 51:54 - 51:58
    It's still running on the same hardware
    but it's not sharing a lot of code.
  • 51:58 - 52:04
    There is an efficiency monitoring scheme that,
    if the conversion is not good enough anymore,
  • 52:04 - 52:08
    it will flag this as an OBD-II error
  • 52:08 - 52:10
    and you will see your
    "check engine" light going on,
  • 52:10 - 52:14
    and then you go to the shop, and the shop
    will diagnose your car and will fix this,
  • 52:14 - 52:19
    for example if your catalyst is broken.
  • 52:19 - 52:22
    Based on the test results we would have
    expected this efficiency monitoring
  • 52:22 - 52:27
    to actually flag the inefficiencies.
    But it didn't.
  • 52:27 - 52:30
    It turns out the main model
    doesn't always work.
  • 52:30 - 52:34
    There are some operating conditions
    where the main model is not sufficient,
  • 52:34 - 52:38
    it has certain bounds where it works,
    and outside of these conditions —
  • 52:38 - 52:45
    for example if the engine is too hot or if
    the exhaust mass is too large —
  • 52:45 - 52:47
    the model doesn't produce
    meaningful results.
  • 52:47 - 52:52
    It may overdose the AdBlue,
    and we don't want that.
  • 52:52 - 52:55
    There's an alternative model
    which is much, much simpler,
  • 52:55 - 52:58
    and takes only a few sensory inputs,
  • 52:58 - 53:02
    and doesn't rely on as many variables
    to be perfect.
  • 53:02 - 53:05
    It will still calculate an AdBlue dosage.
  • 53:05 - 53:10
    However, the main goal of this alternative
    model is to make the exhaust processing work
  • 53:10 - 53:17
    in all situations without ever
    overdosing the NH3.
  • 53:17 - 53:23
    They're calculating both of these models and
    then they are selecting one of the models.
  • 53:23 - 53:26
    The output of the selection then controls
    the AdBlue dosage,
  • 53:26 - 53:29
    the pump that injects the AdBlue
    into the exhaust.
  • 53:29 - 53:34
    There's code that controls
    which of the models to use.
  • 53:34 - 53:39
    There's also a statistics model that counts
    how often each mode is selected.
  • 53:39 - 53:43
    Again, all of this model selection
    depends on the data.
  • 53:43 - 53:46
    It's code that does the selection
    but it depends on a lot of data,
  • 53:46 - 53:49
    there are parameters tought of this.
  • 53:49 - 53:52
    Let's take a look at the selection criteria
    for this alternative model.
  • 53:52 - 53:55
    We see that a lot of these parameters
    are dummy variables,
  • 53:55 - 53:57
    things that can never happen.
  • 53:57 - 54:02
    For example, the athmospheric pressure
    can't be negative, that can never happen.
  • 54:02 - 54:06
    Or the air temperature ...
    I hope it's never larger than that,
  • 54:06 - 54:09
    or smaller than 0.1K, right?
  • 54:09 - 54:12
    However, one thing stuck out,
  • 54:12 - 54:18
    and that was a check if the engine condition
    is larger than negative temperature.
  • 54:18 - 54:20
    Which does not exist,
    the temperature is always positive.
  • 54:20 - 54:23
    That last one is always true,
  • 54:23 - 54:28
    so the model that would be selected would
    always be the alternative model.
  • 54:28 - 54:30
    That sounded weird and
    I was looking at the firmware.
  • 54:30 - 54:35
    Maybe I understood it incorrectly,
    or maybe I looked at the wrong place
  • 54:35 - 54:38
    when looking at these parameters?
  • 54:38 - 54:42
    But if we look at the intermediate results
    there is a bit at a certain location
  • 54:42 - 54:48
    that tells us which model was selected,
    and that bit is indeed always set.
  • 54:48 - 54:51
    That is weird, it sounds fishy.
  • 54:51 - 54:57
    Let's take a look at the statistics,
    the car counts what model you're in.
  • 54:57 - 55:00
    20% of the cases
    my car does not do dosing at all.
  • 55:00 - 55:03
    So I drove some time and then
    looked at the values.
  • 55:03 - 55:06
    And the 20% where it doesn't do anything
    is mostly the warm-up cycle.
  • 55:06 - 55:09
    But everytime it does something,
    it's actually the alternative model
  • 55:09 - 55:15
    which we know does underdose NH3
    because it doesn't want to leak ammonia.
  • 55:15 - 55:19
    And that makes sense because my car
    uses much less than expected of the AdBlue.
  • 55:19 - 55:26
    The expected value is roughly 2.5 liters
    per 1000 kilometers, of the AdBlue.
  • 55:26 - 55:29
    In my case it only used 0.6 liters
    per 1000 kilometers.
  • 55:29 - 55:32
    Which is great for me because I don't have
    to refill this tank very often.
  • 55:32 - 55:37
    In fact, I never had to do it,
    the shop always does it when I'm there.
  • 55:37 - 55:42
    But this is fishy,
    and let's take a look at this.
  • 55:42 - 55:46
    What we also see is that sometimes
    the regular model is active,
  • 55:46 - 55:48
    so there must be something more.
  • 55:48 - 55:53
    If we look at the selection criteria we find
    that there's an additional term there
  • 55:53 - 55:55
    that I haven't found before.
  • 55:55 - 55:57
    There's an additional condition
    that has to be true
  • 55:57 - 56:02
    in order to go to the alternative model
    that underdoses.
  • 56:02 - 56:05
    We look at the particular conditions
    and we find a lot of stuff
  • 56:05 - 56:08
    that is related to diagnostics,
    things they can do in the shop.
  • 56:08 - 56:10
    So that's definitely not
    happening on the street.
  • 56:10 - 56:13
    But one of the criteria,
    that really was weird
  • 56:13 - 56:19
    because it looks if the engine and fuel
    temperature is larger than 50°C,
  • 56:19 - 56:24
    it looks at the athmospheric pressure
    and if it's lower than 750m,
  • 56:24 - 56:26
    that must be satisfied.
  • 56:26 - 56:30
    If all of these conditions are satisfied
    it will move back to the main model
  • 56:30 - 56:34
    that does the proper exhaust processing.
    And one thing was really weird.
  • 56:34 - 56:36
    There were seven curves,
    not all of them used,
  • 56:36 - 56:39
    that define an upper and a lower bound
  • 56:39 - 56:43
    on the distance driven
    after a certain amount of time.
  • 56:43 - 56:46
    This is how it looks in disassembly.
    I'm not sure if you can read this.
  • 56:46 - 56:53
    But the comments are from this A2L file
    and they call it "acoustic function".
  • 56:53 - 56:55
    I'm not sure if this has anything
    to do with acoustics.
  • 56:55 - 57:01
    I tried to find all the usages, and there
    was nothing related to sound or anything.
  • 57:01 - 57:04
    I think it's just a name for it.
  • 57:04 - 57:10
    Now if we go and take a look at these
    upper and lower bounds, we see this:
  • 57:10 - 57:17
    These are three curves that are defined,
    each of them has an upper and a lower bound.
  • 57:17 - 57:19
    It's basically the distance
  • 57:19 - 57:23
    that you need to have driven
    after a certain amount of time.
  • 57:23 - 57:27
    And if you ever fall out of one of these curves
    we're switching back to the alternative model
  • 57:27 - 57:31
    that underdoses NH3
    and causes the inefficiencies.
  • 57:31 - 57:34
    This is weird,
    and I didn't really know what this is.
  • 57:34 - 57:39
    Let's get back to something
    completely different, which is the NEDC.
  • 57:39 - 57:43
    We've seen this slide before,
    the NEDC mandates you how to drive.
  • 57:43 - 57:46
    One thing is also interesting:
    It mandates you that ...
  • 57:46 - 57:50
    You want this test at "cold-start",
    and what's better for a cold start
  • 57:50 - 57:55
    than heating the car to 20°C
    and keep it that warm until you start.
  • 57:55 - 58:03
    That's the "cold-start", that's the
    cold start as defined in the law: 20°C.
  • 58:03 - 58:10
    This is speed over time, so to get
    distance over time we need to integrate this.
  • 58:10 - 58:13
    And we get this graph.
  • 58:13 - 58:17
    And if we overlay what we found in the
    firmware we get this.
  • 58:17 - 58:27
    audience laughs and applauds
  • 58:27 - 58:32
    What we can see here is that if you drive
    the driving cycle correctly
  • 58:32 - 58:36
    you will exactly be in the bounds
    of one of these curves.
  • 58:36 - 58:37
    And you can do this on the street,
    you can do this everywhere.
  • 58:37 - 58:43
    As long as you satisfy the distance over
    time and your car is warm enough
  • 58:43 - 58:47
    it will detect this in some way.
  • 58:47 - 58:50
    Well, you can drive this on a street,
    but it's really dangerous
  • 58:50 - 58:53
    because you have to follow
    a given speed pattern.
  • 58:53 - 58:56
    So i did this on a dyno,
    I put my laptop in there,
  • 58:56 - 58:59
    I logged the data in real-time
    and then displayed it.
  • 58:59 - 59:03
    Basically, this is what it looks like.
    In the middle you see a bar.
  • 59:03 - 59:06
    You have to drive and keep this
    middle bar in the middle,
  • 59:06 - 59:11
    which means you are well within this upper
    and lower bound, and not try to escape it.
  • 59:11 - 59:17
    And as long as you do, one of the
    other green boxes will tell you
  • 59:17 - 59:22
    that the car is still detecting this
    as being in this cycle.
  • 59:22 - 59:30
    Then what I did in the end, I stayed in the
    cycle for a while and I logged all the data.
  • 59:30 - 59:32
    At the end I would just hit
    a constant speed
  • 59:32 - 59:36
    which would eventually get me
    out of the conditions.
  • 59:36 - 59:40
    This is the log that I made.
  • 59:40 - 59:42
    On the first graph you see
    the vehicle speed,
  • 59:42 - 59:45
    you see how I tried to follow the NEDC
    more or less successfully.
  • 59:45 - 59:50
    On the second graph you see
    the distance over time,
  • 59:50 - 59:55
    you see that I stay within the bounds
    enforced by the firmware.
  • 59:55 - 59:57
    You an also see on the third graph—
  • 59:57 - 59:59
    this is the actual signal at the AdBlue pump—
  • 59:59 - 60:02
    that it actually doses
    quite a lot of AdBlue.
  • 60:02 - 60:06
    It calculates the amount of AdBlue to dose
    based on the model output
  • 60:06 - 60:09
    which you see in graph 5 and 6.
  • 60:09 - 60:15
    By the way, graph 4 is the actual NOx
    emitted by the engine based on their model.
  • 60:15 - 60:21
    That's the RML, their mission model then
    calculates the amout of the dosing to happen.
  • 60:21 - 60:26
    As we see, as long as we stay within the
    limits enforced that match the NEDC
  • 60:26 - 60:30
    everthing is good
    and a lot of AdBlue is dosed.
  • 60:30 - 60:33
    And then, in the end, I drove too fast.
  • 60:33 - 60:36
    And you can see in the second graph
    that I crossed the upper bar,
  • 60:36 - 60:38
    the blue line goes
    over the red line, right?
  • 60:38 - 60:41
    You can see that the car
    immediately detects this,
  • 60:41 - 60:45
    that I'm no longer in the driving cycle.
  • 60:45 - 60:52
    The interesting part you see here is the
    effect on the AdBlue dosing, which is here.
  • 60:52 - 60:58
    It immediately stops doing the dosing.
    And you can see in the model below
  • 60:58 - 61:02
    the model still calculates that
    AdBlue should be dosed.
  • 61:02 - 61:05
    But after they have the max,
    after they switch the model
  • 61:05 - 61:09
    and switch to the alternative model,
    the alternative model just outputs zeroes,
  • 61:09 - 61:12
    it doesn't dose anything.
  • 61:12 - 61:14
    This shows that when we're
    following the cycle
  • 61:14 - 61:18
    everything is fine,
    enough Urea is dosed,
  • 61:18 - 61:25
    and then once we leave the cycle,
    there's a severe reduction in the dosing.
  • 61:25 - 61:27
    And it's all based on
    detecting this driving cycle.
  • 61:27 - 61:29
    Two more slides.
    A: Two more slides.
  • 61:29 - 61:32
    F: Two more slides.
    A: Two more slides, here we go!
  • 61:32 - 61:38
    audience laughs and applauds
  • 61:38 - 61:41
    I have to be clear
    on the limitations here.
  • 61:41 - 61:44
    All of this was looking at
    disassembled code and so on,
  • 61:44 - 61:48
    I could have done something wrong here,
    so take this with a grain of salt.
  • 61:48 - 61:51
    We couldn't do NOx measurements
    on the dyno, unfortunately.
  • 61:51 - 61:56
    And I have to stress: We looked at one
    particular car that uses SCR processing,
  • 61:56 - 61:58
    not all of the affected cars are doing this,
  • 61:58 - 62:00
    there are some other
    mechanisms in the other cars.
  • 62:00 - 62:03
    And I looked at a car
    for the German market,
  • 62:03 - 62:06
    at least the curves have to be different
    for the other markets.
  • 62:06 - 62:11
    Let's reenumerate the results—
    and this is my last slide.
  • 62:11 - 62:17
    Most of the time, on a regular car,
    a nonstandard treatment mode is active
  • 62:17 - 62:21
    that is not as efficient
    as the real mode that is implemented.
  • 62:21 - 62:23
    We can show the code
    that is responsible for this:
  • 62:23 - 62:26
    This is this negative temperature limit
    that they look at
  • 62:26 - 62:30
    which doesn't make any sense and
    always selects the alternative mode.
  • 62:30 - 62:33
    And we can see, in the logs,
    the state selection bit,
  • 62:33 - 62:38
    we can see the counters that count
    that the alternative model is active.
  • 62:38 - 62:42
    We can see that there's an AdBlue
    underdosing in this state
  • 62:42 - 62:45
    which causes the inefficient
    NOx conversions,
  • 62:45 - 62:50
    that's what we've seen before when
    people put the car on the dyno.
  • 62:50 - 62:53
    We know that the efficiency checks
    are only enabled in the main mode
  • 62:53 - 62:57
    and the car does exceed the limits.
  • 62:57 - 63:03
    This shows how the alternate model is
    selected where it doses too little AdBlue
  • 63:03 - 63:07
    and causes the inefficient conversion.
  • 63:07 - 63:10
    We can see that if we
    follow the driving cylce,
  • 63:10 - 63:12
    the minimum temperature and
    the distance over time,
  • 63:12 - 63:15
    we will see that it switches
    to the main model
  • 63:15 - 63:18
    that should have been active
    all the time.
  • 63:18 - 63:20
    We can show the code
    that's responsible for that,
  • 63:20 - 63:24
    the driving cycle detection that uses
    the upper bound and the lower bound.
  • 63:24 - 63:29
    We can extract the exact limits, overlay
    the NEDC data and see that there's a match.
  • 63:29 - 63:34
    We can, if we do this actually on a dyno,
    we can see how it switches the SCR state.
  • 63:34 - 63:37
    We can show the effect on the DEF dosing,
    on the AdBlue dosing.
  • 63:37 - 63:41
    As you've seen on the slide before,
    as soon as we switch out of the driving cycle
  • 63:41 - 63:48
    into the street mode,
    the dosing will get close to zero.
  • 63:48 - 63:51
    Once you're back in the main model
    all the efficiency checks are enabled,
  • 63:51 - 63:55
    for example to take better Urea.
  • 63:55 - 63:57
    So the efficiency checks are there,
    but they are not active
  • 63:57 - 64:01
    because the car is forced to run
    in the alternative model.
  • 64:01 - 64:05
    These results are all in line
    with the Volkswagen press releases.
  • 64:05 - 64:08
    These are basically just the details
    as extracted from the firmware
  • 64:08 - 64:10
    to show you the background.
  • 64:10 - 64:12
    Thank you.
  • 64:12 - 64:16
    audience applauds
  • 64:16 - 64:20
    A: Wow!
    Thank you very much, Daniel and Felix.
  • 64:20 - 64:36
    audience applauds
  • 64:38 - 64:40
    I'm really sorry,
    but we have to clear the stage.
  • 64:40 - 64:43
    There is not going to be time
    for the Q&A session.
  • 64:43 - 64:47
    Do that down there. I'm sure that a few
    people just come down,
  • 64:47 - 64:50
    grab you and ask questions.
    Unfortunately, we can't do that.
  • 64:50 - 64:54
    I have to close it in exactly four seconds
    over here because we have to go off the stream.
  • 64:54 - 64:58
    Thank you very much Felix,
    thank you very much Daniel.
  • 64:58 - 65:03

    F: Thank you.
  • 65:03 - 65:06
    postroll music
  • 65:06 - 65:11
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Title:
Daniel Lange (DLange), Felix "tmbinc" Domke: The exhaust emissions scandal („Dieselgate“)
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Video Language:
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Duration:
01:05:11

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