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← Nir Eyal: The Morality of Manipulation | Product Design | Udacity

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Showing Revision 2 created 09/07/2016 by Udacity Robot.

  1. Hi, I'm with Nier again.
  2. In your book,
    you talk about manipulation metrics.
  3. Could you explain about that?
  4. >> Yeah.
  5. So, ethics is something
    I care about deeply.
  6. And, a question I often get is
    aren't you teaching people how
  7. to make the bomb, right?
  8. Aren't you giving people the tools
    to use our deeper psychology to
  9. manipulate people's
    day-to-day behaviors?
  10. And the answer is yes.
  11. That, in fact, these tools can
    be used for nefarious purposes.
  12. The reason I wrote this book was
    because I worked in the advertising and
  13. gaming industry and I'm trying to bring
    these techniques that advertisers and
  14. gamers have known for
    quite some time, but
  15. to bring these techniques
    to the larger community.
  16. To help people build products and
    services, not just in gaming and
  17. advertising, but in health care and
    in education and
  18. in all sorts of industries where we
    can use the power of habits for good.
  19. And so that's really why,
    the first reason I wrote this book.
  20. But there's still this test that I
    give to someone who's concerned,
  21. hey how do I make sure that I'm using
    these habit-forming techniques?
  22. for good.
    And so I provide this two-part test
  23. in the form of what I call, what you
    mentioned, the Manipulation Matrix.
  24. The Manipulation Matrix is this
    four quadrant matrices where
  25. on one axis you have,
    do you believe that the product or
  26. service that you're working on is
    materially improving people's lives?
  27. Yes or No.
  28. That's the first criteria on the Y axis.
  29. Do you believe what you're working on
    is materially improving people's lives,
  30. yes or no.
  31. And only you can answer this question,
    right?
  32. This isn't a test for you to judge other
    people or for other people to judge you.
  33. It's sincerely for
    this question of, hey,
  34. how do I make sure that I'm using
    my limited time on earth, right?
  35. How do I allocate my human
    capital towards something
  36. that can serve a higher purpose,
    that can do some good in the world.
  37. So that's the first question.
  38. But that's not good enough.
  39. Because there's another question
    that I think is critical.
  40. Which is, am I the user?
  41. Am I the user?
  42. So there's this two part test.
  43. Now, why do I make people
    answer that question?
  44. And, that's what's on the X axis.
  45. If, yes I'm the user or
    no I'm not the user.
  46. Do you happen to know the first
    rule of drug dealing?
  47. >> Never use?
  48. >> Close, yeah.
  49. Never get high on your own supply,
    very good.
  50. I don't want to ask about
    your background, but
  51. let's just go with that, right?
  52. >> Okay.
    >> That's the first rule
  53. of drug dealing,
    never get high on your own supply.
  54. >> You're right.
  55. >> So, what I'm doing by asking makers
    to consider this question of, number
  56. one, do I believe what I'm working on
    is materially improving people's lives?
  57. And the number two, am I their user
    I'm making them break that rule
  58. because if there are any negative
    effects to overusing this product,
  59. if this product is potentially addictive
    as opposed to just habit-forming,
  60. guess who's going to be
    the first person to realize it.
  61. So that two part test, I think, puts
    you not only in a good moral position
  62. because you are the user of the product,
    interestingly enough,
  63. it actually increases your odds of
    success from a business perspective.
  64. You become what I call a facilitator.
  65. If you can answer in the affirmative
    to these two questions,
  66. you're a facilitator.
  67. And it turns out that the companies
    that we talked about earlier,
  68. Facebook and Google and
    Instagram and WhatsApp and Slack and
  69. SnapChat, all of these companies turns
    out were started by a facilitator.
  70. Doesn't mean you can't make money or
  71. have a good business in any of those
    other four quadrants, it's just that I
  72. think your highest odds of success, and
    you're also in a good moral position,
  73. if you can answer yes
    to those two questions.
  74. >> You probably also feel very
    passionate if you're the user, right?
  75. >> Right, right, and
    you just build better products, right?
  76. The advantage of knowing your user,
    right?
  77. Because, you've got
    the user right there,
  78. you've got your customer
    in you is a huge advantage.
  79. And, we don't always
    have that opportunity.
  80. If you're working at an agency, or
    working at a company where maybe it's
  81. servicing somebody who is not you,
    as the user.
  82. We don't always have that luxury.
  83. But then again, we always do.
  84. We could always choose what we work on,
    and
  85. what we're going to spend our time on.
  86. And so
    I think that's the best place to be.
  87. >> Can you give us an example of
    how you can use hooks for good?
  88. >> Sure, so a big reason why I wrote
    this book is because I want people to
  89. use the psychology of
    habits to help people live
  90. >> better lives, and so
  91. I actually do a bit of angel
    investing when I see these hooks
  92. in products that I think can actually
    improve people's well being.
  93. So, there's several
    companies that come to mind,
  94. one company that I'm a big fan
    of is called Pantrylabs, and
  95. Pantrylabs is trying to take on this
    obesity epidemic, and what the,
  96. the company founders realized is that
    >> People were eating unhealthy food,
  97. because let's face it, unhealthy food
    is very convenient, it's cheap, and
  98. it's delicious.
  99. So how do we compete with a vending
    machine full of refined sugars that
  100. are bad for us, that we know cause
    obesity and all kinds of other problems,
  101. and that's the entire vending machine So
    here comes Pantry lab and says look,
  102. we're going to take a refrigerator,
    with a door on it.
  103. And we're going to attach like a kind of
    like an iPad like device to the front
  104. and you can open the machine,
    the refrigerator whenever you like.
  105. But as soon as you take
    something out of that machine,
  106. that happens to be stocked
    with fresh delivered food.
  107. Everyday the food is delivered fresh,
    full of salads,
  108. full of fresh ingredients that
    are very nutritious and healthy for
  109. you As soon as you take out
    the food from the machine, it has
  110. a RFID chip attached to it and your
    credit card is automatically charged.
  111. So know for the first time,
    healthy food,
  112. in an office building is as convenient
    to acquire as unhealthy food.
  113. And they're really changing people's
    lives, their day to day habits,
  114. it turns out, That losing weight
    doesn't have to be about willpower.
  115. It's not your lack of character that
    you can't resist these temptations.
  116. It's just that if we make the behavior
    easier to do, which is a big part of
  117. what I described in the book in
    the action phase of the hook.
  118. If we make that behavior easier
    to do and we build a habit
  119. out of eating healthy food by making
    it as accessible as unhealthy food.
  120. That's all we gotta do, right?
  121. We don't have to expend will power.
  122. We don't have to do this hard work.
  123. And that's really what's so beautiful
    about using habits to change behaviors
  124. is that, when we use habits,
    we off load the will power.
  125. It doesn't have to become
    a struggle anymore.
  126. It's something that we do day in and day
    out with little or no conscious thought.
  127. >> So people will do the right
    thing if you make it easier.
  128. >> Right.
    Easier, and make it a habit.
  129. Right.
    So part of what makes using Pantry Lab
  130. so easy is I put in my credit card,
    that's the investment phase of the hook.
  131. And then I tell it my preferences and so
  132. more of that food gets
    delivered to me in the future.
  133. So this refrigerator that's
    just a vending machine,
  134. essentially, gets smarter and
    smarter over time the more I use it.