Return to Video

36C3 - Creating Resilient and Sustainable Mobile Phones

  • 0:00 - 0:20
    Preroll 36C3 Music
  • 0:20 - 0:28
    Herald: Good evening and welcome to day
    two of the Congress. Our next speaker,
  • 0:28 - 0:37
    Paul Gardner-Stephen is fighting for a
    free, secure and resilient communications.
  • 0:37 - 0:43
    He's known as the leader of the cerebral
    projects, building cell phone mesh
  • 0:43 - 0:50
    networks and also as the creator of the
    mega 65 computer, that you can see right
  • 0:50 - 1:01
    here. Some Applause And. So he's going
    to tell us about his next project right
  • 1:01 - 1:08
    now and also explore some issues that we
    face about, building networks and keeping
  • 1:08 - 1:14
    them secure and resilient. So please
    welcome Paul Gardner-Stephen "Creating
  • 1:14 - 1:18
    Resilient and Sustainable mobile networks".
    A round of applause.
  • 1:18 - 1:21
    applause
  • 1:21 - 1:24
    Paul Gardner-Stephen: OK. Thanks for coming
    along, everyone. Tonight is getting a
  • 1:24 - 1:29
    little bit late in the night , Sidney, for
    me it is past my normal bedtime, so
  • 1:29 - 1:33
    apologies if I yawn. It's not that I'm
    bored or disengaged. It's just I flew in
  • 1:33 - 1:38
    from Australia yesterday and still haven't
    really had enough sleep. But we should be
  • 1:38 - 1:46
    fine. So cool. So what we can see here we
    have the mega 65 prototype and we have a
  • 1:46 - 1:52
    prototype of the megaphone and I'll talk
    about those two in a minute. So the entire
  • 1:52 - 1:57
    presentation is actually going to be
    delivered with the technology that we're
  • 1:57 - 2:01
    creating. So a bit of a dog food eating
    session for this kind of thing is a bit of
  • 2:01 - 2:06
    proof by example that we can actually do
    useful things with 8-bit systems because a
  • 2:06 - 2:09
    whole pile of advantages when it comes to
    the security and digital sovereignty with
  • 2:09 - 2:16
    that. So we'll switch the screen to the
    screen. Super excellent. So we can have a
  • 2:16 - 2:20
    look and make sure I've got the correct
    disk in there. Yes, we do. We will drop to
  • 2:20 - 2:38
    see 64 mode. And we'll load the wrong one.
    For sure, we don't have to wait the long
  • 2:38 - 2:43
    time if I press and hold down the caps
    lock key. The CPU runs at the full speed
  • 2:43 - 2:51
    instead of normal speed. And so now it
    will light up. Its Commodore 64 software,
  • 2:51 - 2:57
    right. So of course it has to be cracked.
    Even if I had to supply the originals to
  • 2:57 - 3:02
    the cracking crew because in 2019. So
    we'll let that go for the year. The
  • 3:02 - 3:08
    graphic change a little bit as we go along
    and let the grease roll out there. So all
  • 3:08 - 3:13
    of this has been created in FPGA. So we
    have complete sovereignty in that sense
  • 3:13 - 3:17
    over the architecture so that we can
    really start trying to, you know, to make
  • 3:17 - 3:22
    systems that we have full control over
    from that full hardware layer and that are
  • 3:22 - 3:27
    simple enough that we don't need to have a
    huge, massive team of people to actually
  • 3:27 - 3:30
    work on these things. A lot of what we are
    talking about here has been created in
  • 3:30 - 3:37
    maybe three or four person years over the
    last few years. So it is quite possible to
  • 3:37 - 3:41
    do a lot with these systems without
    needing to have the huge resources of a
  • 3:41 - 3:51
    multinational company or something, which
    is kind of key. Okay, so we'll do. Mega.
  • 3:51 - 4:03
    Oh. 36C3. Okay. I'll press a five for
    presentation mode, which really just hides
  • 4:03 - 4:09
    the cursor. And then I can use my clicker.
    So we have to switch, the camera here for
  • 4:09 - 4:16
    a moment applause we switch the
    camera. So it's a genuine homemade
  • 4:16 - 4:20
    Commodore 64 compatible joystick. And it
    makes the most satisfying click noise when
  • 4:20 - 4:30
    we use it. So if we switch back to the
    slides, that will be great. But they are
  • 4:30 - 4:36
    super, cool. So I am indeed going to be
    talking about creating resilient and
  • 4:36 - 4:39
    sustainable mobile phones and hopefully
    that link when we already have the the
  • 4:39 - 4:46
    artifact there of the megaphone prototype,
    that will become clearer as we go through.
  • 4:46 - 4:51
    So really, the last talk, was it kind of
    interesting talking about this whole a
  • 4:51 - 4:54
    different angle, this whole thing, that
    communications has actually become really
  • 4:54 - 5:00
    weaponized over the last decade or two in
    particular that, you know, we're seeing
  • 5:00 - 5:03
    that, you know, where it used to be
    natural disasters, that are the main
  • 5:03 - 5:07
    problem, that now there is this whole
    problem of manmade disaster, which is a
  • 5:07 - 5:12
    major problem for us. And so we see
    Internet shut communication shutdowns. We
  • 5:12 - 5:16
    have surveillance happening in different
    places where it really ought not be
  • 5:16 - 5:20
    happening. You know, this state level
    actors that are very well resourced, able
  • 5:20 - 5:24
    to find zero day exploits. And the attack
    surface, as we know in modern
  • 5:24 - 5:31
    communications devices is simply huge. And
    so this is this is very asymmetric in the
  • 5:31 - 5:35
    power equation between, you know, the
    forces that seek to oppress people and,
  • 5:35 - 5:38
    you know, the vulnerable people at the
    coalface who are just trying to get on
  • 5:38 - 5:43
    with their lives and believe good decent
    lives and need communications to help
  • 5:43 - 5:47
    protect themselves and enable that to
    happen. And that we're seeing that the
  • 5:47 - 5:53
    value of communications is so well
    understood by these pressing forces that
  • 5:53 - 5:56
    it really has become quite a you know,
    it's quite high up their list of things to
  • 5:56 - 6:00
    do. You know, you don't send the army in
    first to quiet people down. You cut off
  • 6:00 - 6:07
    their Internet as the first thing. So this
    is part of the backdrop of what we see.
  • 6:07 - 6:12
    And so what I would say is that the
    digital summer has actually finished.
  • 6:12 - 6:18
    We're now in the digital autumn. We can
    see in that, you know, with the with farms
  • 6:18 - 6:21
    and trees and things that, you know,
    there's still plenty of fruit to see in
  • 6:21 - 6:26
    the early autumn. Right? And there's lots
    on the ground. It feels like this time of
  • 6:26 - 6:31
    plenty will continue. And, you know, we
    can all eat as we need that there is
  • 6:31 - 6:36
    enough more or less to go around. But the
    risk that we have is from this parable of
  • 6:36 - 6:40
    the grasshopper and the yet. Who here
    knows the parable of the grasshopper and
  • 6:40 - 6:43
    the ant? Hands right up. Is it really hard
    for me to see up here? Okay. We'll stop
  • 6:43 - 6:49
    and say who doesn't know? Okay, cool. So I
    thought actually it was originally a
  • 6:49 - 6:53
    German kind of problem. This is the story
    of where the grashoper, you know, the
  • 6:53 - 6:57
    grasshopper is kind of lounging around and
    enjoying the summer. While ant aren't busy
  • 6:57 - 7:01
    carrying all the seeds back into the nest.
    And the ant's telling the grasshopper,
  • 7:01 - 7:03
    hey, you need to get some food and stuff
    and put away for the winter so that you
  • 7:03 - 7:08
    can actually survive the winter. And the
    grasshopper is basically in denial about
  • 7:08 - 7:12
    the fact that, you know, the season will
    change. And then, of course, the season
  • 7:12 - 7:15
    changes. It snows and gets cold. And then
    the grasshopper kind of goes knocking on
  • 7:15 - 7:18
    the door of the antholl, not the lake,
    kind of really have doors, but that's
  • 7:18 - 7:22
    fine. It's like, oh, I'm starving and cold
    out here. And and ant is kind of like,
  • 7:22 - 7:24
    well, I've told you so kind of thing. And
    I think actually in the end, it kind of
  • 7:24 - 7:28
    lets it into we that want to scare
    children too much with their stories. And
  • 7:28 - 7:34
    so this is actually the challenge that we
    have that we, I love every time I come to
  • 7:34 - 7:39
    these events or the creativity that we
    see. You know, we're enjoying the digital
  • 7:39 - 7:42
    summer and all of the things that is
    letting us create and, you know, the great
  • 7:42 - 7:45
    open source software and tools and
    everything that's going on, it's
  • 7:45 - 7:51
    absolutely fantastic. And we want that to
    be to continue indefinitely. But we know
  • 7:51 - 7:55
    that, as we said, that, you know, the you
    know, the chilling winds are beginning to
  • 7:55 - 8:01
    to come that tell us that unless we
    actually do something about it, that this
  • 8:01 - 8:06
    isn't actually going to continue
    indefinitely. And just a statement that I
  • 8:06 - 8:09
    really want to make here is this last
    point that I've got. The freedoms of the
  • 8:09 - 8:14
    second half of the 20th century, post-
    World War 2. If you look at history, they
  • 8:14 - 8:23
    are an aberration. To my knowledge, never
    before and I fear perhaps never again will
  • 8:23 - 8:28
    we have that degree of personal liberty,
    focus on, you know, individual freedom and
  • 8:28 - 8:32
    agency and everything that was in this
    post-World War era and is now starting to
  • 8:32 - 8:39
    unwind and starting to unwind back to the
    normal totally asymmetric, you know. Well,
  • 8:39 - 8:44
    to say sharing of power is the wrong word.
    It's the greedy collection of power and
  • 8:44 - 8:49
    depravation of the mass population from
    having any thing resembling a fair share
  • 8:49 - 8:55
    of what's going on. And so we have to act
    if we want for the, you know, the digital
  • 8:55 - 8:59
    summer to continue or at worst for the
    digital winter to be as short and shallow
  • 8:59 - 9:07
    as we can have it, so that the you know,
    we can come back to a new digital summer.
  • 9:07 - 9:13
    Because once we hit the digital winter, it
    will actually be too late. Because if we
  • 9:13 - 9:16
    push this analogy, you know that the
    digital winter is the time when there is
  • 9:16 - 9:22
    no food on the train or it isn't any
    longer possible or at least practical to
  • 9:22 - 9:28
    create new technologies to enable us to,
    you know, to feed our digital needs. And
  • 9:28 - 9:32
    we can't plant any new crop, so to speak,
    until the digital spring comes again after
  • 9:32 - 9:37
    that. And so the opportunity, like with
    the grasshopper is now before the winter
  • 9:37 - 9:43
    comes to say, right, what do we need to
    have in our store of technology, the store
  • 9:43 - 9:46
    of protocols, all of these different
    things, so that when the digital winter
  • 9:46 - 9:52
    comes, we don't starve. And fortunately,
    you know, we can actually change the
  • 9:52 - 9:57
    length of the digital winter. We can
    empower people so that, you know, the
  • 9:57 - 10:03
    bitter cold of the digital winter is
    moderated and the spring can come as soon
  • 10:03 - 10:09
    as it can. And the trouble that we have
    with this, we actually don't know when the
  • 10:09 - 10:13
    digital winter will come exactly. We see
    these challenges around in the way that
  • 10:13 - 10:19
    different governments and non-state actors
    as well, you know, working you in
  • 10:19 - 10:24
    propaganda and all all of these things
    that are becoming sadly more intense and
  • 10:24 - 10:29
    acute around us. We don't know when that
    tipping point will happen. But given the
  • 10:29 - 10:32
    complexity of supply chains and things
    that are necessary in this, I think Bunny
  • 10:32 - 10:37
    was talking about that earlier today,
    that this is actually quite easy for it to
  • 10:37 - 10:43
    actually quite quickly flip into the
    digital winter mode. And then as with the
  • 10:43 - 10:46
    real winter, at the very beginning of
    winter, there might still be enough to
  • 10:46 - 10:50
    eat, but it gets harder and harder very
    rapidly. And, you know, if the winter gets
  • 10:50 - 10:55
    too deep, then it's just not going to be
    possible to continue with these things.
  • 10:55 - 11:01
    And so we've tried to think about what's
    needed to actually overcome this. What do
  • 11:01 - 11:05
    we need focusing on mobile communications
    as a key piece of that? And there's a
  • 11:05 - 11:10
    reason for that in that it's the way that
    we can communicate, organize, you know,
  • 11:10 - 11:15
    collectively protect communities against
    the threats that come in. If we look at
  • 11:15 - 11:19
    things like that great Haiti earthquake
    just back in 2010, the breakdown of
  • 11:19 - 11:23
    communications and law and order meant
    that they were quite horrible things going
  • 11:23 - 11:28
    on. We don't know about three days,
    actually, of the earthquake there. So
  • 11:28 - 11:33
    there were militias that were basically
    robbing medical teams, trying to transport
  • 11:33 - 11:37
    people between different hospitals. And
    there were much nastier things with, you
  • 11:37 - 11:40
    know, gangs of people going around
    from village to village, basically doing
  • 11:40 - 11:45
    whatever they want to, whoever they want.
    It was really not cool. And so we want to
  • 11:45 - 11:52
    avoid that kind of problem that comes, when
    people are not able to to collectively
  • 11:52 - 11:57
    work together effectively as a community.
    And so the GPO four freedoms that we know
  • 11:57 - 12:01
    from software, they're a great starting
    point. But I think actually we've seen
  • 12:01 - 12:05
    enough things like with TiVoization and
    all these sorts of other challenges, that
  • 12:05 - 12:10
    this is not sufficient, when it comes to
    hardware. And there's actually some even
  • 12:10 - 12:15
    more complicated things. You start talking
    about mobile phone kind of hardware, as to
  • 12:15 - 12:20
    how we can do that, which I'll talk about
    in a moment. But these are a starting
  • 12:20 - 12:24
    point of what I've come up with as things
    that I see as being necessary. There's
  • 12:24 - 12:28
    ample room for improvement. And in fact,
    with any of what we're trying to do in
  • 12:28 - 12:33
    this space, we need folks to come along
    and help us. We can't do it alone. We need
  • 12:33 - 12:39
    to work together so that we can help
    one another when the digital winter comes.
  • 12:39 - 12:45
    So the first freedom is simply the freedom
    from energy infrastructure. We know
  • 12:45 - 12:48
    critical infrastructure is disturbingly
    vulnerable, that the security of it is
  • 12:48 - 12:52
    quite bad. But also you have these like
    large centralized places that produce the
  • 12:52 - 12:57
    energy that we need. And, you know, we see
    power cut offs in Venezuela and all of
  • 12:57 - 12:58
    these sorts of
    things, regardless
  • 12:58 - 12:59
    of who's actually doing it, whether
    it's sabotage or whether
  • 12:59 - 13:02
    it was purposeful from the
    government, I don't know. It actually
  • 13:02 - 13:06
    doesn't matter. The fact is, it happens.
    But also, of course, a natural disaster.
  • 13:06 - 13:10
    Power goes out. Fortunately, this is
    actually one of the easiest things to
  • 13:10 - 13:15
    solve. We just need to include some kind
    of alternative energy supply into the kind
  • 13:15 - 13:19
    of devices that we're creating. So that
    could be solar panel on the back. Or you
  • 13:19 - 13:23
    could have the you know, the Faraday, you
    know, you shake it like a martini kind of
  • 13:23 - 13:27
    thing to generate power or both, whatever
    you feel like. Or if you can find a good
  • 13:27 - 13:31
    supply of NASA radio, I hope then with
    generators, that would also be fantastic.
  • 13:31 - 13:35
    And we'll keep you warm through the winter
    as well. But, you know, if anyone has a
  • 13:35 - 13:41
    supply of those, let me know. I'd love to
    hear. So then the second freedom is
  • 13:41 - 13:44
    actually quite similar to the first. It's
    the realization that we need energy to
  • 13:44 - 13:49
    communicate in communications, to organize
    ourselves and be effective. And again, the
  • 13:49 - 13:54
    communications infrastructure is in many
    ways that she even more fragile than the
  • 13:54 - 13:58
    energy production. Infrastructure is much
    easier to guard a couple of power stations
  • 13:58 - 14:02
    in a country than it is to guard every
    phone tower and all of the interconnecting
  • 14:02 - 14:06
    links and all these sorts of things
    between them. As we said, communications
  • 14:06 - 14:12
    depravation is already being weaponized
    against the vulnerable around us. Again,
  • 14:12 - 14:14
    fortunate there's been a whole pile of
    work in the space of the previous work
  • 14:14 - 14:20
    I've done with the serval mesh and
    freifunk. And a whole bunch of groups
  • 14:20 - 14:24
    working on a whole bunch of different
    things in this kind of space for peer to
  • 14:24 - 14:29
    peer secure, authenticated communications.
    So, yes, there's work to be done, but this
  • 14:29 - 14:32
    is an area where there's actually already
    like the energy one. There's been quite a
  • 14:32 - 14:40
    lot of work done that makes that quite
    feasible to work on. So then we start
  • 14:40 - 14:44
    going into some of the the harder ones, we
    need to make sure that we are not
  • 14:44 - 14:50
    dependent on, you know, the major vendors
    of our devices, when it comes to the
  • 14:50 - 14:54
    security of our devices. So this starts
    with simple things like that the GPL
  • 14:54 - 14:59
    provides. So, you know, full source code
    has to be available. But more than that,
  • 14:59 - 15:05
    we actually have to make sure that we can
    actually exercise those rights in
  • 15:05 - 15:09
    practice. So it needs to be simple enough
    that we can actually, you know, go right.
  • 15:09 - 15:13
    Okay. There's a security vulnerability in
    such and such like you now. Yes. You were
  • 15:13 - 15:17
    talking about earlier today with some of
    the bluetooth things. And then to actually
  • 15:17 - 15:22
    be out to patch it yourself, it's quite
    obvious that this is not the case for
  • 15:22 - 15:26
    whether it's firmware or whether it's the
    regular operating system on modern mobile
  • 15:26 - 15:31
    phones. So who here is actually built
    Android from source themselves? Excellent.
  • 15:31 - 15:37
    Expected to see a few folks here. Who has
    tried and gave up in disgust. Right. More
  • 15:37 - 15:42
    hands? Yes. I myself was all like, you
    know, I work on the civil project and we
  • 15:42 - 15:45
    do a whole pile of things and basically
    just know after spending a number of hours
  • 15:45 - 15:48
    on, it just went like, you know, this is
    actually this is a lot of work for
  • 15:48 - 15:53
    something that ought to be straightforward
    if we want to be out to make rapid
  • 15:53 - 15:58
    progress. And so we want to have systems
    that are simple enough, we can patch. But
  • 15:58 - 16:01
    in fact, there's another really key
    advantage, the simplicity that I'll
  • 16:01 - 16:06
    probably come over a few times in this
    talk, and that is that simplicity reduces
  • 16:06 - 16:11
    the attack surface. If we are in an
    asymmetric power environment, where there
  • 16:11 - 16:16
    are whether they are state or non-state
    actors seeking to deprive vulnerable
  • 16:16 - 16:20
    people of communications, they're going to
    have potentially the ability to put whole
  • 16:20 - 16:24
    teams looking for vulnerabilities in
    software. In contrast, we might be lucky
  • 16:24 - 16:28
    to have someone who's going to try and
    madly find when things are being exploited
  • 16:28 - 16:35
    and to patch them. So we need to have ways
    around this kind of thing. And to my mind,
  • 16:35 - 16:38
    reducing the attack surface is the only
    way that we can actually have any real
  • 16:38 - 16:48
    hope of, you know, being at a keep up in
    that arms race of security. So Freedom #4
  • 16:48 - 16:51
    is related to this previous one. Is
    actually saying not only do we want to be
  • 16:51 - 16:54
    at a patch, where she wants to be at a
    change, enhance doing these things. And
  • 16:54 - 16:59
    again, it comes back to the same basic
    need that the software is actually able to
  • 16:59 - 17:03
    be compiled. And the hardware designs are
    simple enough that we can actually, you
  • 17:03 - 17:11
    know, to work on these things so that we
    get not merely in theory have permission
  • 17:11 - 17:17
    to innovate, but that it is in practice
    feasible to do so. And again, the simpler
  • 17:17 - 17:21
    the system, the the the more probable it
    is that we can actually succeed in this
  • 17:21 - 17:29
    kind of space. And then again, there's a
    lot of these are quite interrelated,
  • 17:29 - 17:30
    that's part of why I
    say it would actually be
  • 17:30 - 17:32
    great to get feedback
    on how we might
  • 17:32 - 17:35
    restructure these to make the boundaries
    really clear
  • 17:35 - 17:38
    between these freedoms
    that we need.
  • 17:38 - 17:42
    So we need the freedom to
    maintain the devices for the long run. So
  • 17:42 - 17:48
    who here has or has had a fair phone, for
    example? I love the fair phone by the way.
  • 17:48 - 17:54
    A number of us. I've had one as well. And,
    you know, if you talk to the people at
  • 17:54 - 17:59
    Faith, I think they have a team of a bunch
    of people just trying to maintain Android
  • 17:59 - 18:03
    on the faire phone 2, for example. And
    also now on the faire phone 3 as it comes
  • 18:03 - 18:07
    out. And this is actually really hard
    work. But again, the complexity and the
  • 18:07 - 18:12
    barriers that are there, make it really
    difficult to be able to just keep the
  • 18:12 - 18:15
    thing running with the same hardware
    little and each time you want to target
  • 18:15 - 18:20
    new hardware with new capabilities. This
    is just going to be, you know, as a
  • 18:20 - 18:23
    community, we can probably do one or two
    devices if we kind of all collected our
  • 18:23 - 18:28
    effort. But to actually do it for, you
    know, devices that meet individual needs
  • 18:28 - 18:31
    or, you know, appropriate for a particular
    area might have, as we say, a different
  • 18:31 - 18:35
    energy source. So I might want to try
    putting, you know, some thermal electric
  • 18:35 - 18:40
    thing or whatever that at the moment to do
    that with mobile phone hardware is just
  • 18:40 - 18:44
    prohibitive in the complexity and the, you
    know, the resourcing and effort that it
  • 18:44 - 18:51
    would require. So we need to find
    solutions around this. And then again,
  • 18:51 - 18:55
    related to that, overall, we have this
    problem of scale dependency. I think this
  • 18:55 - 19:00
    is one of the really key things at the
    moment to make a mobile phone. You need to
  • 19:00 - 19:04
    have a big enough market and you'd have a
    big enough enterprise and enough capital
  • 19:04 - 19:07
    and all of the rest of it to actually be
    had to go through the very expensive
  • 19:07 - 19:13
    process of designing the thing, getting
    injection molding, tooling and all of that
  • 19:13 - 19:19
    kind of thing made. That, you know, to do
    that for a modern phone. I suspect it's a
  • 19:19 - 19:24
    few million euros to do it reasonably
    well. And if you did it on the cheap and
  • 19:24 - 19:30
    skinny is probably still maybe something
    like a million euros to achieve. So we
  • 19:30 - 19:39
    have to somehow break this down, to make
    it feasible to do. And as I said earlier,
  • 19:39 - 19:44
    simplicity is a key theme to my mind, and
    it is the only way I think that we can
  • 19:44 - 19:46
    actually do it. So we've already talked
    about the challenges of distributing an
  • 19:46 - 19:51
    Android ROM, let alone modifying it to do
    new things in any kind of sophisticated
  • 19:51 - 19:55
    way. And even if you do, the hardware is
    actually too complicated. And there's a
  • 19:55 - 19:58
    whole pile of trust issues around the
    complicated hardware. If you can't
  • 19:58 - 20:02
    understand something, by definition, it's
    a black box. And if it's a black box, by
  • 20:02 - 20:07
    definition, you can't trust it. Because
    you don't know what's inside. So, you
  • 20:07 - 20:11
    know, we we have this point again, the
    digital winter. You don't want any black
  • 20:11 - 20:16
    boxes or if you do, you want them very
    carefully monitored and managed. And so
  • 20:16 - 20:20
    the system has to be not simple enough to
    make once. It is simple enough that we can
  • 20:20 - 20:25
    actually remake it again and again and
    again, as we have need. It's a bit like
  • 20:25 - 20:27
    the difference between a chainsaw or an
    ax, right? If you want to be in a remote
  • 20:27 - 20:32
    area and have to be self-sufficient. Much
    better to depend on ax to chop your wood,
  • 20:32 - 20:36
    because if you need two, you can make a
    new handle for your ax. And you know, with
  • 20:36 - 20:40
    a bit more effort, you could do some very
    simple metallurgy and, you know, metal
  • 20:40 - 20:44
    smelting with iron ore. If you happen to
    be lucky enough to have an area or copper
  • 20:44 - 20:48
    or whatever, it's going to be a much
    easier proposition than having to do that
  • 20:48 - 20:51
    and then somehow make a fine machine
    tooling and making you chain parts and
  • 20:51 - 20:56
    motor parts and all of this kind of thing.
    So it has to be if it is going to be
  • 20:56 - 21:00
    resilient and survivable, it has to be
    simple enough that you actually can build
  • 21:00 - 21:03
    it with relatively simple tools going
    forward. Electronics is going to be a big
  • 21:03 - 21:07
    challenge in this area because, you know,
    you need to be PCV fabrication, you need
  • 21:07 - 21:11
    to get components and things. But we have
    to try and reduce the barriers as much as
  • 21:11 - 21:15
    we can, so that at least, for example,
    component scavenging, for example, might
  • 21:15 - 21:19
    be an option. Or devices that will be
    available, because they're still needed by
  • 21:19 - 21:24
    other industries that have more protection
    as we head into a digital winter
  • 21:24 - 21:31
    environment that we can take and repurpose
    that kind of hardware. So that this kind
  • 21:31 - 21:36
    of leads into this tension then of saying,
    okay, if we make something which is simple
  • 21:36 - 21:41
    enough, we know we as a community, we only
    have limited resources available to us, to
  • 21:41 - 21:45
    make this kind of resilient device. Do we
    make one or do we all kind of like run off
  • 21:45 - 21:53
    and make different kind of things? And I
    think the you know, this is a tension. I'm
  • 21:53 - 21:57
    not going to claim that. I know the
    absolute best setting for this. I think we
  • 21:57 - 22:02
    need to have, as I say, kind of multiple
    germ lines so that if one system gets
  • 22:02 - 22:06
    chronically critically broken or proves to
    be ineffective and that, you know, there
  • 22:06 - 22:10
    are others kind of in the wing that can
    kind of fill that niche in the
  • 22:10 - 22:15
    environment. But we don't have so many,
    that if you don't get anywhere. And so
  • 22:15 - 22:19
    this is a bit tricky. My gut feeling is,
    you know, making a an initial device that
  • 22:19 - 22:22
    can kind of demonstrate some of these kind
    of positive properties. And then so other
  • 22:22 - 22:24
    people will look at and go like, well,
    that's really great. That's got us
  • 22:24 - 22:27
    forward. But, you know, that was a really
    stupid design. I think this is a way
  • 22:27 - 22:30
    better way to do it in the way, that we
    have that freedom in the open source
  • 22:30 - 22:36
    community to do, is probably a pretty good
    way to do things. And I would say, we're
  • 22:36 - 22:41
    not yet at the end point of that proof of
    concept, but we're trying to move things
  • 22:41 - 22:47
    forward to that and that point. So, come
    at you to the the megaphone that we're
  • 22:47 - 22:54
    trying to create. And so in terms of what
    we've actually set out to do for the goals
  • 22:54 - 22:58
    and kind of the methodology, we want
    something, which is simple, secure, self-
  • 22:58 - 23:03
    sufficient and survivable. A lot of the
    work that I do is, for example, with, you
  • 23:03 - 23:06
    know, NGOs. We've worked with folks
    from Red Cross. We work with folks from
  • 23:06 - 23:11
    the UN World Food Program, who part of
    the interestingly, are the distributors of
  • 23:11 - 23:16
    communications in the UN cluster system
    for disasters. Because they kind of like
  • 23:16 - 23:19
    hand out blankets and they hand out rice
    and things. Someone basically say to them,
  • 23:19 - 23:23
    well, you should also be handing out the
    communications. And so that's just kind of
  • 23:23 - 23:29
    how it's fell. And so, you know, in an
    easy way I do smart phony kind of things
  • 23:29 - 23:32
    like would be great to have some
    navigation, it would be great to have in a
  • 23:32 - 23:36
    disaster context, the ability to fill in
    forms on the screen with a touch screen
  • 23:36 - 23:40
    and the rest of it and have the uplink
    through. So if you think, you know, an
  • 23:40 - 23:45
    Ebola outbreak in Africa, for example, to
    be out a collect, you know that case
  • 23:45 - 23:49
    information to track down the you know,
    the case zeros and. Kind of thing, you
  • 23:49 - 23:55
    need communications that can work. Often
    these outbreaks happen in places where law
  • 23:55 - 23:59
    and order and civil society is not really
    working. Because if it was, then they
  • 23:59 - 24:02
    wouldn't have had the outbreak there, it
    would have been managed more effectively.
  • 24:02 - 24:07
    And so you need this kind of,
    you know, dependable device that can work
  • 24:07 - 24:11
    independent of everything else that's
    going on. And that might have to do
  • 24:11 - 24:14
    software updates, for example, over a
    really expensive narrowband satellite link
  • 24:14 - 24:19
    that might be, you know, tens of bytes per
    second or less. So that was kind of some
  • 24:19 - 24:26
    of the, you know, the motivation around
    this to create it. And it separately have
  • 24:26 - 24:32
    been working on the Mega 65 project for a
    couple of years at that point. And it just
  • 24:32 - 24:36
    kind of dawned on me that actually this
    simple 8 bit architecture is
  • 24:36 - 24:41
    powerful enough to actually be useful to
    do some things. Math kind of, you know,
  • 24:41 - 24:45
    well, you're doing this. You know, the fun
    proof of, you know, proof by example,
  • 24:45 - 24:50
    really, of delivering the slides with this
    machine to show. that you can do useful
  • 24:50 - 24:53
    things if you write the code carefully
    and carefully written code is more likely
  • 24:53 - 25:00
    to be verifiable and secure. And it's
    probably I don't think you can get any
  • 25:00 - 25:03
    simpler than an eight bit system and still
    be useful like I don't think we want to be
  • 25:03 - 25:10
    trying to use an Intel 4004 derived
    4 Bit CPU to do things. Boeing's if
  • 25:10 - 25:13
    someone can find a way to do something
    with a system that's that simple and they
  • 25:13 - 25:17
    can still do everything we need and it
    makes it even easier to verify. Fantastic.
  • 25:17 - 25:21
    My gut feeling is it would actually be
    worse on every point, because the amount
  • 25:21 - 25:25
    of work that you would have to do to do
    each useful thing, you end up with code
  • 25:25 - 25:30
    which is actually larger in size. That I
    think, my feeling is that the 8 Bit
  • 25:30 - 25:33
    architecture is about that sweet point.
    And so anyway, so as a result of the
  • 25:33 - 25:40
    Mega 65 work, it's based directly on that. So
    the the phone actually is a Mega 65
  • 25:40 - 25:49
    importable form and will show that in a
    little bit. And so we're getting towards
  • 25:49 - 25:52
    that kind of proof of concept stage. So we
    had the first phone calls back in Linuxconf.
  • 25:52 - 25:56
    So if you kind of dig back through this,
    the the video of that talk where with a
  • 25:56 - 26:01
    much earlier prototype, we actually had
    people calling the machine, which is quite
  • 26:01 - 26:07
    fun. And I took a little bit later as well
    about the some of the audio part kind of
  • 26:07 - 26:11
    issues around that. So let's look at those
    six freedoms again now, and what we're
  • 26:11 - 26:15
    trying to do with the megaphone. So energy
    independence. The first thing is we've got
  • 26:15 - 26:19
    a filthy, great big battery. I hate it
    when phones go flat. And when you're in a
  • 26:19 - 26:22
    disaster zone or these kind of vulnerable
    situations, you really don't want it going
  • 26:22 - 26:27
    flat at the wrong time. So we've put a 32
    watt our lithium ion phosphate battery
  • 26:27 - 26:32
    that should have 2000 full charge cycles
    in there. The device is about the size of
  • 26:32 - 26:36
    an intended switch in terms of surface
    area. So putting high performance solar
  • 26:36 - 26:39
    cells like you would put on the solar
    racing car or on your roof, we can
  • 26:39 - 26:44
    probably get about seven watts with that.
    And if you do the kind of math that's, you
  • 26:44 - 26:52
    know, four or so hours of charge time, but
    we know in reality that the, you know, the
  • 26:52 - 26:56
    solar environment will often be much worse
    than that. It might be only 10 percent of
  • 26:56 - 27:00
    what it to be 1 percent of that if you're
    talking about these kinds of latitudes
  • 27:00 - 27:04
    under cloudy conditions. And so you really
    want to have the big battery and as big a
  • 27:04 - 27:08
    solar panel as you can and you want the
    power consumption to be as low as
  • 27:08 - 27:13
    possible. So we've got CPO data to
    candlelight little teeny tiny FPGAs,
  • 27:13 - 27:16
    that are managing the whole power
    environment and wake up the main FPGA only
  • 27:16 - 27:20
    when something important needs to happen.
    So we believe with 32 watt hours, we
  • 27:20 - 27:26
    should be out to get about a thousand
    hours standby with a 4G off the shelf
  • 27:26 - 27:30
    cellular modem. And that's, you know,
    assuming the solar panel was actually, you
  • 27:30 - 27:35
    know, like, you know, in a black box, even
    the light here, if we had the solar, the
  • 27:35 - 27:40
    seven watt solar panel would have a sunny
    side up and we would be able to maintain
  • 27:40 - 27:44
    charge indefinitely on the device, because
    we only need to have about 8 Milli
  • 27:44 - 27:50
    Watts coming in. So we're talking about
    one one thousandth of the capacity of the
  • 27:50 - 27:57
    solar panel. OK. So if a communications
    for independence, we really want as many
  • 27:57 - 28:01
    possible ways to communicate as we can and
    the naughty little things that we can't
  • 28:01 - 28:05
    trust, in particular the cellular modem,
    we want to have a sandbox and quarantined
  • 28:05 - 28:09
    so that it can't spread its naughty plague
    of whatever vulnerabilities it has in
  • 28:09 - 28:13
    there. Again, there are black box. We
    can't trust them. They're too hard for us
  • 28:13 - 28:17
    to implement. So this is kind of a
    decision that we've taken. We'd much
  • 28:17 - 28:21
    rather have a fully open 4G modem and if
    someone makes one fantastic,
  • 28:21 - 28:23
    will incorporate
    it straight in.
  • 28:23 - 28:25
    Right. because the
    systemis designed to be
  • 28:25 - 28:27
    easy to change.
    But in the meantime,
  • 28:27 - 28:29
    we have to kind of deal with
    what there is. The great thing is that
  • 28:29 - 28:34
    these m.2 cellular modems are used
    in vending machines, in cars, in all sorts
  • 28:34 - 28:37
    of things. So they're just the common
    eyes. Again, if he had to scavenge them in
  • 28:37 - 28:42
    the future. This would be quite feasible
    and also means, we can upgrade. So we have
  • 28:42 - 28:47
    two of these slots, so we could actually
    have a dual 5G Commodore 64 so that, you
  • 28:47 - 28:50
    know, because he wants to
    light weight extra time
  • 28:50 - 28:51
    when you're downloading
    your games, right?
  • 28:51 - 28:54
    And 40 kilobytes can take a
    long time to download. I've only got one
  • 28:54 - 28:59
    5G link, right? We have two of them so we
    can do it in parallel. Because he was to
  • 28:59 - 29:03
    more than about, you know, four
    milliseconds to download new software and
  • 29:03 - 29:08
    again, limited communications availability
    in these kind of oppressive environments.
  • 29:08 - 29:12
    This is actually key. You might only have
    short communications window. So while it
  • 29:12 - 29:16
    is a little bit tongue in cheek, it's not
    entirely. And of course, with several
  • 29:16 - 29:21
    mesh, we've been doing, you know, UHF?
    packet radio. So we've put in try band
  • 29:21 - 29:26
    Laura compatible radios in there. Not
    Laura when we're doing it fully. We're
  • 29:26 - 29:30
    just sending out radio packets and
    listening in with the modules. We've also
  • 29:30 - 29:35
    got ESP 1, 266 Wi-Fi and some Bluetooth in
    there. So that's some other potential
  • 29:35 - 29:38
    options. Acoustic networking. So we've
    got 4 microphones that are directly
  • 29:38 - 29:42
    connected to our FPGA so we can do crazy
    signal processing on that. And we've got a
  • 29:42 - 29:47
    nice loud speaker that should work up into
    the ultrasonic range so we could even have
  • 29:47 - 29:51
    quite decent communications over, you
    know, 10 or so meters in the acoustic
  • 29:51 - 29:55
    band. And there's a crazy bunch. And I've
    forgotten the name of the research group
  • 29:55 - 30:02
    that do air gap jumping. And they've done
    some quite crazy things with acoustics
  • 30:02 - 30:06
    with the live your headphones plugged into
    your computer on your desk in a headphone
  • 30:06 - 30:10
    jack. You can software reconfigure that
    and make that that's a speaker and
  • 30:10 - 30:15
    microphone. There's anyone that's
    interested in a hall after. And we can
  • 30:15 - 30:19
    have a look and try and find the link for
    you. We've also got infrared LED. And so
  • 30:19 - 30:24
    the idea with all of these kind of things
    and whatever else you can kind of do, is
  • 30:24 - 30:29
    that it should be really hard for an
    adversary to actually jam all of these
  • 30:29 - 30:34
    things at the same time. You know, you
    might be able to do broadband RF jamming,
  • 30:34 - 30:38
    but that's not going to stop the acoustics
    or the LED. And even if you can kind of
  • 30:38 - 30:42
    make a lot of noise, it's gonna be really
    hard to block the LED, if people are kind
  • 30:42 - 30:48
    of holding the devices near one another to
    do delay tolerant transfer. And of course,
  • 30:48 - 30:51
    any other crazy things that people come up
    with. Again, a simple system design that
  • 30:51 - 30:58
    you can extend it easily yourself. OK.
    Security independence. So the operating
  • 30:58 - 31:01
    system runs in a little bit CPU, which is
    basically a slightly enhanced version of
  • 31:01 - 31:07
    the Commodore 64 CPU. It has a a bit
    hypervisor, which is 16 kilobytes inside
  • 31:07 - 31:13
    hardware limitation, because we don't want
    it getting bigger. If it gets 16K then
  • 31:13 - 31:15
    you have to throw some other things out
    and right. What does it actually really
  • 31:15 - 31:19
    need to do so, that you still have a
    system which is actually much more
  • 31:19 - 31:23
    verifiable. And this kind of small
    software, it should be quite possible on
  • 31:23 - 31:27
    this machine to run a simple C compiler,
    for example, to we had to compile the
  • 31:27 - 31:30
    software that is actually running the
    core operating system, so we can have
  • 31:30 - 31:35
    that whole complete offgrid operation.
    We've really talked a little bit about having
  • 31:35 - 31:40
    the untrusted components fully sandboxed.
    So for example, cellular modems only have
  • 31:40 - 31:45
    a 80 command serial interface to the rest
    of the system. And so this is going to
  • 31:45 - 31:47
    make it much harder for
    an adversary to work
  • 31:47 - 31:49
    out how with a fully
    compromised cellular
  • 31:49 - 31:52
    modem, you can compromise the
    rest of the system by giving presumably
  • 31:52 - 31:56
    bogus responses to 80 command requests.
    And because we know that's where the
  • 31:56 - 32:00
    vulnerable point is, we can put a lot of
    effort in our software to really
  • 32:00 - 32:04
    interrogate the command response to the
    coming back and no look for any QIT
  • 32:04 - 32:08
    command responses within a semicolon, drop
    tables and all the rest of it in there. It
  • 32:08 - 32:13
    should be pretty straightforward to pick
    up. So we also have an integrated hardware
  • 32:13 - 32:18
    in sufferance inspectors, so that you can
    real time verify. It is a little bit fun.
  • 32:18 - 32:23
    So I can hit mega tab and we call it
    matrix mode for good reason. So the system
  • 32:23 - 32:26
    is still running in the background. So the
    slides are still there. So I can go back
  • 32:26 - 32:36
    to the previous slow, I begin to say, it
    was a joystick actually when I'm in there.
  • 32:36 - 32:43
    Yes, they you go. Or file a bug for that,
    but we can, if I go back into it, we can
  • 32:43 - 32:50
    look at all of memory in real time. So if
    you are truly paranoid and you are about
  • 32:50 - 32:53
    to, for example, do some encrypted email
    on your, you know, digitally sovereign
  • 32:53 - 32:58
    device. You could actually go into this,
    stop the CPU and then inspect every byte
  • 32:58 - 33:03
    of memory and compare it to your physical
    printout of the, you know, 30 or 40
  • 33:03 - 33:07
    kilobytes of your software. Or you might
    every time he might do, you know, half a
  • 33:07 - 33:11
    kilobyte or something, right?! And verify
    it so that progressively over time, you've
  • 33:11 - 33:15
    actually verified that the system is
    always byte identical. At that point in
  • 33:15 - 33:19
    time to what it should be doing. And
    again, the simplicity, we only have one
  • 33:19 - 33:24
    program running at a time. So, you know,
    you know exactly what the system is doing.
  • 33:24 - 33:28
    And we can tasks which we got a built in
    phrase constantly if I press the restore
  • 33:28 - 33:33
    key. Anyone who's used a Commodore 64 and
    with an action replay will probably
  • 33:33 - 33:37
    recognize the inspired format. And so
    that's our program. They're running with
  • 33:37 - 33:40
    hardware, thumbnail, generation of colors,
    a bit wrong. We need to fix that. But, you
  • 33:40 - 33:45
    know, we've got other software that we've
    had running on it. And so if we wanted to,
  • 33:45 - 33:52
    you know, break up the presentation with a
    quick game of Gyruss, for example. We can
  • 33:52 - 33:59
    do that. I need to switch the joystick.
    What I can do that in here as well. Jay.
  • 33:59 - 34:00
    retro music
  • 34:00 - 34:06
    You know, if we wanted to, we can do that.
    And then we can go back and, you know,
  • 34:06 - 34:09
    pretend that we weren't doing anything
    naughty at all. And of course, I forgot to
  • 34:09 - 34:13
    save what I was doing first, right. So I
    have to load the program again. So that's
  • 34:13 - 34:37
    my bad. That's right. Because reboot time
    is about two seconds. Tipping commandos
  • 34:37 - 34:40
    So the worst part now is that we actually
    we haven't got a command to jumped through
  • 34:40 - 34:44
    the slides and so it actually takes a
    little bit of time to render each slide as
  • 34:44 - 34:50
    we go through. So that that's my
    punishment for not saving first, but see
  • 34:50 - 34:56
    what we might do. We'll skip that for the
    moment. And I'm kind of at the right point
  • 34:56 - 35:01
    anyway to talk about it, which is the
    audio powers and a mobile phone. This is a
  • 35:01 - 35:08
    really important area to protect. So, so
    important. That is the only diagram that
  • 35:08 - 35:14
    I've put an entire presentation. So at the
    top we have a normal mobile phone. So
  • 35:14 - 35:17
    basically what we see is that the
    untrustable cellular modem is not merely
  • 35:17 - 35:21
    on trustable. It's like an evil squid that
    has tentacles at reach into every part of
  • 35:21 - 35:25
    your mobile phone that you really don't
    want it getting into. So it has the direct
  • 35:25 - 35:29
    connection to your microphone and speaker.
    The normal CPU in your mobile phone
  • 35:29 - 35:34
    usually has to say pretty please. I'm
    untrustable, completely untrustworthy
  • 35:34 - 35:38
    cellular modem. May I please have
    something which you're going to tell me is
  • 35:38 - 35:42
    the audio that's coming in through the
    microphone? Whether or not it's actually
  • 35:42 - 35:44
    the audio or not, there's a whole separate
    thing. It might be doing all manner of
  • 35:44 - 35:47
    crazy things first, because you can't tell
    because it's a big fat black box in the
  • 35:47 - 35:51
    way. And then just to make sure that the
    you know, it can fully compromise, what
  • 35:51 - 35:55
    you're doing often is on the same memory
    bus. And so, you know, you might go, oh,
  • 35:55 - 35:58
    I'm being all secret squirrel from the
    cellular modem and asking you anything.
  • 35:58 - 36:01
    And it's just quietly lifting the covers
    and looking at what you got under there
  • 36:01 - 36:06
    going like, oh, no, no, that bites wrong.
    You really want that value in that bite.
  • 36:06 - 36:08
    And likewise, the RAM and the storage. So,
    you know, the cellular modem can totally
  • 36:08 - 36:12
    compromise your bootloader and all of that
    kind of stuff along the way. Let's just
  • 36:12 - 36:18
    say that that's not really a very
    survivable model or a very resilient model
  • 36:18 - 36:21
    or a very secure model for a phone. So
    we have instead is that we've
  • 36:21 - 36:27
    basically put the fully untranslatable
    thing completely out in its own little tiny
  • 36:27 - 36:30
    shed. We've got the tin can and string
    between us and it with a very controlled
  • 36:30 - 36:33
    interface and the microphone and speaker,
    thank you very much, are directly
  • 36:33 - 36:38
    connected to our FPGA. So we can do
    encryption at the microphone and
  • 36:38 - 36:42
    decryption at the speaker. The storage is
    secure, so we could even have massive one
  • 36:42 - 36:48
    time pad. So we could actually do sig
    sally style provably secure communications
  • 36:48 - 36:56
    over distance. If you can set up the key
    material beforehand for one time pad. So
  • 36:56 - 37:01
    it's a radically different approach to
    what we see with devices out there at the
  • 37:01 - 37:26
    moment. So we'll just get the the last few
    slides up in. Oh, no. CONAN. Whoops. So
  • 37:26 - 37:34
    even simple software can have bugs. This
    is why we need many eyes. Think of a load.
  • 37:34 - 37:39
    This one first. Yep. And now I can load
    the other one because it just hadn't
  • 37:39 - 37:53
    loaded the fonts in. Yeah. Cool. It's
    coming. Yeah. You could even use the
  • 37:53 - 38:03
    joystick to move read and the text if you
    want to. Okay, so if we think then about
  • 38:03 - 38:09
    this whole, you know, like what are we
    actually trying to achieve around this and
  • 38:09 - 38:14
    what are some of the things that we need
    to win in the. The Commodore derived 8 bit
  • 38:14 - 38:18
    platform to us has a whole pile of
    advantages as the basis for doing this.
  • 38:18 - 38:20
    Now, we could have done it with a
    completely different platform. You'll like
  • 38:20 - 38:24
    some would think like risk 5, for example,
    is a nice open platform. Could be an idea.
  • 38:24 - 38:27
    Might it be that the risk of CPU was
    actually still too complicated to actually
  • 38:27 - 38:31
    verify and trust yourself is my kind of
    view, but I'm really happy that other
  • 38:31 - 38:34
    people might disagree with me. Again,
    multiple germ lines, totally different
  • 38:34 - 38:38
    ways of doing things, and at least one of
    them keeps working at any point in time
  • 38:38 - 38:43
    would be really, really good. You're kind
    of combination things as well. So one of
  • 38:43 - 38:46
    the things that we're looking at is
    having, for example, a Raspberry Pi
  • 38:46 - 38:49
    running the PI port of Android that
    somebody else maintains. I don't have to
  • 38:49 - 38:54
    do it. And then having the 8 bit layer
    actually visualizing all of the IO around
  • 38:54 - 38:58
    that, including access to the SD card
    storage, including access to the screen.
  • 38:58 - 39:01
    And as that, she also makes it possible
    for us to work to make custom mobile
  • 39:01 - 39:05
    devices for people living with disability.
    And actually some of the Android again is
  • 39:05 - 39:08
    easy to maintain because we don't even
    have to recompile it. We can just get the
  • 39:08 - 39:11
    standard version and then make it think
    it's got a normal touchscreen when in
  • 39:11 - 39:16
    actual fact it might have some completely
    different input method going on. So
  • 39:16 - 39:20
    there's a bunch of advantages. I've run
    out of the official time that have a lot
  • 39:20 - 39:25
    of so I quickly go through and it will go
    into the questions. So the platform is
  • 39:25 - 39:29
    really well documented. So there's another
    whole pile of tools and everything
  • 39:29 - 39:33
    programing languages. So this is pretty
    straightforward to go through. We've
  • 39:33 - 39:36
    already talked about capability
    maintenance again. So that is actually
  • 39:36 - 39:40
    another key point. Making the hardware big
    actually is a massive advantage because
  • 39:40 - 39:45
    then we can do normal PCP fabrication. We
    don't have to be any BGA parts placement,
  • 39:45 - 39:48
    which is a real pain to do in your home.
    Often it is possible, but you don't want
  • 39:48 - 39:53
    to have to work to learn how to do it in
    digital winter. And yet it's largely this
  • 39:53 - 39:57
    kind of similar size to existing kind of
    devices out there. There's a bunch of
  • 39:57 - 40:02
    advantages with that. There's a whole pile
    of different things that we really would
  • 40:02 - 40:06
    like some folks to help us with to try and
    get this finished and out there for people
  • 40:06 - 40:11
    to try out and to, you know, we had a
    mature it and make it work. So it doesn't
  • 40:11 - 40:14
    matter whether you have a program like
    computer I've ever done any FPGA work or
  • 40:14 - 40:21
    PTB work or whatever. You know, there's
    lots of space for people to join in what
  • 40:21 - 40:24
    is quite, we think is actually both an
    important and actually a really fun and
  • 40:24 - 40:30
    enjoyable project to work on. And so
    really just want to finish. But she said
  • 40:30 - 40:34
    that I think it is a thinking about this
    talk and preparing for it. I think
  • 40:34 - 40:39
    actually, it is a call to action. You
    know, the digital autumn has begun.
  • 40:39 - 40:42
    Digital winter is on its way. We don't
    know when it's going to come. And it might
  • 40:42 - 40:47
    come a lot quicker, than we would really
    like it to come, you know? Myself and the
  • 40:47 - 40:50
    people who are already working on the
    project, we can't do everything alone.
  • 40:50 - 40:55
    We're doing what we can. We going to try
    to organize another event in early April
  • 40:55 - 41:00
    up in Berlin. But there's no need to wait
    for that to get involved. You know, we'll
  • 41:00 - 41:05
    be around at the vintage computer area. If
    anyone wants to come and have a look or
  • 41:05 - 41:08
    ask anything about how you might get
    involved or just play around with the
  • 41:08 - 41:16
    platform, it's quite fun to use. And yeah,
    we'll leave it at that point. So any
  • 41:16 - 41:19
    questions would be really welcome.
  • 41:19 - 41:24
    applause
  • 41:24 - 41:30
    Herald: That was incredible. You have the
    best present and set up that I've ever
  • 41:30 - 41:32
    seen.
    PGS: Laughing Thank you.
  • 41:32 - 41:35
    Herald: That joistick is amazing.
    Applause
  • 41:35 - 41:38
    PGS: The joystick is also open source
    hardware. I can give you the plans to make
  • 41:38 - 41:42
    one of those you sell from from parts.
    It's the spare joystick part through
  • 41:42 - 41:46
    arcade games basically.
    Herald: Yes, please. OK. We're
  • 41:46 - 41:51
    taking questions. I remind you, we have
    six microphones in the audience. We also
  • 41:51 - 41:56
    have the amazing signal angel that's going
    to relay questions from the Internet. And
  • 41:56 - 42:00
    we're going to take one right now.
    Signal-angel: Okay. So you already talked
  • 42:00 - 42:07
    about some events, but maybe can you bit
    more elaborate on how you're planning to
  • 42:07 - 42:11
    involve the community?
    PGS: Okay. So how we gonna involve the
  • 42:11 - 42:15
    community? Basically, anyway, the
    community would like to be involved. The
  • 42:15 - 42:18
    moment in terms of with the phone as
    myself and kind of the work at a
  • 42:18 - 42:23
    university and we have kind of a couple of
    part time students working on things. So
  • 42:23 - 42:28
    the bus number is disturbingly near one at
    the moment. So there's ample scope to
  • 42:28 - 42:32
    help. We've got a few other people who are
    helping with the Mega 65 project itself.
  • 42:32 - 42:36
    And so there is obviously this crossover
    in that. But what would be really great
  • 42:36 - 42:39
    would be to find, for example, a couple of
    people who are willing to work on
  • 42:39 - 42:43
    software, primarily coding and C. You
    don't even have to know any 65 to
  • 42:43 - 42:46
    assembler to begin with, to do things
    like, you know, finishing off the dialer
  • 42:46 - 42:50
    software and things that we demonstrated
    back in January and get it all working, so
  • 42:50 - 42:54
    we can actually walk around with a pair of
    large plastic bricks by our heads, talking
  • 42:54 - 42:58
    on the phones that we've actually created.
    That would be a really great way to work,
  • 42:58 - 43:03
    to get some initial forward movement. And
    then things like case design, there's a
  • 43:03 - 43:06
    whole bunch of stuff that, you know, we'd
    welcome involvement on.
  • 43:06 - 43:12
    Herald: Thank you. Do we have more from
    the Signal Angels? Yes, we do.
  • 43:12 - 43:19
    Signal-Angel: So, okay, um, there's a
    question when a prototype will be
  • 43:19 - 43:22
    available.
    PGS: Okay. When a prototype would be
  • 43:22 - 43:28
    available, I'm happy to give out a blank
    piece of visual posting to people. I've
  • 43:28 - 43:31
    got actually packed them with me. We've
    got looking at the next prototype is
  • 43:31 - 43:37
    actually being built at the moment. So,
    you know, these can be built for about 400
  • 43:37 - 43:41
    euros at the moment. So you can buy like
    five of these instead of an iPhone. Right?
  • 43:41 - 43:46
    So it's already it's it's economically
    survivable as well in comparison.
  • 43:46 - 43:49
    Essentially, it's one of the really quite
    funny things that we kind of making isn't
  • 43:49 - 43:54
    going like a few person years of effort.
    And we can already make a mobile phone
  • 43:54 - 43:58
    case, not a small and chic, but it's got a
    joystick port. Right. Does your iPhone
  • 43:58 - 44:03
    have a joystick port? So, you know, it's
    it's amazing. We've actually been able to
  • 44:03 - 44:07
    do quite quickly. So it's the kind of
    project where we do have people kind of
  • 44:07 - 44:11
    come in to help us. You know, I think
    like, you know, by next Congress, we ought
  • 44:11 - 44:16
    to have people running around with
    megaphones and being able to communicate
  • 44:16 - 44:20
    in fun an independent kind of ways. So,
    yeah.
  • 44:20 - 44:26
    Herald: Thank you. Microphone one, please.
    Mic 1: Thanks for a cool talk. And I have
  • 44:26 - 44:30
    another question because you want to
    reduce black boxes. But what about
  • 44:30 - 44:35
    encryption? Because it's really complex.
    And how do you plan to reduce this black
  • 44:35 - 44:38
    box?
    PGS: Okay. So an excellent question. So
  • 44:38 - 44:43
    the best encryption there is, is actually
    the simplest. It's called one time pad. So
  • 44:43 - 44:46
    if you can actually meet with people. So
    again, we're talking about focusing on
  • 44:46 - 44:50
    supporting local communities in one
    another. If you get your megaphone on the
  • 44:50 - 44:53
    other person's megaphone and you come in
    infrared range, for example, and then you
  • 44:53 - 44:56
    shake them like martinis to
    generate some random data and you do that
  • 44:56 - 44:59
    until you've decided you've got enough one
    time pad and that one time pad is secure
  • 44:59 - 45:05
    enough in your device, then actually like
    xor is pretty easy to debug. Right?
  • 45:05 - 45:08
    Herald: Thank you. Microphone number
    three.
  • 45:08 - 45:15
    Mic 3: So you talked about the form factor
    right now being Nintendo's switch.
  • 45:15 - 45:17
    PGS: Yeah.
    Mic 3:Do you have plans on going smaller
  • 45:17 - 45:20
    than that? More like a classic mobile
    phone?
  • 45:20 - 45:22
    PGS: Yeah, I think it's actually quite
    possible. So the.
  • 45:22 - 45:26
    So this is if you like,
    that the first version is this one. You
  • 45:26 - 45:30
    can see it's about five centimeters thick.
    The second one, we think we can get down
  • 45:30 - 45:35
    to about four centimeters thick, but it's
    otherwise the same size as PCB. We've got
  • 45:35 - 45:37
    a student amount is going to try and work
    on making one that's about the size of
  • 45:37 - 45:42
    only the screen, still probably about four
    centimeters thick. And we think that
  • 45:42 - 45:46
    that's going to be quiet. It's the PCB
    layout. He's basically been cursing me for
  • 45:46 - 45:49
    the last three months to try and get all
    the trucks routing without it needing to
  • 45:49 - 45:55
    be a 15 layer sponge torte kind of PCB,
    but that should be quite possible to do it
  • 45:55 - 45:58
    again. That's the kind of thing. Once
    you've got a working prototype, then the
  • 45:58 - 46:03
    people, you're like, okay, we're going to
    be on the miniaturization team, too. And
  • 46:03 - 46:07
    part of me try and make something which is
    even smaller. But, you know, there's
  • 46:07 - 46:10
    always tradeoffs in these things. Again,
    the smaller you make it, the less solar
  • 46:10 - 46:13
    panel you can have on the back. So that's
    kind of these things. It's only trying to
  • 46:13 - 46:16
    make it as thin as we can. I think it
    makes a whole pile of sense.
  • 46:16 - 46:20
    Herald: Honestly, you can make it smaller,
    but I don't think you should. Because when
  • 46:20 - 46:24
    the zombie apocalypse happens, it's a
    communication to the weapon.
  • 46:24 - 46:30
    PGS: Yeah. And it's less. Right. It's kind
    of, you know. Exactly. We can use a full
  • 46:30 - 46:33
    sized one as well. Right. I've kind of
    got, you know, quite a nice solid metal
  • 46:33 - 46:38
    keyboard in there as well.
    Herald: A question from the Internet,
  • 46:38 - 46:46
    please show.
    Signal-Angel: So what do you think about
  • 46:46 - 46:49
    the open moko phone?
    PGS: The Openmoko phone? I'll try.
  • 46:49 - 46:54
    Remember the details about those and the
    whole again. Everything that's being done
  • 46:54 - 47:00
    on all of these fronts to make fully open
    devices with a few black boxes as possible
  • 47:00 - 47:06
    is fantastic. So as I say, open moko can
    make an M dot two form factor cellular
  • 47:06 - 47:11
    modem that we can put in the megaphone. I
    would be so, so happy. But we can do a
  • 47:11 - 47:13
    whole pile of stuff. Are we waiting for
    that to happen?
  • 47:13 - 47:19
    Herald: Thank you. We actually had a talk
    yesterday about from one of the people
  • 47:19 - 47:26
    behind the Openmoko. So you can watch the
    recording if you want. Next question,
  • 47:26 - 47:29
    microphone one.
    Mic 1: Sure. Thank you for the great talk.
  • 47:29 - 47:35
    I was interested in the mega 65 itself. Is
    that available? Can can, is it?
  • 47:35 - 47:39
    PGS: Yes, it's all okay. So the two most
    common questions, We have about the mega
  • 47:39 - 47:45
    65 is can I buy one now and how much does
    it cost? Unfortunately, the answer to both
  • 47:45 - 47:49
    of those is we don't yet know exactly.
    It'll be a three digit number in euros for
  • 47:49 - 47:55
    the price. This is pretty certain. But at
    the moment, our big challenge is we. This
  • 47:55 - 48:00
    one is it's a prototype made with the
    vacuum for molding. So each case cost
  • 48:00 - 48:06
    upwards of 500 euros for the case. This is
    not really sustainable. So we know we need
  • 48:06 - 48:12
    to make injection molding tooling for
    that. And so the guys from the German part
  • 48:12 - 48:17
    of the mega 65 team are running a fund
    raiser just a little bit careful that
  • 48:17 - 48:21
    Australian law for fundraising is a bit
    weird. So I am not doing any fund raising.
  • 48:21 - 48:25
    Some people here in Germany are doing some
    fund raising to try and raise the money
  • 48:25 - 48:28
    for the mall. If you look at Mega 65 to
    all, we can find out what they're doing in
  • 48:28 - 48:36
    that space and and have a look at that.
    Herald: Thank you. Do we have more
  • 48:36 - 48:44
    Internet questions? Nope. Cool, cool. I
    think that's it. So thank you again for
  • 48:44 - 48:46
    the wonderful talk. My pleasure. Thank
    you.
  • 48:46 - 48:48
    Applause
  • 48:48 - 49:09
    Postroll music
  • 49:09 - 49:14
    Subtitles created by c3subtitles.de
    in the year 2020. Join, and help us!
Title:
36C3 - Creating Resilient and Sustainable Mobile Phones
Description:

more » « less
Video Language:
English
Duration:
49:14

English subtitles

Revisions Compare revisions