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← TEDxperiment | Dan Ariely & Mariano Sigman | TEDxPorto

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Showing Revision 15 created 11/11/2019 by Rhonda Jacobs.

  1. Mariano Sigman:
    So this day is about trust,
  2. and it happens in a quite peculiar moment
    in which, I guess we all know,
  3. societies have become quite polarized.
  4. And there are certain topics
    that have become very difficult to talk,
  5. we are very distant with people,
  6. and it's become really with a feeling
  7. that's difficult
    to talk about these topics.
  8. And Dan I wanted to think
    and to reflect about these,
  9. but instead of doing
    in the traditional way,
  10. which is on this stage, in which,
    like, maybe we think about these,
  11. we come with a great idea,
  12. we pack it in a story,
    and we give it to you,
  13. we asked, what if we try to construct
    this idea here, together,
  14. and we began thinking
    about this in this place.
  15. And so we are scientists,
  16. and so we love to do experiments -
  17. in the lab, outside, we live,
    actually doing experiments;
  18. I think that's fair to say.
  19. And so actually the proposal
    is let's do one experiment here, now,
  20. altogether.
  21. And so to begin the experiment,
    this is not really high technology,
  22. it's based on pencil and paper.
  23. And if you look just behind your chairs,
    if you put your hand,
  24. you'll see that all of you
    should have, I hope,
  25. one envelope like this.
  26. Dan Ariely: Don't open it yet.
  27. MS: Just go like this
  28. because usually the sound of papers
    is very - collective sound of paper
  29. is very good, so just ... (DA: Yay)
  30. Very well.
  31. DA: Very good.
  32. Anybody doesn't have an envelope?
  33. MS: Okay.
  34. DA: Okay.
  35. MS: We can start.
  36. DA: So let's start. So ...
  37. please open the envelope.
  38. MS: First page.
  39. Where it says, "TEDxperiments,"
    that's the first page.
  40. That's where we will begin.
  41. DA: Do they have a pen?
  42. MS: Well, you should have a pen.
  43. If you don't have a pen,
    then you can ask a pen to your neighbor.
  44. I mean, I'm sure there are enough pens
    that we can do this together.
  45. Because you were given pens in the bag.
  46. DA: In the bag there's a pen, yeah?
  47. MS: As we said, this is a real experiment;
    it is not demonstration.
  48. So we will use the data collected here
  49. to learn something about
    what's going to happen here.
  50. So for this we need you to sign
  51. that you're willing
    to be part of this experiment.
  52. This is how science goes.
  53. So if you're willing to do this,
    just say "Yes" here - Sim,
  54. and if not you say "No" and you write
    your age and your gender,
  55. and we move to page number two.
  56. DA: Everybody finished?
  57. Anybody has not finished
    with page number one?
  58. Okay.
  59. Make sure you get a pen.
  60. Finish page number one.
  61. Okay.
  62. Next page.
  63. There's some things
    written in Portuguese here.
  64. MS: I should - I'm closer
    to Portuguese than you, right?
  65. DA: Yeah.
  66. MS: Well, actually,
    not geographically, but maybe -
  67. So I'm going to make
    my best effort to read them.
  68. You see there are five questions.
    You can read them yourselves.
  69. And those are five questions
  70. where we ask you to say
    where you agree with these or not,
  71. or where you feel you can have an opinion.
  72. We'll go relatively fast with these.
  73. So the first question is:
  74. (Portuguese) "There should be
    quotas for women in Parliament."
  75. I have a bit of a Brazilian,
    you know, we're closer to -
  76. I'm Argentinian, what could I do?
  77. So either you agree, you don't agree,
  78. or you just don't want to answer
  79. or don't feel like
    you have an answer for that.
  80. So as you see, we chose things
  81. where hopefully there is
    some difference between us.
  82. The second one is:
  83. (Portuguese) "Drugs
    should be decriminalized."
  84. So (Portuguese) Yes, No,
  85. (Portuguese) or Not sure / No response.
  86. DA: So this is something about drugs.
  87. MS: This, yeah.
  88. DA: It's a good question.
  89. MS: We'll see.
  90. Question number three.
  91. (Portuguese) "University
    should be free for everybody."
  92. (Portuguese) Yes, No,
    or Not sure / No response.
  93. This is about university.
  94. DA: Should university
    be free for everybody?
  95. MS: Yeah, that's the question.
  96. Please don't answer it.
  97. DA: No.
  98. MS: Now, question number four.
  99. (Portuguese) "Everyone should use
    public transportation instead of cars."
  100. DA: Should we all [use]
    public transportation instead of cars?
  101. MS: You know Portuguese, man!
    DA: Yeah, yeah.
  102. MS: (Portuguese) Yes, No, or Not Sure -
  103. Again - well, you know.
  104. You want to read the fifth one?
  105. DA: No.
    MS: Okay.
  106. (Laughter)
  107. MS: (Portuguese) "Smoking
    should be forbidden in all public places."
  108. DA: Something about smoking.
  109. MS: (Portuguese) Yes, No,
    Not sure / No response.
  110. It says, "Smoking should be forbidden
    in all public places."
  111. DA: Great. Everybody finished?
  112. Great.
  113. Now comes the tricky part.
  114. You have a number on your envelope.
  115. MS: It's also on the first page
    if you lost the envelope.
  116. DA: And somebody else
    has the same number on their envelope.
  117. And what you're supposed to do
    is to find that person.
  118. Let us show you how you find them.
  119. You say, "290!"
  120. MS: 290!
  121. DA and MS: Ahhh!
  122. DA: Okay, wait. So you find a person -
  123. Come on! Stand up!
  124. They should be not too far from you.
  125. If you don't find that person, stand up.
  126. If you find the person, sit down.
  127. If you haven't found the person, stand up
  128. and show it around
    until you find the person.
  129. If you find the person, sit down.
  130. You found it?
  131. MS: Look, please, please, hey, pspsps.
  132. We need some silence, some silence.
  133. People! Hey, hey!
  134. Please, please, silence!
  135. DA: I have a trick.
  136. The secret of having good sex ...
  137. (Laughter)
  138. MS: People, please, please, please
    make some silence here.
  139. DA: Let me try again.
  140. A guy goes to the rabbi,
  141. and he says, "Rabbi,
    I think my wife is trying to kill me.
  142. Would you talk to her
    and find out if that's the case?"
  143. No, it doesn't work.
  144. MS: No.
  145. Anal sex!
  146. (Laughter)
  147. DA: Okay! Quiet!
  148. MS: That's always - Okay,
    you know, you should - hey!
  149. People that don't have a partner,
    you silently go to the [aisle],
  150. you find someone else,
  151. and you just invent a number,
  152. and you write down the number
    for the two envelopes.
  153. Once you find a partner,
  154. from now on, you have four minutes
    to do the following thing.
  155. Please pay attention.
  156. You have to discuss
    about these five questions,
  157. freely.
  158. You can discuss one of them,
    three of them, four of them,
  159. the one you like the most.
  160. And you have to write down -
    pay attention to this:
  161. In part three, you have to write down
    the opinion, the responses,
  162. of the person you are talking with.
  163. So here is part three,
  164. and you will have to -
  165. Sorry, in part two -
  166. no in part two.
  167. In part two, you will have to respond
    the answers of your partners.
  168. So you have four minutes from now on
    to talk with the other person
  169. and try to choose
    the more sensitive issues.
  170. Your time.
  171. Now you can talk all what you want. Start!
  172. DA: Go!
  173. (Audience chatter)
  174. Audience member:
    (Portuguese) Hey Marcos, which one?
  175. Marcos: (Portuguese)
    Decriminalizing drugs.
  176. Audience member: Ah!
  177. (Portuguese) Let's do it.
  178. Marcos: (Portuguese) How crazy.
  179. (Laughter)
  180. Audience member: (Portuguese)
    To me, the TED audience will agree on ...
  181. [3 minutes later ...]
  182. DA: Ehm, we want to make sure you write
    the opinions of the other person
  183. on part two.
  184. So in part one,
    you write your own opinions.
  185. In part two, you write
    the other person's opinion.
  186. And once you finish that,
  187. in the bottom,
    there's a short description
  188. of how you should end your discussion.
  189. So please follow these instructions
    of how to end this discussion,
  190. and then -
  191. Follow the instrucitons.
  192. MS: Let's see two groups.
  193. (Audience chatter)
  194. DA: Okay.
  195. And now, please fill part number three.
  196. Fill out part number three.
  197. MS: Part number three is private.
  198. DA: Private.
  199. MS: Do it alone. Each one alone.
    Groups now are over.
  200. You do it alone, and you fill part three.
  201. DA: Part three, please fill it out.
  202. And once you filled it out,
  203. take this,
  204. and put it back in your envelope.
  205. And please pass the envelopes forward.
  206. Quietly.
  207. Okay, so -
  208. So here is the question:
  209. No, no, no. Don't seal it.
    Don't worry. It's not that secret.
  210. Okay, so, why did we do this?
  211. MS: Why did we do it?
  212. DA: Why did we do it?
  213. MS: So, as you can see, these questions
    are questions where people have hopefully,
  214. I mean maybe in some of these groups,
    you agreed completely;
  215. in some of these groups,
    maybe there were a lot of differences.
  216. And as you may imagine,
    as you may imagine,
  217. we tend to like, we tend to trust,
  218. we tend to think
    that people that think like us
  219. are actually better,
    more attractive, more trustable.
  220. So we wanted to ask this question.
  221. In the very end, you all responded
    questions about liking the other person.
  222. But there was a bit of a trick.
  223. DA: So wait.
  224. So the first thing is we wanted
    to replicate previous results
  225. that basically say
    when people are more similar to us,
  226. we like them more.
  227. And there's actually
    quite a few interesting nuances.
  228. MS: Yeah, so -
    DA: What you found?
  229. MS: So we've done - I mean, this is
    the second time we did this experiment.
  230. We did the first in Argentina
    with 10,000 people,
  231. and now we are doing it again
    here in Portugal.
  232. And what we are trying
    to show, the first thing -
  233. There are two things about this experiment
    that we are trying to test -
  234. there are questions, there are hypotheses
    that we would like to respond.
  235. The first one is you may have seen
  236. that some of you,
    when you finished the discussion,
  237. you did something like this.
  238. And some of you did something
  239. like this.
  240. And it happens to be not quite the same.
  241. We asked -
  242. and we ask this question
    as always in science
  243. because we have reason to believe
    that if we hug the other person,
  244. can this make us immune to this bias
  245. by which we do not accept
    so much the differences?
  246. And it seems to be,
    this is what we are finding,
  247. this is what we would like
    to confirm here -
  248. DA: Too much for me,
    let's get a little far.
  249. MS: This is what
    we are trying to confirm here,
  250. that once we hug the other person,
  251. we're more open,
  252. and we're willing to trust
    the people that think like us
  253. but also the people
    that think differently for us.
  254. DA: So the question is whether the hug -
  255. it basically bonds us
    and can bridge differences.
  256. Now, lots of those things
    about our differences
  257. are nothing that are explicit.
  258. Before the session, there was
    this beautiful video from Denmark.
  259. Right? About all the people
    with the differences and so on.
  260. I was in Denmark a couple of months ago,
  261. and there's a very funny thing
    happening in Denmark,
  262. which is kids start learning Danish
    about two years slower
  263. than they learned 20 years ago.
  264. For some reason,
    Danish kids are slower now
  265. picking up language.
  266. And the question is why.
    Why does it happen?
  267. It doesn't happen in Norway.
  268. It only happens in Denmark.
  269. And what they found is that the reason
  270. is that the parents are speaking faster
    and swallow their words.
  271. They make it harder
    for the kids to learn language.
  272. Again, why would parents do that?
  273. And the current theory
  274. is that it's a barrier against immigrants.
  275. So what the Danish
    are doing - not explicitly,
  276. it's not that the Danish say explicitly,
    "We hate foreigners; let's do it,"
  277. but as a society,
    they created a mechanism
  278. that creates barrier for new people.
  279. And the barrier is that
    it's harder to learn Danish -
  280. they also make it harder
    for their own kids
  281. to learn Danish in the process -
  282. and it's an implicit barrier.
  283. So the question we wanted to ask here,
    and we'll figure out the results,
  284. is whether some kind
    of physical connection
  285. helps us bridge the gaps.
  286. We've tried all kinds of things
    in the past about bridging gaps,
  287. including the four-minute
    discussion that you have
  288. and the results
    were very impressive, right?
  289. The results show that
    even a four-minute diuscussion
  290. on things that people really disagree with
    helps bridge the gaps.
  291. Now we're going to try to figure out
  292. whether it's also about
    physical proximity,
  293. whether it helps.
  294. MS: So again, this seems to be the case.
  295. And sometimes, you know, science
    does not have to be rocket science.
  296. I mean, giving a hug
    is not a lot of technology,
  297. but maybe it's quite powerful,
  298. and this is what we are trying to show,
  299. that people become much more tolerant
    once they've done so.
  300. And to me, you know,
    I watch a lot of football; this is -
  301. I mean, what can I do, I'm Argentinian.
  302. And people that watch a lot of football,
  303. of course, there is not
    a lot of good football.
  304. So if you watch a lot of football,
    you watch some good football
  305. and a lot of bad football.
  306. DA: Argentianian, you say.
  307. MS: Yeah, Argentinian football -
  308. bad football.
  309. And so, often, I'm watching this game
    which is completely irrelevant,
  310. like a second division game
    in the Luxembourg League.
  311. I mean, imagine something
    more irrelevant than that.
  312. And it's like a game
    in the middle of the championship -
  313. irrelevant because it's in
    the middle of a championship.
  314. And the game is already closed -
  315. there's nothing that will change.
  316. And there is a goal there.
  317. So you see how irrelevant this is.
  318. It's the most irrelevant league,
    the most irrelevant game,
  319. the most irrelevant moment.
  320. But the players, they hug each other
  321. like it would be the most important
    moment in the universe.
  322. It's like you see them
    and you go, What's going on?
  323. And so when I saw that, I reflected,
  324. I know how it's for you
    in your professions.
  325. I'm a scientist;
    I've done science for 20 years,
  326. and I think I've never hugged
    any of my colleagues.
  327. I mean, I've had very good moments,
    good discoveries, good -
  328. I mean, moments of thought,
    good moments of enthusiasm.
  329. But I've never said, You know what,
  330. this is so important
  331. that we should hug each other
    in this moment of intense bonding
  332. that actually football players do.
  333. And so maybe what we should hear
    is that this is quite important,
  334. and so we proposed here
    maybe to change that.
  335. After 20 years, with one
    of my friends and colleagues,
  336. we're going to change that,
    and we invite you to actually hug -
  337. DA: Let's demonstrate.
    Let's demonstrate.
  338. MS: Physical contact can be like this ...
  339. or it can be ... like this.
  340. So you choose [Inaudible]
  341. Both: Oooooh.
  342. Rrrrghhhhh.
  343. (Laughter)
  344. (Applause)
  345. DA: Okay, now -
  346. MS: Everybody do the same.
  347. Strong hug. Come on.
  348. DA: Real hug.
  349. A real hug.
  350. (Audience chatter)
  351. DA: I can feel the oxytocin.
  352. Thank you very much,
  353. and we will report the result
    of the experiment soon.
  354. MS: (Portuguese) Thank you! Bye!
  355. (Applause) (Cheers)