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36C3 - Build you own Quantum Computer @ Home - 99% of discount - Hacker Style !

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    36C3 preroll music
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    Herald: Welcome to the world of quantum
    computing. Well, most of you is gonna just
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    gonna say, ah, that stuff is just for
    cracking RSA keys. But there is actually a
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    little bit more to that. It's interesting
    stuff. And our next speaker, Yann Allain
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    is going to introduce this world of
    quantum computing to us. And he's gonna
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    show us a couple of application scenarios
    and how to build your or our own quantum
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    computer. Yann.
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    Applause
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    Yann: Salut, hello everybody, Guten Tag,
    alle - this is the only word I know in
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    Deutsch. We will begin this session by try
    to convince you that building a quantum
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    computer at home is still possible. This
    is the agenda. We are in a INFOSEC
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    security conference. Why bother with
    quantum computing when we work at
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    cybersecurity? We will try to explain to
    you in a simply manner how to our quantum
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    computer works. We will explain to you,
    how we build our own quantum computer. And
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    of course, because we are CCC, we need to
    know how to hack into a quantum computer.
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    So, let me introduce myself a little bit.
    So, I'm Yann Allain, I am French. I'm used
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    to share my project with some security
    conferences: Hack In the Box, Blackhat.
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    I was a speaker and trainer in this type
    of conference. It's the first time for me in
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    CCC, so it's very cool. I'm mostly an
    entrepreneur, an engineer. And of course,
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    my new company, NextGenQ, which stands for
    Next Generation of Quantum Computer is a
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    quantum company. I work in the INFOSEC
    security since 25 years now. So I'm a
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    veteran of these domain. I fight again "I
    love you" very seasoned slammer worm. If
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    you remember those worm and my past
    activities are related to software and
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    hardware security. So why bother with
    quantum computing when we work in
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    cybersecurity? If you want to make some
    difficult calculation on areas like sci., for
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    example, to factor... a large number on a
    classical computer, it will take 10 to the
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    power of 34 steps. It's a big number and
    it will take on a normal computer 300
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    trillion of years. It's a long, long time.
    It's why we say that RSA is secure. On a
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    quantum computer we have a specific
    algorithm called Shor algorithm. It take
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    only 10 to the power of 7 steps. It's a
    smaller number and it takes only 10
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    seconds. However, you could think that the
    statement is a little bit overhyped. Yes
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    and no. No, because Shor algorithm is able
    to break RSA. This is the goal of this
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    algorithm in the human time. However, at
    the moment we speak - to break a big
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    number with this algorithm you need to
    have a much bigger quantum computer that
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    exists nowadays. For example, you need 4
    thousands ideal qubits quantum computer.
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    It doesn't exist for the moment. However,
    quantum computing could be used also for
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    some benefits for our domain of INFOSEC
    cybersecurity. There is many advantage on
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    the corner. You can use a quantum computer
    or quantum technology to generate true
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    random number. This is useful for
    cryptography. You can deploy what is
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    called blind quantum computing. In fact,
    blind quantum computing is the ultimate
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    privacy for the cloud, for example. Some
    guys try to launch, what they call a
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    Quantum Internet. It's not so easy as
    cable networks and with a particular
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    future for us, that could be cool to use
    if you use a Quantum Internet. Everyone
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    that tried to spy you on the line will be
    detected. So it could be very useful. And
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    of course, quantum computing brings to
    the massive new power of processing.
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    But, how those computer works? This is the
    1 slide quantum mechanic course. Why does
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    a fancy new quantum computer are so
    powerful? In classical computing, we use
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    bits. A bit is only in two states, 1 or 0.
    In quantum computing we replace the bits
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    by the quantum bits, which we call then
    qubits. These qubits follow the quantum
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    mechanical principle called superposition.
    And this principle is able to do, to
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    provide to the user several step at
    the same time. So if you use a qubit, the
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    qubit could be in the state of 0 and 1
    nearly at the same time. It's not exactly
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    what it is, but for us as a computer
    scientist, we could understand that it's a
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    zero and 1 at the same time. And of
    course, if a quantum computer. This is a
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    quantum computer wants to manage to deal
    with all this qubits. It deals with all
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    the solution of the quantum register at
    the same time. So it will speed up the
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    process of data computing because you take
    all the space generated by these quantum
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    register and in one clock time
    the computer process all
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    solution. This is mainly why and how the
    quantum computing is so powerful. So it's
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    cool. So I want to build my own qubits. So
    this is my journey to build my own quantum
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    computer. And you will see that there
    is some success and failure in most of the
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    time. And I'm in the middle of this. So,
    I need to choose a technology to build
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    my own qubit's hardware. This talk is mainly
    about hardwear. How to build your own
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    hardrwear, to build your own quantum
    computer. So my ingredients, I need to
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    find a suport at the hardware level that
    behave like quantum mechanic. Say you need
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    to be able to do a quantum computer. So I
    need to find something that's behaving at
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    atomic scale. I need to be able to build
    it. So I want to be able to use my do-it-
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    yourself skills. And I want that my
    quantum computer works at room
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    temperature. If it could be stable
    machine, it could be the best. There is
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    many, many technology to build you on
    qubits. This one called superconducting
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    qubits is used by a small startup like
    IBM, Google. Mainly the big one use this
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    technology. Microsoft tried to use this
    technology. This technology with Diamond
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    vacancy is used by university in Australia
    and in Ireland, I think. And of course, I
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    use this technology. I use the technology
    called trap ions. So I trapped ions to
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    make a quantum computer. So my low level
    hardware support and device to do some
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    calculation with my quantum computer is
    atom. Why I choose an atom to make some
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    fancy new qantum computer? The main
    reason is because I think I may be able to
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    build it in my garage. It's enough
    affordable and well spread technology
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    because we use technology that has been
    developed in 1945. There is a lot of
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    experience with this type of technology.
    And the main reason, in fact, the qubit
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    quality is better than any other technology.
    We have a long coherence time.
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    If you have a long quantum coherence time,
    you can make much larger program, for
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    example. So we need to share a bit of
    theory to understand how this type of
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    computer works or I have a choice. I made
    a choice. I could have take time to make
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    dozens of equations mainly I don't
    understand those equation to explain to
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    you how to make some calculation with
    ions. But I found a video on YouTube and I
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    would like to share you this two minutes
    only video to let you understand how at a
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    theoretical point of view a quantum
    computer based on ion trap works. Let's
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    see if it works.
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    background music starts
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    Video: .. electrically charged atoms make
    for excellent qubits. This kind of
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    research has paved the way for a quantum
    computer prototype. Like an ordinary bit,
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    a qubit can be a 1 or a 0. A Qubit differs
    from a bit because it can also be in
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    combinations of these two states. An ion
    qubit is made from two of its energy
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    levels. Ions of the same type are
    identical. So adding more qubits is
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    simple. You just need to add more ions to
    the system. This is a major plus because a
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    quantum computer will need lots and lots
    of qubits. Qubits must be configured in
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    certain quantum states in order to perform
    quantum tasks. In an iron trap, taylored
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    Laser pulses can change the energy of an
    eye on setting it into quantum state 1, 0
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    or a combination of the two. The qubit
    surrounding environment sometimes sneakes
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    in and destroys the qubit state, a covert
    act that can ruin a computation. But some
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    ion energy levels are naturally isolated
    and scientists have come up with clever
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    ways of adding an extra layers of
    protection. Quantum computer calculations
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    are made from steps called Logic Gates.
    This will often involve more than one
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    qubit, which means the qubits should be
    connected in some way in an iron trap.
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    Neighboring ion qubits are connected
    through their collective motion. This
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    happens because of their electrical
    repulsion. Laser pulses target the motion,
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    enabling gates between any pair of qubits.
    To get the result of a calculation,
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    scientists need to tell whether a qubit is
    in state 1 or 0. Shining laser pulses onto
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    the ions makes only one of the two qubit
    levels flouress. So the result, light or
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    no light, gives information about the
    calculation. Because many qubits are
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    needed, quantum devices must be designed
    to be scalable. Researchers can only cram
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    so many ions next to each other in a
    single ion trap before they get too
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    unruly. But with modules each containing
    tens or hundreds of ions, they can start
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    to wire up a large scale quantum computer.
    Flight from individual ion modules can be
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    collected, allowing ion qubits from
    separate modules to communicate using
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    photons rather than their motion. So far,
    scientists wired up two such modules and
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    they are getting ready to deploy larger
    devices using several more.
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    background music stops
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    Yann: So now, congratulation, you are
    experts in ion trap quantum computing. A
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    two minute video only is necessary.
    However, we like to build this quantum
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    computer. So the plan is the following. We
    need some ions. You know that now. You
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    need an ion trap. You need a vacuum
    chamber because we need to isolate our
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    atom from the environment to maintain the
    quantum states. We need some laser, as you
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    show in the video, to manipulate the
    quantum states. We need some low level
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    software, to timely send the pulse of
    laser to manipulate the ions. And we
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    need a camera to measure the ions quantum
    states. It's easy, no? So let's go to the
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    difficult parts, I think mainly I would
    like to say that it's a work in progress.
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    It's good, well, to say that it doesn't
    finished. And, just an alert, we need to
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    manipulate, very high power electric voltages.
    So if you want to do this at home, do it
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    at your own risk. It's not my fault. So
    how to create? First, we need to create an
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    ion trap. How to create an ion trap and
    what is an iron trap? An iron trap is
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    mainly a bunch of electrode with specific
    3D or 2D geometry. We send to the
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    electrode medium to high power voltage. AC
    voltage, alternative voltage. From 200 V
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    to 6 kV. It's a big number for a voltage.
    We will use moderate to high frequency.
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    This is due to the trap theory. Someone
    have won the Nobel Prize to explain that
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    to trap an atom, you need to use an
    alternating voltage. And this electric
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    voltage will make an electric field, and
    the goal of the electric field with the
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    trap is just to maintain all the atom in a
    chain that will float over the air, over
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    the trap. So how to achieve that at a
    small, small company budget, we say,
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    because it's not for our best, I think.
    Let's go. So I use my ultra high tech
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    military grade garage. I use 3D printer,
    local CNC machine, PCB milling techniques,
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    only open source software. KiCad, FreeCAD,
    FlatCAM. KiCad for the electronics,
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    FreeCAD for the mechanics and FlatCAM for
    the CNC. I used some high voltage
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    transformer, classical electronics and of
    course isolated gloves. Security first.
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    Safety first, sometime. And of course, I
    use eBay as a main procurement utility.
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    First try. I need to make a classical
    Paul trap, of course, when I
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    don't know, how it works, I go to Google
    and I find that some institution like CERN
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    have a project to make an ion trap from
    3D printed parts. I use conductive ink and
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    only high voltage power supply. So I need
    to build this. There is the high voltage...
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    air, two electrodes and one ring
    electrodes. The goal is to trap ions with
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    that. So this is the main laboratory I
    use. So you have a variac. We take the
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    electric plug from your domestic electric
    network. The high transformer and air. So
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    the 3D printed, you have two electrode and
    the camera. This is the electrode. It's a
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    very safe wiring system. For safety
    reason, I put some resistance here just to
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    limit the currents. The first time.
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    laughter
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    Yann: In a more closer way you will see
    that the high voltages is coming from
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    this. We will apply the voltages to the
    electrode. And the camera is here. Just
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    see what the electrode will do. It works.
    I'm succeeding trapping some macro
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    particles. This is not ion for demonstrational
    purposes, but we succeed to
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    trap in the electrode some particles.
    Macro particles. But we have a first
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    failure because with this geometry, we
    couldn't shine correctly the laser to
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    manipulate the quantum state. First
    failure. Second try. We need to to make,
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    another ion trap based on a new topology
    or new geometry of electrode. And this
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    time we use a linear port to facilitate
    the laser shining. So again, I need to
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    design on my own this new type because
    the CERN don't provide me the 3D
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    printed parts. I use conductive ink and
    high voltages. So the goal is to design
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    this. And in this trap you will see
    that we will trap the ion in the chain in
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    the middle of the trap. So I use my 3D
    printer. I make some rods. The supports.
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    Some electrodes. I built all the system
    and I plug the cable, the wiring and the
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    trap. The particle will be trapped in
    these regions. For this second trap I
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    didn't use a resistance to limit the
    currents, so it's impossible to touch this
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    electrode because of death.
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    laughter
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    Yann: And it works, again.
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    applause
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    Yann: And in fact, this is a chain of
    particles that nearly clearly aligned. And
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    this is my first quantum register of eight
    particles. But, this is the biggest
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    failure, I need to put this ion trap in
    the vacuum chamber. A vacuum chamber is
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    this type of thing. It's a big bunch of
    metal and we put the iron trap inside
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    this. However, first, why we need a vacuum
    chamber? To be able to isolate particle
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    from the other atoms in atmosphere to
    avoid collision between atoms. Because if
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    we have collision between atoms, the
    quantum state is destroyed and the quantum
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    processing is destroyed also. So we need a
    vacuum chamber. That's for them. 3D
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    printing parts are not compatible with
    Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) environments. So
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    it's a big fail? Are we doomed? Maker is
    our job, really. So we need to find a new
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    solution. We have found one. So I need to
    find some materials that are compatible
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    with UHV environments to build an ion
    trap. I ask the NASA, because NASA sends
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    electronics in space. Space is like a big
    vacuum chamber. So they have a list of
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    materials publicly available to be able to
    use some material that are compatible with
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    a space condition. They are professionals.
    So what are the candidates, the material
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    candidates for my ion trap? I need to use
    some gold for electronic conductor. I need
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    to use ceramic for mechanical supports and
    Kapton cable for wiring inside the vacuum
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    chamber. So maker is really, really our
    job, because I need to find an idea to
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    transform my 3D printed linear ion trap to
    somthing that is compatible with UHV
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    environments. So I need to read the
    manual. There is a lot of literature on
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    quantum computers on Google, on Internet.
    So I have a bunch of books about quantum
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    mechanics and research paper are
    full of details. I found this: some guys
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    in 62 transform a linear Paul trap
    with rods to a planar ion trap with planar
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    or surface electrodes. That's cool. So I
    need to transform this. To that. Oh, boy.
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    I need to make my own chip. Price for
    complete chip factories are around 200 M$.
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    I called Intel, they don't want to sell me
    one. And it's a bit out of my budget
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    scope. A bit. Let's think this five
    minutes through to find a solution. In
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    fact, it took me two months to find an
    affordable solution to do that. So I
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    wanted to make a new design like a boss,
    of ion trap. I use a CNC, a 300$ CNC, come
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    from Amazon. And then I found an empty
    ceramic chip carrier on eBay from a
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    Norwegian guy. And I designed a simple
    KiCad PCB. So I use this. This is the
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    ceramic chip supports. And what you
    see in yellow - it's gold. I designed in
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    KiCad this PCB and this time we apply
    electric field, high voltage electric
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    field to this electrode, this one and
    those one, and it creates an electric
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    field to align all the macro particles of
    the ion in this line. And this is
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    how I made my quantum computer chip.
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    applause
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    Yann: Thank you. And the better
    is that it works.
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    applause
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    So, tada, I have my first quantum
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    computer done on my garage and just
    keep calm and except I'm a boss.
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    laughter
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    Yann: And it is not just a slide. Well,
    because if you want to see one of my
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    prototype, I bring it so you can touch it
    and see how it works. But when you design
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    such complex things; I am not a physicist,
    I'm just an engineer. A crazy one. But how
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    to be sure that I am on the right road. I
    went to the Science Museum in London few
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    few months ago, and there's this
    exhibition from our friend of GCHQ. Do you
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    know what GCHQ is? It's like doing stuff
    of the UK and they made an exhibition
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    about cryptography. And in this museum,
    they present a quantum computer based on
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    ion trap technology. Thanks. This is the
    experimental part they show in this museum
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    about quantum computer. In the right
    corner of this exhibition there is a
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    wafer. On the wafer you have the electric
    design that they done to make their own
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    iron trap. This is the design of the GCHQ.
    This is mine. I think I'm on the right road.
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    applause
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    Yann: Of course, I need to build my own
    vacuum chamber, it's not the difficult
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    part, the vacuum chamber. It's just metal,
    you need not... you need some nuts, bolts,
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    thin metal and pumps. A lot of pumps to
    suck out all the air in the vacuum. So I
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    bought off eBay a different type of pumps.
    I like my vacuum chamber. This one, pretty
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    one. And I put the ion trap inside the
    vacuum chamber. And for now I'm working on
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    the laser, an optical setup. And this is
    the main difficult part for this quantum
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    computer because with fancy, new, numerous
    wavelength for laser and we need to have a
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    very precise wavelength to be able to
    manage all the atom, the energy level of
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    the atom to make some calculation. So, of
    course, I could have and I have asked some
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    professional of these devices to send me
    some proposal. A laser costs around 25 k€.
  • 29:47 - 29:57
    A rule at least for this type of
    instrumentation. Or you can do it yourself
  • 29:57 - 30:08
    from 2 k€. So I decide to make my own
    laser setup. I'm not a laser, optical or
  • 30:08 - 30:15
    laser specialist. The first time I play
    with laser. And there is everything on
  • 30:15 - 30:22
    the web. You can learn everything with the
    web. And I found this type of schematic
  • 30:22 - 30:30
    you'd use either laser diode, some fancy
    optical lense. grating mirror that lets
  • 30:30 - 30:37
    you choose... mainly choose what the
    reference frequency you want to use.
  • 30:37 - 30:45
    There is a sort of loop control with PID
    control, which is for an electrician like
  • 30:45 - 30:54
    me normal things to do. I don't know why
    all those fancy commercial product cost a
  • 30:54 - 31:01
    lot. I don't know yet. Perhaps I will have
    some failure in the future, but I don't
  • 31:01 - 31:11
    know. So I ask a guy on the Internet
    that's sold me a laser in kits. You can
  • 31:11 - 31:20
    buy and mount you own laser. And this
    laser is controlled by an arduino. So you
  • 31:20 - 31:30
    have fancy mirror. The HeNe aluminum laser
    tube and you can make your own laser at
  • 31:30 - 31:35
    home also.
    I need a bunch of optical mounts and
  • 31:35 - 31:44
    supports to support the lens and mirror,
    etc.. And as I bought a 3D printer for my
  • 31:44 - 31:50
    iron trap that I can not use anymore
    because I use a vacuum chamber. I use the
  • 31:50 - 31:57
    3D printer to make all the optical mounts,
    in fact. So it saved me my money again.
  • 31:57 - 32:03
    However, you need to know that it's still
    a long road to have a complete quantum
  • 32:03 - 32:07
    computer because I need to set up all
    these fancy optical and laser. This is my
  • 32:07 - 32:15
    job at the moment. Mearly I have 6
    months to one year of works. But the good
  • 32:15 - 32:22
    news is that at the software level,
    everything exists. If you need to have a
  • 32:22 - 32:29
    quantum compiler to make your code, it
    exist. At the moment, it's open source. If
  • 32:29 - 32:35
    you need to have some firmware to
    make some pulse and laser control, it
  • 32:35 - 32:43
    exists. And it is open source. So I am
    trying to convince you. Let me know if you
  • 32:43 - 32:51
    agree with me, that doing a quantum
    computer at home - it's doable. You agree?
  • 32:51 - 32:58
    applause
  • 32:58 - 33:07
    Yann: But we are at the CCC. How to hack
    into a quantum computer. This is
  • 33:07 - 33:18
    different part. It's easy. Just do what we
    do when we are infosec guy. Do the same
  • 33:18 - 33:28
    things we do as usual: Hack the weakest
    link. You must know that when you build
  • 33:28 - 33:36
    the quantum computer, there is few things
    that behave in the quantum mechanical
  • 33:36 - 33:43
    regime. You just only need this chip, for
    example, and some laser. But all the
  • 33:43 - 33:50
    equipment surrounding the quantum
    parts of the quantum computer is classical
  • 33:50 - 33:58
    system. This is wave generator. Classical
    computer. Some IoTs, some programmable
  • 33:58 - 34:05
    industrial systems. Sometimes they have IP
    address. If they have IP address, they are
  • 34:05 - 34:10
    vulnerable. So, the main I have to
    know to hack into a quantum computer is to
  • 34:10 - 34:22
    act the surrounding classical embedded
    system. So. Small company that is a
  • 34:22 - 34:30
    competitor of me. It's cool. It's a
    startup called IBM. They used
  • 34:30 - 34:36
    superconducting technology to build their
    own quantum computer. Their processor is
  • 34:36 - 34:44
    just behind this delusion of refrigerator
    because they need to cool down their
  • 34:44 - 34:52
    processor to be able to use the
    superconducting capability. Mine work at
  • 34:52 - 35:00
    room temperature. And surrounded this
    processor, the researcher explained, this
  • 35:00 - 35:07
    is a very good video to understand how
    it works. And surrounded this quantum
  • 35:07 - 35:17
    part of their quantum computer you have a
    bunch of instruments. And if you zoom in,
  • 35:17 - 35:25
    you see. If you zoom in this wave
    generator, it's a wave generator to send
  • 35:25 - 35:39
    pulse to the superconducting processor.
    There is a sticker. And this sticker, in fact..
  • 35:39 - 35:53
    laughter
  • 35:53 - 36:02
    Yann: So, of course, for security reason,
    I make some X to not show the complete
  • 36:02 - 36:14
    passwords. So as a conclusion. I'm trying
    to convince you that quantum computing and
  • 36:14 - 36:19
    quantum computer hardware is doable at
    home. So far cybersecurity or so-called
  • 36:19 - 36:27
    cybersecurity specialist, you need to
    make, to adapt your own risk analysis.
  • 36:27 - 36:38
    Because it's doable at home. Just
    understand that - is doable at home. They
  • 36:38 - 36:43
    will, all these quantum computer will be
    used for good, bad and ugly. Just
  • 36:43 - 36:53
    remember, GCHQ has a prototype in the
    museum. It would have fun if I could have
  • 36:53 - 37:02
    seen the production quantum computer of
    the GCHQ. Of course quantum computers are
  • 37:02 - 37:10
    hackable as any normal computer. So it's a
    good news for the cybersecurity industry.
  • 37:10 - 37:17
    But you need as a community of maker in
    CCC, we need to be prepared to learn and
  • 37:17 - 37:24
    how to use them, how to ask them how to
    program them and at the software level,
  • 37:24 - 37:30
    just, you need to unlock your classical
    brain, the classical software brain
  • 37:30 - 37:37
    because if I want to mention something at
    the software level, if you want to do some
  • 37:37 - 37:46
    control codes, you need to be able to use
    your code without any variables. You can't
  • 37:46 - 37:51
    use variables in quantum codes because if
    you use variable, you make a copy of a
  • 37:51 - 37:59
    quantum state. Making a copy of a quantum
    state is impossible. So you can't use them
  • 37:59 - 38:05
    to make a vairables or use variables in
    a new program and you can't debug it
  • 38:05 - 38:10
    because if you debug it, you make a
    measurement. If you make a measurement,
  • 38:10 - 38:16
    you destroy the quantum states. So be
    prepared to allow your brain to be able
  • 38:16 - 38:25
    to make some code in the quantum world.
    But it's fun. Some time. Thanks for your
  • 38:25 - 38:30
    attention. And if you have any question,
    it will be a pleasure. And as I'm French,
  • 38:30 - 38:47
    I need to have a two hour lunchtime.
  • 38:47 - 38:52
    Herald: Fantastic. Merci beaucoup.
    We have a lot of time now for your
  • 38:52 - 38:56
    questions, answers. Line up at the
    microphones, please. And let's have a look
  • 38:56 - 39:01
    if there is something from the Internet.
    Yes, there is. So please. First one from
  • 39:01 - 39:08
    the Internet.
    Yann: Where is the Internet?
  • 39:08 - 39:13
    Signal-Angel: All right. The Internet's
    quite impressed by your talk. So that's
  • 39:13 - 39:16
    just a statement. Like everyone's very
    happy and pleased with your talk.
  • 39:16 - 39:19
    Yann: Thanks to the Internet.
    light laughter
  • 39:19 - 39:24
    Signal-Angel: All right. You have a few
    questions. So the first one is what
  • 39:24 - 39:29
    properties should the element be chosen
    for the ion trap?
  • 39:29 - 39:33
    Yann: What? Sorry.
    Signal-Angel: So what are the properties
  • 39:33 - 39:38
    that should be looked at for choosing the
    element for the iron trap?
  • 39:38 - 39:45
    Yann: What atom? I think the person asked
    what atom I used. I used the atom from
  • 39:45 - 39:53
    calcium because those atoms have a
    specific.. because there is a lot of
  • 39:53 - 40:00
    literature available. So it's easy for me
    to understand how it works. Researchers have
  • 40:00 - 40:05
    done all the work before. And I used the
    atom because there are some energy level
  • 40:05 - 40:15
    in this atom that is better protected
    from the environment.
  • 40:15 - 40:20
    Herald: OK, let's quickly switch to
    microphone number 3.
  • 40:20 - 40:26
    Mic3: Thank you for it. Thank you
    for your talk. My question is, what's the
  • 40:26 - 40:34
    catch? If your design already exists in
    prototypes out there and it seems so much
  • 40:34 - 40:38
    easier than working with superconductors,
    then why isn't everyone already doing
  • 40:38 - 40:42
    this?
    Yann: Why someone choose superconducting
  • 40:42 - 40:46
    and not ion trap technologies? Is that
    your question?
  • 40:46 - 40:48
    Mic3: Correct.
    Yann: I don't know.
  • 40:48 - 40:54
    light laughter
    Yann: Every time there is this type of
  • 40:54 - 40:59
    question, why the big one used
    superconducting technology and why are you
  • 40:59 - 41:07
    using iron trap technology? Mainly the
    answer could be that the big one is from
  • 41:07 - 41:14
    the microelectronics domain. So a
    superconducting qubit is done on a
  • 41:14 - 41:19
    wafer. So it's usual for this type of
    company to be able to build these
  • 41:19 - 41:27
    type of qubits. I think it produced a
    habit.
  • 41:27 - 41:30
    Mic3: Okay, thank you.
    Herald: Okay. Microphone number two,
  • 41:30 - 41:33
    please.
    Mic2: I'm very impressed. But.
  • 41:33 - 41:37
    Okay. You mentioned that hobbyists can't
    really afford this. A small company can.
  • 41:37 - 41:42
    So just as a ballpark figure, I would like
    to ask the question. Nice. How much?
  • 41:42 - 41:58
    Yann: All I've shown you here. It cost
    only less than 15 k€ of material for the
  • 41:58 - 42:06
    moment. It is not for a hobbyist -
    for small company.
  • 42:06 - 42:12
    Herald: Okay, one question from the
    Internet. Signal-Angel, please.
  • 42:12 - 42:16
    Signal-Angel: All right. The next question
    is: is your next step going to be singling
  • 42:16 - 42:21
    out individual ions?
    Yann: Sorry, can you repeat?
  • 42:21 - 42:26
    Signal-Angel: Would your next step be
    singling out individual ions for the next
  • 42:26 - 42:32
    step in your quantum computer?
    Yann: We try to manipulate single ions,
  • 42:32 - 42:39
    but in fact, it's the goal with laser.
    With laser you shine a laser of individual
  • 42:39 - 42:47
    qubits. And with another laser, you make a
    link between the ions with the common mode
  • 42:47 - 42:56
    motion of the ion chain and you change the
    state of an individual ions, you transfer
  • 42:56 - 43:01
    the state of these individual ions to the
    chain, which move because ions are
  • 43:01 - 43:07
    electrically charged. So they repell each
    other and this act as a bus and you
  • 43:07 - 43:14
    transfer the quantum state information to
    to a second ion to make a logic. So the
  • 43:14 - 43:24
    goal effectively is to be able to
    manipulate one ions. We shine a laser on
  • 43:24 - 43:31
    the individual atoms. This is the goal.
    Herald: Okay. Microphone number four,
  • 43:31 - 43:37
    please.
    Mic4: Google announced recently that they
  • 43:37 - 43:44
    achieved the quantum supremacy. What is
    your opinion on this theme?
  • 43:44 - 43:54
    Yann: They have done a very good job
    for that. I think they show to the world
  • 43:54 - 43:59
    for the first time that a quantum
    computer is able to do a calculation that a
  • 43:59 - 44:08
    classical computer will never be able to
    do in the classical world. However, is
  • 44:08 - 44:17
    that calculation useful? I'm not sure,
    except for one thing, it's able to
  • 44:17 - 44:25
    certify the randomness of a number and it
    could be useful for the cyber security
  • 44:25 - 44:34
    world. So it's I think and for my company,
    I have no money to spend to marketing
  • 44:34 - 44:40
    thanks to Google because they show the
    world the power of quantum computer. So
  • 44:40 - 44:45
    it's cool for me.
    Herald: Okay. Microphone number two,
  • 44:45 - 44:49
    please.
    Mic2: Hello. Thanks for the nice talk.
  • 44:49 - 44:53
    I'm a material scientist from Offline
    Gießen. Maybe you heard about our incident
  • 44:53 - 45:01
    here. I was asking what are your current
    problems with this? For example, I mean, I
  • 45:01 - 45:05
    think I have too many questions to ask
    here now. But for example, we saw that you
  • 45:05 - 45:12
    had some like little pellets that were
    floating over your structure. But these
  • 45:12 - 45:16
    are not the atoms that you are trying to
    to confine with each other so you can make
  • 45:16 - 45:22
    calculations. So you didn't say anything
    about how you are trying to achieve this?
  • 45:22 - 45:27
    And what is your current state? I mean,
    have you- could you start some crude
  • 45:27 - 45:32
    calculations on this already or... ?
    Yann: Not for the moment because I need
  • 45:32 - 45:37
    to shine the laser in the right direction.
    So for the moment, I am building the
  • 45:37 - 45:41
    optical setup.
    Mic4: Okay. All right. Maybe there are
  • 45:41 - 45:44
    some possibilities how I could help you
    with your project.
  • 45:44 - 45:48
    Yann: You're welcome.
    Mic4: I have an access. If I could ask the
  • 45:48 - 45:55
    right people, I'm not in a position to
    promise something to you now. But for
  • 45:55 - 46:00
    example, we have an nano scribe laser
    system with this like a 3D printer. But
  • 46:00 - 46:03
    you can build things on nano levels, on
    nano meter scale.
  • 46:03 - 46:09
    Yann: What is the cost of using that?
    Mic4: The cost of the printer is around
  • 46:09 - 46:12
    300.000€.
    Yann: Oh... I take it.
  • 46:12 - 46:18
    Mic4: All right.
    Yann: Thanks. Thanks. Thanks for your
  • 46:18 - 46:20
    help.
    Mic4: Maybe after the talk we can get in
  • 46:20 - 46:23
    contact.
    Yann: Oh yes, we have a dinner. laughter
  • 46:23 - 46:26
    Mic4: All right.
    Herald: Two new friends, actually.
  • 46:26 - 46:37
    applause
    Question from the Internet, please.
  • 46:37 - 46:42
    Signal Angel: All right. So how many qubits
    is it possible to make in the garage?
  • 46:42 - 46:50
    Yann: For the prototype, we think we
    are able to do some 10 to 15 qubits with
  • 46:50 - 47:00
    one ion trap. The goal is to chain the ion
    trap. So we have many, not as many as we
  • 47:00 - 47:08
    want, but we could raise the number of
    qubits to 100 qubits.
  • 47:08 - 47:14
    Heral: Okay. Microphone number three,
    please.
  • 47:14 - 47:17
    Mic3: Which calculations do you plan to
    perform on your quantum computer?
  • 47:17 - 47:24
    Yann: I don't care. I build thing and
    software guy do their code. It's not my
  • 47:24 - 47:31
    job.
    Herald: Okay. Microphone number four, please.
  • 47:31 - 47:34
    There is somebody.
    Mic4: Hello. So your optical setup
  • 47:34 - 47:39
    reminded me of atomic force microscopes.
    Are you aware of what they are?
  • 47:39 - 47:43
    Yann: Perhaps.
    Mic4: They are essentially an optical
  • 47:43 - 47:49
    setup with a micro scale tip at the edge
    that rasters, that scans across the
  • 47:49 - 47:54
    surface and can detect nanoscale features.
    But the cool thing is that even though
  • 47:54 - 47:58
    this is a scientific instrument, there is
    also open hardware designs for that. And
  • 47:58 - 48:02
    maybe you can see the ideas from that for
    your optical setup, because once again
  • 48:02 - 48:07
    you've got precise lasers, at least on the
    geometrical side. They have to be
  • 48:07 - 48:11
    precisely alined and everything.
    Yann: Thanks. Thanks for the information.
  • 48:11 - 48:15
    And of course, we use a lot of
    spectrography techniques in this type of
  • 48:15 - 48:20
    computer.
    Heral: Okay, we have somebody over there
  • 48:20 - 48:25
    at microphone number three.
    Mic4: Did you consider optical quantum
  • 48:25 - 48:29
    computers with entangled photons
    and such stuff?
  • 48:29 - 48:40
    Yann: I did- This was my first choice in
    fact. However as far as I know, I'm not a
  • 48:40 - 48:45
    physicist, it's difficult to make some and
    trick entanglements and, not
  • 48:45 - 48:52
    entanglement... It's difficult to make
    some photon to talk to each other. Let's
  • 48:52 - 48:59
    say that. So it's a complicated way to do
    something with multiple qubits. But
  • 48:59 - 49:07
    photonic is a good technology because it
    works also at room temperature. But I
  • 49:07 - 49:09
    prefer to have a vacuum chamber in my
    garage.
  • 49:09 - 49:20
    Herald: Okay, let's interrogate the
    Internet again.
  • 49:20 - 49:25
    Signal Angel: So you've mentioned that you
    should not be doing measurements on the
  • 49:25 - 49:29
    quantum computer. So have you tried doing
    any measurements on your prototype?
  • 49:29 - 49:36
    Yann: Measurement of what?
    Herald: This is hard. I think the Internet
  • 49:36 - 49:45
    cannot really reply now. So can we...
    Yann: Internet is limited. I think we can
  • 49:45 - 49:51
    give the guy that ask the question. He
    wants to send me the question I can answer
  • 49:51 - 49:54
    just after all.
    Signal angel: But I think they are talking
  • 49:54 - 49:58
    about electric field.
    Yann: Ah, no. I just I don't make any
  • 49:58 - 50:05
    measurement. I'm an engineer. And as I am
    a good engineer, I just plug things. And
  • 50:05 - 50:14
    just see what happens. I have no idea of
    the electric field generated. No idea.
  • 50:14 - 50:20
    Again.
    Herald: OK. Microphone number two, please.
  • 50:20 - 50:25
    Mic2: Hello. Thank you for the talk. So
    after you generate the vacuum in your
  • 50:25 - 50:29
    vacuum chamber, how do you actually
    introduce the right number of ions and how
  • 50:29 - 50:33
    do you keep them in the place where you
    need to have them?
  • 50:33 - 50:42
    Yann: It's a good question. In fact, we
    don't introduce the ions. We put a calcium
  • 50:42 - 50:48
    stone, sort of calcium stone, in a sort of
    oven, it's just a tube. We send current in
  • 50:48 - 50:54
    this tube, the tube heats the calcium.
    They make some vapor and we shine a laser
  • 50:54 - 51:02
    on the vapor of neutral atom of calcium.
    And this creates the ions. And this ion is
  • 51:02 - 51:07
    trapped because it's now electric charged
    by the electrostatic field we make with
  • 51:07 - 51:14
    the ion trap. So we just introduced before
    closing all the vacuum viewport and all
  • 51:14 - 51:21
    the nuts and bolts. We just put a piece of
    stone of calcium, neutral atom. So
  • 51:21 - 51:28
    everything is in the chamber before we
    turn on the quantum computer or the
  • 51:28 - 51:33
    chamber.
    Herald: OK. We stay at microphone number
  • 51:33 - 51:39
    two. There is another one.
    Mic2: OK, second question. What you're
  • 51:39 - 51:44
    describing is you have a linear array of
    right now macroscopic particles. You will
  • 51:44 - 51:50
    have a linear array of ions that are then
    coupled by kind of common vibrational
  • 51:50 - 51:57
    modes. So they need to see each other's
    electrical fields. So I am wondering what
  • 51:57 - 52:04
    the characteristic length scale between
    macroscopic particles versus ions would be
  • 52:04 - 52:08
    if you want to have some meaningful
    vibrational modes that don't immediately
  • 52:08 - 52:15
    get drowned by external thermal noise.
    Yann: So if I understand correctly the
  • 52:15 - 52:19
    question, you ask me what is the
    dimension between the ions?
  • 52:19 - 52:24
    Mic2: Yes. I mean you you are pretty big
    compared to the IBM guys.
  • 52:24 - 52:36
    Yann: Yes. I'm big. Yes. You're right. The
    main dimension we use between ion it's few
  • 52:36 - 52:49
    micron. And if some researcher succeeds to
    align 100 ions. So you have a chain of 100
  • 52:49 - 52:55
    ions multiplied by five to ten microns
    between ions. This is the length.
  • 52:55 - 52:58
    Mic2: But I mean, on your substrate,
    you ou have a fraction of a
  • 52:58 - 53:03
    millimeter. Yeah. Between the...
    Yann: It's because it's prototype.
  • 53:03 - 53:08
    Mic2: Okay.
    Yann: You're right. I need to squeeze the
  • 53:08 - 53:21
    design a little bit, okay? It just need to
    buy a better CNC machine.
  • 53:21 - 53:27
    Herald: OK, we got some question from the
    Internet again.
  • 53:27 - 53:37
    Signal angel: All right so this one is...
    This is more towards knowing about the
  • 53:37 - 53:40
    GCHQ exhibition. Is it still open do you
    know?
  • 53:40 - 53:45
    Yann: Yes. I think, you have a
    free ticket if you want. It's free. In
  • 53:45 - 53:49
    fact, it's free.
    Signal Angel: I guess people will contact
  • 53:49 - 53:53
    you on Twitter for that.
    Yann: Yeah. I make some touristic business
  • 53:53 - 53:57
    or so. I can help.
    Signal Angel: Everyone was impressed with
  • 53:57 - 54:01
    your GCHQ hack.
    Herald: Ok, any more questions. How many
  • 54:01 - 54:07
    people are working in your garage?
    Yann: There is me and sometimes one of
  • 54:07 - 54:13
    my daughters, which is, 10 years old.
    Herald: Pro team.
  • 54:13 - 54:17
    Yann: Yeah, a big one.
    Herald: Okay. Any more questions from
  • 54:17 - 54:25
    the audience, from the Internet? We have
    time. Okay, I'm gonna close that session
  • 54:25 - 54:28
    now, thank you very much.
    Big applause again for Yann.
  • 54:28 - 54:35
    applause
  • 54:35 - 54:50
    36C3 outro music
  • 54:50 - 55:02
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Title:
36C3 - Build you own Quantum Computer @ Home - 99% of discount - Hacker Style !
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