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← Toast Kaizen 1

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Showing Revision 5 created 08/25/2019 by SERVICIOS PROFESIONALES.

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    [Music]

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    The video that you're
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    about to see is being created to
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    demonstrate some of the basic philosophy
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    and principles of the Toyota Production
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    System, or as we call it today,
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    lean thinking. Lean manufacturing.
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    Or lean administrative.
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    The ideas apply equally to any segment
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    of the business.
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    But we take them into the kitchen to try
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    to get them out of all of those areas,
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    so that people can watch without being
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    encumbered by predispositions that they
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    have about their current jobs.
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    It is a go-see video, where we ask people
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    to watch and become engaged, which is also
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    a critical part of being lean.
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    So join us and enjoy.
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    It's amazing what we can learn
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    from our own intuition if we will only
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    watch and see, what's going on
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    in the process.
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    Two of the most important points of
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    what we call lean manufacturing
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    involve direct observation of the process.
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    And then, once we understand what we see,
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    effective use of countermeasures to remove
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    the problems that we see.
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    And in particular,
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    the use of what we call Kaizen.
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    Kaizen is a Japanese word that means
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    "small change for the better."
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    Many small changes for the better,
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    and in particular, it means small changes
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    that are created from the intuition,
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    experience and common sense of the people
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    who do the work.
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    Too often, we overlook these opportunities
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    and as Mr. Ono and Mr. Shingo
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    at the Toyota Motor Works discovered,
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    almost 9/10 of the time
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    between paying and getting paid,
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    in our business, involves waste --
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    which can be identified through
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    direct observation if we will only watch.
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    So today we have a process
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    for everyone to watch.
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    Every shop floor, of course, is different.
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    And we need to choose a shop floor which
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    is easy to bring to many people
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    and one in which you all can
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    provide some intuition, because you have
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    done the process yourself.
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    So we pick a very simple process
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    and that process is making toast.
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    Now it is a simple process.
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    Uh, but it does involve a machine,
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    a toaster. And tools. A knife.
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    Conveyance equipment. A plate.
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    It involves a customer.
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    In this case, it's -- my wife --
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    is the customer.
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    And it involves a person who is doing
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    the work and that will be me.
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    So I invite you to come to my shop floor
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    where we can watch the process
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    very carefully and watch with an eye
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    for improvement to try to understand what
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    can be made better in this process.
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    Watch the video and then we'll get your
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    thinking before we continue with
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    an improvement.
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    I'm making some toast for my wife.
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    [Rustling noises]
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    [Toaster pops]
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    Geez.
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    [Muttering to himself]
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    [Sighs.]
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    Honey, I made you some toast!
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    Is it raisin toast?
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    OK. I hope you enjoyed watching
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    the before condition, and I'll bet
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    since you were watching with
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    an eye for improvement, you saw lots of
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    things that could be improved.
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    This, in fact, is what happens when we
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    truly have direct observation.
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    You know, we're all so much creatures
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    of habit that we come to work, all of us,
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    trying to do a good day's work,
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    and we work around the problems.
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    You know, the common expression is,
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    whatever it takes to get the job done.
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    We're not focused on improvement when
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    we're trying to get our jobs done.
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    We're just focused on trying to get
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    things done in spite of all the problems
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    that crop up.
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    But this time you came and watched
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    the process with an eye for improvement.
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    And what are the things that you saw?
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    I'll bet you saw, for example,
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    that I did an awful lot of walking around.
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    We call that waste of motion.
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    You saw me walk back and forth,
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    perhaps four times.
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    You say, well, did that add any value
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    to the function of making toast?
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    So we look for that sort of thing
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    and we try to reduce it. We look for
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    ways to reduce steps and motion.
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    And in fact, if we were able to move
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    the toaster closer to the bread,
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    that would reduce that particular
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    motion altogether. This is what we call
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    Kaizen: a simple improvement that can
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    have a very big effect.
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    One possibility, course,
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    would have been that I could have had a
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    motorized tract to move me back and forth.
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    Mr. Shingo would have called that
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    a superficial improvement,
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    because that would only be automating
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    the waste of motion.
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    He said, we need to find ways
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    to truly reduce the kinds of waste
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    that we see; not cover them up.
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    Here's another example of motion.
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    Motion is one of those wastes that's
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    truly a people waste.
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    Things that we must do in our jobs
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    all require motion.
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    But the question is, how much motion.
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    Because we would like to have
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    as little as possible.
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    Uh, when I was searching for the butter,
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    in the refrigerator,
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    how much time should I spend looking?
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    I had to dig through the refrigerator on
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    several shelves until I found the butter.
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    Now that would be one of those things
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    that we would say is necessary
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    to get the job done.
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    And that's true, but it is waste.
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    The customer does not pay when
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    we are searching for things.
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    And almost every job has this condition.
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    Could be a pen, could be a calculator.
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    Could be a crescent wrench.
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    You may be breaking a sweat
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    looking for this part.
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    You may spend a very long time.
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    But it's not work.
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    And the customer doesn't pay for it.
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    You know, motion is often very tiring.
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    Stressful. Sometimes even dangerous.
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    But we're used to it.
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    It's just something that
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    we're accustomed to.
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    So we do it all the time.
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    Mr. Shingo pointed out
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    on a number of occasions that
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    eliminating waste is not the problem.
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    It's identifying it.
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    It's actually being able to see it.
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    And sometimes we are so familiar with
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    things that aren't working,
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    that we've forgotten about them.
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    So we need to go back and observe directly
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    Observe our own work.
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    Just like when we watch toast.
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    In order to understand where
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    those wastes are.
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    When you eliminate motion from your work,
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    you're making the job easier.
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    You're making the day better.
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    Because you're making problems
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    that you've had disappear.
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    And when that happens,
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    you can do more work.
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    It won't be more tiring,
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    but it will be more work.
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    And so that's just one of the seven wastes
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    which Mr. Shingo identified.
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    Here's another one.
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    Did you get a little nervous and antsy
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    watching me wait for that toast?
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    Well, he said, you know, waiting is
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    a big part of the process.
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    The customer doesn't pay for waiting.
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    There are times when waiting is part
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    of the process. Where it's important.
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    For example,
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    if it's important for something
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    to age or glue to dry.
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    Or if it's important for us to take
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    a rest occasionally.
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    This causes a delay in the process,
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    but this is important,
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    because it's necessary,
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    it's part of the work.
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    But if you're waiting for a toaster
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    which is taking a very long time,
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    what else could we be doing during
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    that time?
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    You may think that it's easy
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    to find out what to do,
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    but in fact, the person's time
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    is very different from the machine's time.
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    And often we pay people to stand
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    and watch machines.
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    Sometimes we buy a big machine
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    and it's making defects for us.
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    So we pay somebody to stand
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    and be sure that it doesn't make a defect.
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    This doesn't value the employee and it
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    surely does not improve our productivity.
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    So there's another waste: waiting.
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    In fact, you know, there's a lot of
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    waiting that goes on. Not only for people.
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    In fact, most often in factories,
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    and in offices, we don't wait.
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    People don't wait. But material waits.
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    Information waits.
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    It waits in inboxes. It waits on pallets.
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    It waits even on trucks.
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    It looks like it's moving but actually
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    it's just sitting there. It's waiting.
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    And Mr. Shingo said, customers don't want
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    to pay for that.
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    That's increasing the time between paying
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    and getting paid. That's another waste.
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    Now occasionally we do have
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    to move that material.
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    We have to move it from
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    point A to point B.
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    And you can't make a part or you can't run
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    a business without some transportation.
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    You need to move things around.
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    But how far? Well, that has to do with
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    the distance between operations.
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    And in fact, there was some transportation
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    and another waste of storage.
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    Picking things up and putting them down.
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    How many times did I pick the toast up
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    and put it down in process of toasting?
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    The function here, of course,
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    is making toast, and that involves
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    picking it up once anyway,
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    but how many times did I pick it up?
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    And how many storage points were there?
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    Often when we think of storage,
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    we think only of the warehouse.
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    And some storage in a warehouse
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    may be legitimate.
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    But why everywhere else?
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    Are our factories and offices warehouses,
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    or are they workplaces?
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    So we need to be able to see those wastes
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    and identify them as waste, because
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    every time we are storing information
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    or material, we're not really
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    adding value to it.
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    The customer doesn't want to pay for that.
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    We can't put at the bottom of the invoice,
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    this product was stored many times.
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    So we're charging you extra for it.
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    So we call that value added.
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    From the customer standpoint.
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    What is the value that the customer
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    expects in the process?
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    Here's another waste. Defects.
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    Were there any defects here?
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    Well, in this case there was
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    a very big defect. There was scrap.
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    There were four pieces of scrap and why?
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    Because I wasn't making what
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    the customer needed.
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    Now obviously in this case it would be
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    easy for me to ask the customer,
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    but very often, a factory or an office is
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    set up working on things which are
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    not needed. Not needed today.
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    Maybe needed next week.
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    Maybe needed next month.
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    But they're not needed now.
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    And if we're not careful, we'll end up
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    producing something which
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    we'll have to scrap.
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    Now there's a couple of other wastes
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    that I haven't covered yet.
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    Let me just mention one now. Processing.
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    Sometimes in the processing itself,
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    there are things which don't make sense.
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    We do them because that's the way
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    the process is designed,
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    but maybe we need to look at the process
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    more closely to understand how
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    it could be improved.
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    The way I had to cut butter in
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    that first condition,
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    is an inadequate process.
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    Sure, the function of buttering toast
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    requires that we cut the butter.
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    But nobody says it should be
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    as hard as a rock. And of course,
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    who can identify that waste?
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    Now, of course,
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    there needs to be a condition
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    in your business when a waste like that
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    is identified that we can
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    make an improvement.
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    In the real world sometimes a person might
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    identify a waste like that,
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    speak to their boss,
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    and the boss might say, you know,
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    we have brought people who
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    solve those problems.
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    Why don't you just quit complaining
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    and get back to your job?
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    So simple things often are not fixed
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    because we don't observe directly.
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    The last waste -- the last waste and
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    the worst waste of all,
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    we call over-production.
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    Over-production is producing information
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    or material either too soon or in
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    too great a quantity.
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    Now in our traditional thinking,
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    over-production isn't even
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    a meaningful word.
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    How could it be a problem to produce more.
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    Because we'll sell it.
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    We'll sell it eventually.
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    Or if we're able to do it
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    sooner than later, why not?
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    Uh, but if you think about over-production
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    if we make something and we can't use it
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    right now,
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    we're gonna have to move it somewhere.
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    And that's transportation.
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    And then we're gonna have to store it.
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    That's storage.
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    And in fact if we're making something
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    right now, that isn't needed, well,
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    we're causing something behind to wait,
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    aren't we?
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    We don't think of it as waiting
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    because we're very busy.
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    But the customer is waiting.
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    The next job is waiting.
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    Why do you suppose I made four slices
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    of toast? Why would I do that?
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    Well, it's a four-slice toaster, right?
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    Now I don't even know what
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    the customer wants, but unfortunately,
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    this is often the case.
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    And if we don't know what
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    the customer wants,
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    and we may want to maximize the resource.
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    We may say, don't load that oven until
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    there are four slices.
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    Let's keep the customer waiting.
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    More efficient, isn't it?
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    Well, not if the customer is
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    not going to buy it.
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    We're gonna end up scrapping it.
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    So you see, this whole idea of
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    the seven wastes --
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    -- if you look at it from
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    an initiative standpoint, it makes
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    a lot of sense to look for these wastes.
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    But in our workplaces,
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    regardless of the jobs that we do,
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    we've very practiced at
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    not looking for these wastes.
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    The day is very long often.
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    Very rarely do I hear somebody say,
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    I had a great day.
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    Well, the reason for that
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    is all the headaches.
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    All the things that you
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    just observed in this process --
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    you can observe these same kinds
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    of wastes in any process.
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    Shigeo Shingo, who was the creator
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    of these seven wastes,
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    or at least the first person
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    to report them, said --
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    he said it doesn't matter whether you're
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    making automobiles or baking bread.
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    Waste is still the same.
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    Continuous improvement is not about
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    the things you do well.
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    That's work.
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    That's what your customer is paying for.
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    Continuous improvement is about
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    eliminating all of the things that get in
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    the way of your work every single day.
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    Regardless of the job you do.
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    The headaches. The problems.
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    The things that slow you down.
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    The things that cause you to say at
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    the end of the day, I'm very tired,
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    this has been a hard day.
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    That's what continuous
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    improvement is about.
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    So why don't we stop right here
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    and try to gather our thoughts
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    as to what we saw in that process,
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    that can be improved.
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    Simple things, is what we're looking for.
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    Kaizen. We're looking for the things that
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    can be improved through your experience
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    and common sense.
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    No big machines. No innovation.
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    These are improvements as well but this
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    is not what we're looking for with Kaizen.
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    We're looking for many small improvements.
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    So what are your ideas?
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    Pause the tape or DVD here to see if
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    you can identify and suggest ways
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    to remove the seven types of waste
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    Bruce defined including motion,
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    waiting, transportation, storage, defects,
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    processing, and over-production.
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    Okay, I'll bet by now,
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    you've had a lot of ideas as to
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    what can be improved in what
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    we call the current condition.
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    And of course, any process can be improved
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    if we watch and look for the improvements
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    that can be made.
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    Now let's take a look and see
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    what happened when my wife and I got
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    together to make a better process
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    for making toast.
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    What type of toast would you like?
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    Wheat.
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    Okay. How many slices?
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    Just one please.
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    Very good.
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    [Rustling noises.]
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    Hmmm.
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    [Whistling]
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    [Clears throat.]
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    That oughta do it.
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    [Running water sounds]
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    All set!
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    Thanks dear.
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    So now you see what we mean by Kaizen.
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    Simple improvements with big benefits.
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    And simple improvements which come from
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    direct observation and from the thinking
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    and knowledge of people that do the work.
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    For example,
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    moving the toaster closer to the bread.
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    How many times have you
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    experienced this condition?
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    The work you need to do is done on
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    a machine which is far away from you.
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    Why is the machine there?
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    Maybe that was the spot that --
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    there was space on the day that
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    the machine arrived.
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    Or maybe that's where
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    the telephone line is.
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    Or where the power is.
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    But does it make it easy for you to do
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    the work or is it causing you to walk long
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    distances back and forth between
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    the two processes?
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    So we focused on a simple improvement.
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    We moved the machine.
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    Another improvement that we made
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    was to the butter.
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    I know that it's necessary to butter toast
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    but nobody said that
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    the butter needs to be hard as a rock.
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    So we softened the butter and we put the
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    butter right at the point of use as well.
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    No more searching; since we don't
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    need it in the refrigerator,
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    we can put it right at the point of use.
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    While buttering the toast is real work
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    because the customer has asked for it,
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    we can eliminate the Muda,
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    or waste of over-processing.
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    That is, putting too much
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    butter on the bread.
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    And at the same time,
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    eliminate the strain or Muri,
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    of buttering by softening the butter.
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    Finally we can reduce the Mura,
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    or inconsistency of the buttering process
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    by making it easier to apply a standard
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    and even amount of butter to the toast.
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    We chose to keep the flatware where it was
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    Because that was a good location for it
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    for other things.
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    But notice that I picked the piece of
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    flatware up on the way to the process
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    while asking my wife what she needed.
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    I was very careful in the order of
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    the process because sometimes changing
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    the order of the process can make
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    a big difference.
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    In the first video,
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    I waited a long time to start the toaster.
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    In the second video, I started the toaster
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    as soon as I knew what the customer wanted
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    And very importantly,
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    I knew what the customer wanted.
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    I knew what she wanted and
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    I knew how many she wanted.
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    And therefore I was able to make
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    exactly what was needed.
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    No over-production.
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    In fact, I preheated the toaster
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    so there would be less waiting
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    for the customer.
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    Now the process was long,
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    it was still long, but I found a way
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    to make good, productive use of my time
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    that was balanced against
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    the machine time.
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    Too often we think that a person's time
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    is the same as the machine's.
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    But it's not.
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    A person can do other things.
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    And once I realized this,
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    I was able to load the toast,
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    get that toaster process going,
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    and then load the dishwasher and clean up.
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    And I had plenty of time.
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    In fact, I was still waiting.
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    I had extra time.
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    So these are simple improvements
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    that were made.
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    You probably thought of all these as well.
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    Here's an interesting aside.
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    At this point, it's important to realize
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    that Kaizen is small, stepwise improvement
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    We're not aiming for perfection
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    in the first try.
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    But for something better than we have.
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    And when we get there,
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    it's likely that we'll notice
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    something more we can do now to
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    make things even better.
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    In that sense, every target condition
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    immediately becomes our
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    new current condition.
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    As you viewed the improved condition,
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    your direct observation may have uncovered
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    further opportunities to reduce waste.
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    What did you see?
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    Did you notice a potential safety hazard
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    with the location of the toaster?
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    Or were you waiting for
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    Bruce to wash his hands?
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    Why were the dishes in the sink
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    in the first place, you might ask?
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    And did you observe that an operation
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    was missing in the target condition?
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    With Kaizen, we are always watching for
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    additional improvement
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    and the more eyes watching,
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    the more we'll see.
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    Now we've switched on that part of us
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    that is going to notice waste
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    and come up with small changes
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    for the better. Everybody every day.
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    And the most important part of this was
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    that the customer was happy.
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    I produced what the customer wanted.
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    I made the part move faster.
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    I made the job easier.
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    I reduced the time between paying
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    and getting paid. I reduced scrap.
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    I reduced the number of steps
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    that I had to take. I reduced searching.
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    I made it a good day for me.
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    And for the customer.
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    This is what continuous
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    improvement is all about.
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    So this is my challenge to you.
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    Yeah, toast is simple to make.
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    Go take a look at another process.
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    Go take a look at your job.
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    But this time, watch
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    with an eye for improvement.
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    And see how many of these wastes
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    you can identify and remove.
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    [Music.]