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← 17. Bigger Is Better: The Baths of Caracalla and Other Second- and Third-Century Buildings in Rome

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Showing Revision 1 created 07/06/2012 by Amara Bot.

  1. Prof: Good morning.
  2. From the time of Julius Caesar,
    we have seen the rulers of Rome
  3. brag about building buildings
    that were bigger than any others
  4. in the world.
  5. You'll remember Caesar referred
    to his Temple of Mars in that
  6. way, that he was building the
    largest Temple of Mars in the
  7. world.
  8. And we also saw the same for
    Domitian, with his palace on the
  9. Palatine Hill;
    for Trajan with his enormous
  10. forum;
    for Hadrian,
  11. building the greatest--
    largest dome that had been
  12. built up until that time and,
    as we discussed,
  13. still the largest diameter dome
    in the city of Rome today;
  14. and Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli,
    just as a selection of
  15. examples.
  16. We are going to see today that
    if bigger was better,
  17. biggest is best,
    and in the case of the emperor
  18. Caracalla,
    an emperor who was a
  19. megalomaniac,
    in the tradition of Nero and
  20. Domitian,
    that he built the largest
  21. imperial bath structure to date.
  22. And we're going to be looking
    at that bath structure today,
  23. and we're going to see it as
    really a colossal and
  24. fascinating building,
    in all kinds of ways.
  25. But before I get to that--in
    fact,
  26. we'll end with that bath
    structure today--
  27. before I get to that,
    I would like to look with you
  28. at architecture in Rome,
    in the second and third
  29. centuries A.D.,
    and we'll see that architecture
  30. is quite varied in terms of
    whether it's private,
  31. it's civic, it's also funerary.
  32. I want to begin though by just
    reminding you of what we talked
  33. about last time.
  34. We looked at the city of Ostia,
    and we looked at the city of
  35. Ostia, the port of Rome,
    in its entirety;
  36. once again, its public
    buildings, its civic structures,
  37. its commercial enterprises.
  38. And we also went,
    at the very end of the lecture,
  39. out to Isola Sacra,
    where the tombs of those who
  40. lived in Ostia were located.
  41. And I show you a couple of
    those again now on the screen;
  42. these brick-faced tombs,
    these tombs that are made of
  43. concrete,
    at Isola Sacra,
  44. that were put up for the
    professionals,
  45. for the traders,
    the commercial merchants and so
  46. on that lived in the city of
    Ostia.
  47. They were made of brick-faced
    concrete construction.
  48. They had barrel vaults or groin
    vaults inside.
  49. And you can see also that they
    were faced with brick,
  50. and they were faced with brick,
    as we discussed,
  51. that was exposed;
    the idea of brick being
  52. attractive in its own right,
    a fabulously beautiful facing,
  53. that they take advantage of in
    the second century A.D.,
  54. and decide not to stucco it
    over, as you can see so well
  55. here.
  56. The doorways into those tombs,
    surrounded by travertine jambs
  57. and lintels,
    the inscription in the center,
  58. the small slit windows,
    and then a pediment at the top.
  59. We saw, when we looked at
    funerary architecture in the age
  60. of Augustus, for example,
    that is was very varied;
  61. very varied.
  62. Tombs in the shape of pyramids,
    in the shape of circular tombs.
  63. Tombs that made reference to
    bakeries, like the Tomb of the
  64. Baker Eurysaces.
  65. There is still a certain amount
    of variety in tomb architecture
  66. in the second century A.D.,
    but they tend to hone in on one
  67. type in particular,
    and that type is the so-called
  68. house tomb type;
    which is exactly what we see
  69. here, a tomb that is rectangular
    in shape, for the most part,
  70. boxlike, and does resemble,
    very closely,
  71. a house;
    this close relationship that
  72. we've talked about so many times
    this semester between houses of
  73. the living and houses of the
    dead.
  74. So we looked at those last time.
  75. And where I want to begin today
    is just to demonstrate to you
  76. that these same kinds of house
    tombs that we see in Ostia and
  77. Isola Sacra,
    in the second century A.D.,
  78. we also see in Rome.
  79. And in some cases they are
    commissioned by individuals of
  80. comparable social status,
    to those in Ostia,
  81. but sometimes they are
    commissioned by the most elite.
  82. And I'd like to begin with an
    example of a similar tomb
  83. commissioned by the most elite.
  84. This is the so-called Tomb of
    Annia Regilla,
  85. in Rome.
  86. It was put up on the famous via
    Appia, or the Appian Way.
  87. It dates to around A.D. 161.
  88. In this case we know who the
    commissioner was,
  89. and I can show you what he
    looked like as well.
  90. You see him here,
    on the right-hand side of the
  91. screen.
  92. He was a man by the name of
    Herodes Atticus;
  93. I've put his name on the
    Monument List for you,
  94. Herodes Atticus.
  95. Herodes Atticus was actually a
    Greek.
  96. He was Athenian,
    from the Greek part of the
  97. Empire.
  98. He lived in Athens,
    for the most part,
  99. and he commissioned a very
    famous music hall,
  100. an odeon, which still survives.
  101. You can see it over here.
  102. It's without its roof today,
    but it was originally one of
  103. these roofed music halls,
    an odeon.
  104. It is located on the slope of
    the Acropolis in Athens;
  105. the Acropolis that of course we
    know primarily for its great
  106. architectural feats of the fifth
    century B.C.
  107. in Greece.
  108. This is the Roman building,
    put up by Herodes in the second
  109. century, and we see it on the
    slope of the Acropolis,
  110. very well preserved.
  111. In modern times its greatest
    fame is the fact that Yanni
  112. performed his "Live at the
    Acropolis"
  113. concert at the Odeon of Herodes
    Atticus.
  114. And even if you don't like
    Yanni, it's actually quite an
  115. interesting concert to view--
    and one can view it in video
  116. and so on--
    because it does take such
  117. wonderful advantage of this
    extraordinary ancient structure,
  118. as Yanni presents his music.
  119. At any rate,
    at one point Herodes Atticus,
  120. who had a lot of connections,
    not only in Athens but around
  121. the Empire,
    at one point,
  122. through those connections,
    he gets himself appointed a
  123. senator in Rome,
    and in order to take up that
  124. position he needs to leave
    Athens behind and go spend some
  125. time in Rome,
    and he and his wife,
  126. Annia Regilla,
    set up house in Rome.
  127. Annia Regilla,
    unfortunately,
  128. dies in Rome,
    and he needs to bury her,
  129. and he decides to bury her in
    Rome,
  130. instead of in Athens,
    and he builds for her a tomb on
  131. the Appian Way,
    on the Via Appia,
  132. in around 161 A.D.;
    that's the date that we believe
  133. she died.
  134. And we see a view of that tomb
    here.
  135. What we're looking at--and you
    probably recognize this already
  136. because we've looked at a number
    of models from this museum of
  137. casts in Rome,
    the Museo della Civiltà
  138. Romana,
    in EUR in Rome.
  139. And I show you two views of
    this model of the Tomb of Annia
  140. Regilla;
    one that we see from the front
  141. and another that we see from,
    if we're facing the monument,
  142. the left side of the tomb.
  143. And these are extremely
    helpful, because they give us a
  144. very good sense of what we are
    dealing with here.
  145. It is clear that we are dealing
    with a tomb type that is not
  146. that different from what we saw
    in Ostia;
  147. although this looks more like a
    temple than it looks like a
  148. house.
  149. And you can see that right off.
  150. It looks exactly like a typical
    Roman temple.
  151. We see that it is on a high
    podium;
  152. it has a deep porch;
    it has freestanding columns in
  153. that porch;
    it has a single staircase on
  154. the front of the structure;
    has a façade orientation;
  155. then an entranceway into the
    structure.
  156. It also has freestanding
    columns that support a pediment.
  157. So if I were to show you this,
    and not identify it and say to
  158. you: "What kind of a
    building is this?"
  159. I'm sure you would have said it
    was a temple;
  160. and you would've been right in
    the sense that it looks most
  161. like a temple.
  162. But it is a tomb in the form of
    a temple, as you can well see
  163. here.
  164. Looking on the side of the
    monument, you can also see those
  165. same features that I've just
    described.
  166. And while we are looking at
    this view--
  167. because I'm not going to bring
    it back--
  168. I want to point out one detail
    that will loom large as we look
  169. further at this structure.
  170. You will see on the left side
    of the tomb that the architect
  171. has created,
    has kind of scalloped out the
  172. side on either side,
    creating niches,
  173. tall niches on the side,
    and placed columns into that
  174. space;
    which is a very unusual thing
  175. to do.
  176. It's not true on the other side
    of the monument,
  177. only on this side of the
    structure.
  178. Why has the architect done that?
  179. I think it might have something
    to do with the siting,
  180. perhaps how you viewed it from
    the street.
  181. Maybe it was skewed in such a
    way that you would see not only
  182. the façade but also the
    side,
  183. and he wanted to emphasize the
    columns on that particular side
  184. of the structure.
  185. But it may also have just had
    to do with a quirk,
  186. with a particular interest that
    the architect or the patron had
  187. in doing something different
    than any other tomb,
  188. and I want to return to that
    point in a moment.
  189. But most significant of all is
    that in terms of the building
  190. technique,
    the use of concrete faced with
  191. exposed brick,
    this is exactly what we saw in
  192. Ostia.
  193. And you can see that just as in
    Ostia,
  194. they have taken that brick as
    far as it can go,
  195. in terms of its aesthetic
    value, by respecting the texture
  196. of the brick,
    playing that texture off,
  197. playing color,
    different colored bricks,
  198. a reddish brick against a more
    yellowish colored brick,
  199. playing those off against one
    another,
  200. and then adding certain very
    highly decorative details like a
  201. meander pattern,
    that we're going to see in a
  202. moment,
    and decoration around the
  203. windows of the tomb,
    done in stucco.
  204. The columns,
    however, are marble;
  205. the columns are marble,
    and in that sense again
  206. something somewhat different
    than what we saw at Ostia.
  207. This is a view of the tomb as
    it looks today.
  208. The porch is not well
    preserved, and I can't show you
  209. any of that.
  210. But I can show you the rest of
    the structure,
  211. and you can see it quite well
    in this particular view.
  212. And again, you see that it is
    indeed well preserved.
  213. Concrete construction,
    faced with brick,
  214. the brick left exposed,
    respected and enjoyed,
  215. in its own right.
  216. What I've already described:
    the playing off of one color of
  217. brick against another;
    this meander pattern done in
  218. stucco;
    the stucco decoration,
  219. very elaborate decoration,
    as we're going to see,
  220. around the windows;
    tall podium,
  221. we see that here as well.
  222. An extraordinary structure.
  223. And what's interesting I think
    to note,
  224. at least culturally and in
    terms of social status,
  225. is the fact that although this
    structure was put up for one of
  226. the most wealthy men in--
    or the wife of one of the most
  227. wealthy men in Rome at this
    particular time,
  228. the general aesthetic is very
    similar to what we saw for
  229. professional people in the city
    of Ostia: that is,
  230. a concrete tomb,
    in the form of a house,
  231. or a temple in this case,
    that has as its facing brick,
  232. and a respect for that brick in
    its own right.
  233. Here are a couple of details.
  234. I show you once again a detail
    of the warehouse or the Horrea
  235. Epagathiana at Ostia that we
    looked at,
  236. and also a detail of the Tomb
    of Annia Regilla in Rome.
  237. And I think you can see here
    what I mean.
  238. Again, the different coloration
    of brick, the yellowish brick,
  239. the reddish brick,
    played off one against the
  240. other;
    the use of stucco decoration,
  241. in this case for the volutes of
    the composite capitals.
  242. In this case--and in fact
    you'll remember I pointed out
  243. what was interesting about these
    capitals at the warehouse was
  244. that they were--
    that the brick was used to make
  245. up the main body of the capital.
  246. And this is not one of them,
    but I also showed you one where
  247. you could see the way in which
    that brick formed the actual
  248. acanthus leaves of the capital,
    and then the volutes added in
  249. stucco.
  250. We see the same thing at the
    Tomb of Annia Regilla.
  251. We see those--and here I think
    you can see it well --
  252. the brick used to create the
    lower part of the acanthus
  253. leaves,
    and then stucco added for the
  254. curving part,
    and for some of the additional
  255. decoration,
    the flower and so on up above.
  256. And so we see--and here again
    very elaborate decoration around
  257. the windows, which we also saw
    at the warehouse in Ostia.
  258. Two more details of the Tomb of
    Annia Regilla.
  259. Here you see what I was talking
    about before,
  260. the way the architect has
    scooped out two areas on the
  261. left side of the tomb,
    and placed the columns inside
  262. of those,
    which is a unique--I don't know
  263. of any other example of this in
    Roman architecture,
  264. and it underscores,
    once again, that when it came
  265. to tomb architecture,
    that the patron could pretty
  266. much do whatever he wanted,
    as long as the architect could
  267. build it.
  268. It could be quite idiosyncratic
    as a form of architecture.
  269. And we see not only has he
    scooped out these niches in
  270. which to place the columns,
    but if you look at those
  271. columns very carefully,
    and at the bases of those
  272. columns, you will see that they
    are not round.
  273. They are multi-sided,
    and the bases are also
  274. multi-sided.
  275. So doing something very unique
    in the context of this
  276. particular tomb of Annia
    Regilla.
  277. So two main points.
  278. One, that there is clearly an
    aesthetic that is used for tomb
  279. architecture,
    concrete faced with brick that
  280. is used in the uppermost levels
    of Roman society,
  281. and then further down in Roman
    society,
  282. not only in Rome but also in
    Ostia.
  283. But at the same time
    individuality,
  284. eccentricity is valued in tomb
    architecture,
  285. allowed in tomb architecture in
    a way that perhaps it isn't in
  286. other forms of Roman
    architecture,
  287. and we see it taken to its
    limit in this particular
  288. building.
  289. Just a few more details.
  290. We see a niche from the Tomb of
    Annia Regilla.
  291. We also see here both the
    meander pattern and this very
  292. elaborate decoration around the
    windows;
  293. a frame around the windows and
    then a projecting element up
  294. above, with these great spiral
    volutes on either side;
  295. very similar to the same sort
    of thing that was happening at
  296. Ostia.
  297. I remind you of the niche in
    the courtyard of the Horrea
  298. Epagathiana,
    the warehouses at Ostia,
  299. where you see the same sort of
    thing: these pilasters added in
  300. stucco,
    the brickwork creating
  301. triangles and lozenges,
    as you can see here.
  302. Same idea over here,
    in the Tomb of Annia Regilla.
  303. And if you look very closely at
    the pediment that is located
  304. above the niche,
    from the tomb in Rome,
  305. you see the projecting
    entablatures;
  306. you see where the capitals
    would have been.
  307. There would also have been
    probably columns added here,
  308. on either side of the niche,
    making it look much more
  309. similar to here.
  310. But look closely at the
    pediment.
  311. You will see that there is
    projecting entablature above
  312. each column,
    but then in the center the
  313. triangular pediment is cut back,
    and that playing around with
  314. the traditional vocabulary of
    architecture is something that
  315. I've noted is going to be a part
    of what we call the baroque
  316. trend in Roman architecture.
  317. I'm going to devote an entire
    lecture to the baroque trend in
  318. Roman architecture,
    around the Empire,
  319. not just in Rome,
    but mostly in the provinces.
  320. And we'll see that same sort of
    thing, which creates a kind of
  321. in-and-out lively movement to
    the façade that is part
  322. of that approach.
  323. The tomb itself again.
  324. And just to point out,
    interestingly enough,
  325. a couple of female figures with
    capitals on the top of their
  326. head,
    or what look maybe more like
  327. vases on the top of their head,
    but looking very much like
  328. caryatids,
    like the caryatids that we saw
  329. from the Erectheion in Athens,
    fifth century B.C.,
  330. from the Forum of Augustus and
    from Hadrian's Villa around the
  331. Serapeum.
  332. They are not duplicates of
    those in Athens,
  333. like the other two are,
    but they do seem to make
  334. reference to them.
  335. They're a bit more casual.
  336. When I look at this pair,
    they always look to me like
  337. they're kind of standing at a
    cocktail party together and
  338. conversing with one another,
    using the usual gestures that
  339. Italians are so famous for.
  340. We see them doing that sort of
    thing here.
  341. But they do seem to have that
    same pedigree,
  342. going back to the whole idea of
    the caryatids.
  343. And I only mention it to you,
    they were found right near this
  344. tomb,
    and so it has been speculated,
  345. although it is by no means
    certain,
  346. that they might have belonged
    to the tomb.
  347. They might have been located in
    front of the tomb,
  348. or have been part of some kind
    of forecourt or fore space to
  349. that tomb.
  350. It's pure conjecture,
    but it would be interesting if
  351. it were the case.
  352. Because remember Herodes
    Atticus comes from Athens.
  353. We see that the tomb is a
    thoroughly Roman tomb of the
  354. second century A.D.
  355. But it would be interesting to
    think that he might have added
  356. some touches that might have
    made some reference for him,
  357. and also especially for his
    wife whose tomb it was,
  358. to the Athens of his birth.
  359. With regard to tomb interiors
    in the second century A.D.
  360. in Rome, there are two major
    types, and I want to treat both
  361. of those today.
  362. One of them is a type that
    we've seen before,
  363. and that is where you stucco
    over the interior of the tomb;
  364. you stucco it over,
    and then you add additional
  365. stucco, in relief,
    to form the decoration,
  366. and then you paint it.
  367. That's one type.
  368. And the second type,
    which might also use that for
  369. the vault;
    but for the walls,
  370. the second type is to use
    instead architectural members--
  371. columns, pediments and the
    like--to enliven the wall and to
  372. create a much more sculptural
    effect.
  373. Both of these types are used in
    Rome, in the second century A.D.
  374. in tomb architecture.
  375. And I want to show you examples
    of both of them today.
  376. The first, type 1,
    with stucco,
  377. painted stucco,
    we see in the so-called Tomb of
  378. the Valerii;
    the Tomb of the Valerii which
  379. dates to around A.D.
  380. 159, and is located on the Via
    Latina in Rome.
  381. We haven't looked at the Via
    Latina before,
  382. but it is one of Rome's main
    streets,
  383. that had along it cemeteries,
    and there are a fair number of
  384. concrete tombs,
    faced with brick,
  385. that are preserved,
    very well preserved on the Via
  386. Latina today.
  387. And what makes them
    particularly special is the
  388. interiors are almost pristine.
  389. It's quite extraordinary to go
    into these and see how well they
  390. have stood the test of time.
  391. The Tomb of the Valerii,
    you see the lunette and the
  392. vault of the interior of that
    tomb right here.
  393. And as you look at the acanthus
    leaves growing up in the
  394. lunette,
    all done in stucco relief,
  395. and the barrel vault with its
    individual compartments,
  396. round and square compartments,
    with floating figures inside,
  397. you should certainly be
    reminded of things we've already
  398. seen before.
  399. When one looks at the acanthus
    leaves,
  400. one can't help but think back
    to the delicate leaves of the
  401. Ara Pacis,
    the delicate acanthus leaves of
  402. the Ara Pacis Augustae,
    which you see on the left-hand
  403. side of the screen.
  404. And I'm sure you are as
    reminded as I am,
  405. looking at this vault,
    by other things that we have
  406. seen earlier this semester.
  407. What's this over here?
  408. The Domus Aurea;
    it's one of the vaults of the
  409. Domus Aurea.
  410. Third style;
    done, we believe,
  411. by Fabullus himself.
  412. And you'll recall,
    very delicate,
  413. very light floral motifs;
    compartments,
  414. in this case rectangular,
    with floating sea creatures in
  415. the center.
  416. We see exactly the same sort of
    thing here, although done in
  417. stucco instead of paint.
  418. But this was painted originally
    in antiquity,
  419. and we see these floating,
    these Nereids on the back of
  420. sea creatures inside,
    floating inside these.
  421. And we think the message here,
    of course, is of the soul of
  422. the deceased being carried to
    the Iles of the Blessed,
  423. by these sea creatures.
  424. So very much stucco decoration,
    second century A.D.,
  425. but very dependent on Third
    Style Roman wall painting and
  426. third style stucco decoration of
    earlier dates.
  427. The Tomb of the Pancratii,
    in Rome, which dates to 169,
  428. also on the Via Latina,
    has similarly well preserved
  429. stucco decoration,
    also painted;
  430. and I'll show you a color view
    in a moment, for you to get a
  431. sense of that coloration.
  432. But here you get an idea of the
    scheme of the wall:
  433. very, very elaborate;
    stuccoed over;
  434. stuccoed, much of the stucco is
    done in relief.
  435. You can see it here.
  436. If the stucco decoration of the
    Tomb of the Valerii made
  437. reference to the Third Style,
    I think the inspiration here
  438. was Fourth Style Roman wall
    painting and stucco decoration.
  439. Because although you continue
    to see floating mythological
  440. figures in these rectangular or
    triangular compartments,
  441. if you look very closely,
    especially in this zone here,
  442. you will also see these
    architectural cages,
  443. done in stucco,
    very similar to the
  444. architectural cages that we saw
    at the top of Fourth Style Roman
  445. wall design.
  446. So this taking its cue from
    Fourth Style Roman wall
  447. painting.
  448. And I have mentioned to you a
    couple of times already this
  449. term that,
    in fact, most post-Pompeian
  450. painting,
    and stucco decoration,
  451. post-79 A.D.,
    does seem to be inspired by the
  452. third style,
    but even more so by the fourth
  453. style of Roman wall painting,
    and we see that very well here,
  454. with this stucco decorating the
    lunettes and also the vaulting.
  455. Here's a view in color of the
    interior of the Tomb of the
  456. Pancratii,
    where you can see the same sort
  457. of scheme that I've already
    described,
  458. but with the color.
  459. And you can also see that we
    are dealing here with a
  460. groin-vaulted interior.
  461. And, what's interesting,
    is that sometimes the walls
  462. have small niches for urns and
    the so-called arcosolia--
  463. I've mentioned those to you
    before--
  464. that were used for the
    placement of bodies,
  465. once inhumation became as
    popular, indeed even more
  466. popular,
    than cremation.
  467. But we also sometimes see the
    sarcophagi themselves,
  468. the freestanding coffins
    located in these tombs,
  469. as we see here.
  470. And it's interesting to keep in
    mind that all of the money and
  471. time that was expended on this
    interior decoration--
  472. keep in mind that very few
    people entered into these tombs.
  473. When you looked at a tomb,
    you saw primarily its exterior.
  474. Some family members,
    on special occasions,
  475. might go inside,
    but it was relatively rare.
  476. So all of this,
    all of this done,
  477. in fact,
    to give the deceased a pleasant
  478. home in perpetuity,
    and to help them on their
  479. journey to the Isles of the
    Blessed.
  480. This structure also has sea
    creatures depicted in it.
  481. So travel is clearly also
    alluded to.
  482. And scholars who have worked on
    this particular monument,
  483. in particular,
    have noted that they think it
  484. has to do with one of these
    secret mystery religions,
  485. in this case the Orphic,
    O-r-p-h-i-c,
  486. the Orphic religion that was
    practiced in secret initially
  487. and then eventually came up
    above ground.
  488. Two more details of the
    Pancratii ceilings,
  489. in stucco.
  490. These, I think,
    give you a particularly good
  491. sense of the way in which they
    were built up almost as reliefs,
  492. in some parts of these scenes
    -- this figure here,
  493. for example.
  494. Some of the rest was painted.
  495. We see heraldic leopards over
    here, on either side of a vase.
  496. The shell in the niche also
    done in stucco and raised in a
  497. very sculptural way,
    and then the whole painted in a
  498. variety of attractive maroons
    and blues and greens.
  499. The most interesting tomb,
    from my point of view actually,
  500. is a tomb that is located,
    a Roman tomb of the second
  501. century that is located beneath
    the Vatican today.
  502. And I show you a view again of
    the dome of St.
  503. Peter's Cathedral in Rome,
    designed by Michelangelo
  504. himself.
  505. Another view over here showing
    also Michelangelo's dome,
  506. but showing below it the
    so-called Baldacchino that was
  507. put up by the famous
    seventeenth-century Italian
  508. architect,
    Borromini, Francesco Borromini
  509. , the Cathedral of St.
  510. Peter's.
  511. And any of you who've been
    there will agree with me on
  512. this, it's one of the great
    wonders of the world;
  513. there's no question it is.
  514. If you want to talk about
    bigger is better,
  515. or biggest is best,
    this is a truly colossal
  516. building, as any of you who have
    been there know.
  517. But it does give me occasion to
    mention,
  518. as I've mentioned a couple of
    times already this term,
  519. that one of the really great
    things to do when you visit Rome
  520. is to climb things,
    is to climb.
  521. If you're so lucky to climb the
    Column of Trajan,
  522. or the Pantheon,
    up to the dome--those you have
  523. to get special permission to do.
  524. But what you don't need special
    permission to do,
  525. and is one of the great climbs
    in Rome, is to go up St.
  526. Peter's.
  527. And you can go up St.
  528. Peter's either on the outside
    of the building,
  529. to various levels from which
    you can see some of the greatest
  530. views of Rome,
    including back over central
  531. Rome, ancient Rome,
    all the buildings that we've
  532. been talking about.
  533. You can see the dome of the
    Pantheon from the top of St.
  534. Peter's.
  535. You can see the Victor Emmanuel
    Monument, tall and proud,
  536. from the dome of St.
  537. Peter's.
  538. But you can also climb up to
    the dome, from the inside,
  539. which is another extraordinary
    experience.
  540. You can go almost--not quite
    but almost--to the apex of
  541. Michelangelo's dome,
    walk around a corridor there,
  542. and look down on Bernini's
    Baldacchino.
  543. So for those of you who are
    going to Rome anytime soon,
  544. or in the future,
    it's a not to be missed
  545. experience to climb the
    Cathedral of St.
  546. Peter's, on the outside,
    and also on the inside.
  547. I bring you to St.
  548. Peter's because one can also go
    down underneath St.
  549. Peter's.
  550. And that's another very
    interesting experience,
  551. to go down in the depths,
    beneath St.
  552. Peter's and get a really great
    sense of the centuries of
  553. civilization that have been
    piled one on top of another,
  554. from ancient Rome,
    or from the time of Romulus,
  555. indeed all the way up to today.
  556. And in order to see the Tomb of
    the Caetennii,
  557. which is the tomb that I want
    to turn to now,
  558. you do have to go down
    underneath St.
  559. Peter's.
  560. You have to--this is something
    you can't just walk it.
  561. You can climb St.
  562. Peter's any day of the week,
    but if you want to go
  563. underneath St.
  564. Peter's, you have to make
    special arrangements.
  565. You have to get special tickets
    to do that.
  566. And now one can do that online;
    you can plan that online and
  567. you can get tickets to go to the
    so-called Vatican cemeteries
  568. underneath.
  569. And they don't have them--they
    have a small number of hours,
  570. on a variety of days.
  571. So it is something one needs to
    plan for well in advance.
  572. But you can do it.
  573. You go to the left of the
    Baldacchino, you go down,
  574. and you go down century upon
    century.
  575. You see primarily the tombs of
    the popes, the crypts with the
  576. tombs of the popes.
  577. And I show you Pope Boniface
    here, just to give you an idea
  578. of what some of these look like,
    lying in eternity here on the
  579. top of his sarcophagus,
    or a sculptured portrait of him
  580. on the top of his sarcophagus.
  581. But if you go all the way down,
    all the way down--
  582. and most tourists don't do
    this--but if you go all the way
  583. to the bottom,
    what you end up with is one of
  584. Rome's great tomb streets.
  585. And this tomb street was out in
    the light of day,
  586. of course, in antiquity,
    like all the other tomb
  587. streets,
    but because of the passage of
  588. time,
    because other buildings that
  589. were built on top,
    primarily the Cathedral of St.
  590. Peter's, and just the rising
    ground level over time,
  591. it now is subterranean.
  592. But when you--it's amazing.
  593. You go down,
    you walk along it,
  594. it is like you are--it's a dark
    street, but nonetheless--I
  595. wouldn't want to record in that
    street.
  596. But you go down under.
  597. It's a dark street but it
    is--you feel like you are
  598. walking along a major tomb
    street in Rome;
  599. and indeed you are.
  600. And I show you a plan of it
    here, so that you can see.
  601. It is very much like walking
    along the tomb street in Isola
  602. Sacra.
  603. You see at your left and right
    these concrete,
  604. brick-faced tombs,
    that look very much like the
  605. Tomb of Annia Regilla,
    or the ones that we saw in
  606. Isola Sacra: typical house tombs
    of the second century A.D.
  607. One of the tombs that is
    located down there has long been
  608. thought by scholars,
    and believers,
  609. to be the Tomb of St.
  610. Peter.
  611. No one has been able to prove
    this incontrovertibly,
  612. but there is some interesting
    evidence, both pro and con.
  613. And it has been thought--and
    you know Peter's famous
  614. statement, Upon this rock I
    shall build this church,
  615. namely the Church of St.
  616. Peter's.
  617. We believe that when
    Constantine, the last pagan
  618. emperor--
    and we're going to talk about
  619. him in the last lecture this
    semester--
  620. when Constantine built the
    first basilica,
  621. Christian basilica on this
    site, the basilica that we refer
  622. to as Old St.
  623. Peter's, that obviously
    predated New St.
  624. Peter's, we think he may have
    built it on that very rock and
  625. on that very tomb of St.
  626. Peter.
  627. And that's what this restored
    view shows you here.
  628. If you walk along though and
    look at these tombs,
  629. for the most part they look
    like typical Roman tombs from
  630. the second century:
    brick-faced concrete
  631. construction,
    with interesting decoration
  632. inside.
  633. And I show you just the most
    famous mosaic that is located
  634. down there, which you see is a
    figure in a chariot.
  635. We think it's a representation
    of the Sun God Sol or Helios,
  636. in the chariot,
    because you can see the rayed
  637. crown.
  638. But some believe it is a
    representation of Christ as
  639. Helios.
  640. And I show it to you only
    because it is the single most
  641. famous mosaic down there,
    and one of the most famous
  642. mosaics in Rome,
    but also because it heralds
  643. what we're going to begin to see
    happening,
  644. especially in the last lecture,
    and that is this transition
  645. from paganism to Christianity in
    Rome--
  646. Constantine being the last
    pagan, first Christian emperor--
  647. and this interesting way in
    which pagan imagery elides into
  648. Christian imagery,
    both in terms of figural
  649. decoration,
    but also in terms of
  650. architecture.
  651. I can't, because it's so poorly
    lighted down there,
  652. I can't show you a good picture
    of the tombs beneath St.
  653. Peter's.
  654. But I can show you another set
    of tombs beneath a--
  655. that are very well lighted and
    can be photographed better--
  656. beneath a columbarium,
    an underground--
  657. a catacomb actually,
    an underground burial area that
  658. was used by the early Christians
    in Rome.
  659. And you see it's called--you
    don't have to worry about
  660. this--it's called the Church of
    San Sebastiano,
  661. and these tombs are underneath
    that.
  662. But I show them to you here,
    just to give you a sense of
  663. what that tomb street looked
    like,
  664. underneath the Vatican,
    or looks like underneath the
  665. Vatican,
    with the concrete brick-faced
  666. tombs,
    looking very similar to those
  667. we saw at Isola Sacra.
  668. The same travertine door jambs,
    inscriptions,
  669. slit windows.
  670. And if you look through the
    entranceway of this one,
  671. you will see it's barrel
    vaulted, and it has a scheme
  672. that is very similar to the
    stucco decoration of the Tomb of
  673. the Valerii,
    with these circles done in
  674. raised stucco and with the
    floating figures in between
  675. them.
  676. And this is exactly what it
    looks like beneath the Vatican.
  677. I can show you some views of
    the interiors of some of the
  678. Vatican tombs,
    because those have lights in
  679. them;
    they're better lighted.
  680. You can see them here.
  681. We see this interesting
    combination,
  682. that we also saw at Isola
    Sacra, of the smaller niches
  683. that are used for urns,
    and the larger arcosolia
  684. that are used for the placement
    of bodies.
  685. And then you can see,
    in this view on the right,
  686. the way in which they have
    closed off those
  687. arcosolia by placing
    marble plaques on them that
  688. either have inscriptions or
    sometimes figural scenes,
  689. and then again here a
    freestanding sarcophagi on these
  690. interiors as well.
  691. This is an axonometric view
    from Ward-Perkins of the Tomb of
  692. the Caetennii.
  693. It dates to 160 A.D.,
    in the Vatican Cemetery in
  694. Rome.
  695. And I think you can see here
    both the brick-faced concrete
  696. construction,
    the way in which the windows
  697. have similar stucco decoration
    to what we saw on the Tomb of
  698. Annia Regilla,
    on the Via Appia in Rome.
  699. But most interesting for us is
    the way in which the interior is
  700. treated, because this is my type
    2.
  701. Here we will see some stucco,
    but you will see here that the
  702. walls are enlivened in a
    different way.
  703. They are enlivened through
    architectonic means,
  704. through the use of columns,
    through the use of niches,
  705. through the use of pediments,
    triangular pediments,
  706. but also broken triangular
    pediments.
  707. Here you see a pediment that
    has been split apart,
  708. a triangular pediment split
    apart to show what is inside.
  709. This is the same scheme that we
    saw in Second Style Roman wall
  710. painting, way back when;
    this whole idea of taking the
  711. traditional vocabulary of
    architecture and dealing with it
  712. in a very different way than had
    been done before --
  713. breaking the rules so to speak.
  714. We see that happening here.
  715. But the main thing is that
    we're looking at this designer
  716. using architectural members to
    create the visual interest of
  717. the walls of the structure.
  718. You can also see in this
    axonometric view this
  719. combination of small niches for
    cinerary urns,
  720. and then these larger
    arcosolia for the bodies.
  721. So cremation and inhumation
    still going on hand in hand,
  722. during the second century A.D.
  723. This is a spectacular view of
    the interior of the Tomb of the
  724. Caetennii, and here you can
    really see what I mean.
  725. Yes, there is some stucco.
  726. If you look at the vaults you
    will see that those--
  727. this is again a groin vault
    that has been stuccoed over,
  728. and it had the same kind of
    compartments and painted
  729. decoration,
    relief decoration,
  730. that we saw in the Tomb of the
    Pancratii.
  731. But you can see that most of
    the effects have been done
  732. through architectural means.
  733. If you look carefully you will
    see that there is a
  734. black-and-white mosaic on the
    floor;
  735. not so different from what we
    see in Ostia.
  736. There are niches on the walls,
    these niches used for cinerary
  737. urns;
    arcosolia down here for
  738. the bodies.
  739. And there are stuccoed
    decoration and the use of the
  740. shells that you can see here.
  741. But if you look very carefully
    at the combination of sort of
  742. maroon and cherry red walls,
    you will see the remains of the
  743. architectural members that
    served to enliven this space.
  744. Look up here;
    you will see that there was a
  745. triangular pediment over the
    central niche.
  746. You can see parts of the broken
    triangular pediments on either
  747. side.
  748. You can see the remains of
    capitals, and beneath those
  749. would have been the projecting
    columns that we saw in the
  750. axonometric view in
    Ward-Perkins.
  751. So this again the second type,
    where the walls are enlivened
  752. with architectural members,
    and those architectural
  753. members, when intact,
    would have created a scheme in
  754. which you had progression,
    recession, progression,
  755. recession, all along the wall
    --
  756. this in and out scheme that
    we're going to see becomes the
  757. hallmark of what I'm going to
    term here this semester the
  758. baroque element in Roman
    antiquity,
  759. in Roman architecture.
  760. All of these buildings were
    being put up during the reign of
  761. Hadrian's successor.
  762. Hadrian had died in 138 A.D.,
    and he was succeeded by a man
  763. by the name of Antoninus Pius,
    whose portrait you see here on
  764. the upper right.
  765. Antoninus Pius again was--he
    reigned for a quite long time.
  766. He reigned between 138 and 161
    A.D.
  767. It was a period of
    extraordinary peace.
  768. He, like Hadrian,
    was a peace loving man,
  769. and he was able to maintain
    that peace exceedingly well,
  770. and Rome really thrived under
    his emperorship.
  771. He's also interesting because
    he seems to have had more of a
  772. love relationship with his wife
    than any other Roman emperor
  773. that I can think of,
    a relationship that was so
  774. strong that when his wife died--
    he became emperor--here's his
  775. wife,
    Faustina the Elder.
  776. He became emperor in 138,
    but she died already in 141,
  777. and as I mentioned he stayed
    emperor until 161;
  778. so he was emperor for twenty
    more years after her death.
  779. He never forgot her.
  780. He stayed completely enamored
    of her.
  781. He never remarried.
  782. We don't even have any rumors
    that he had any concubines or
  783. anything like that.
  784. He seems to have stayed
    completely true to her.
  785. And what's interesting is that
    when the two of them died,
  786. their successors,
    Marcus Aurelius and Lucius
  787. Verus, put up a monument to
    them.
  788. And it's not on your Monument
    List and I'm not holding you
  789. responsible for it,
    but I just want to show it to
  790. you, because it will illuminate
    a monument that I am going to
  791. show you in a moment.
  792. This base, which served as the
    base for a porphyry column,
  793. that was located on top,
    represents a scene in which we
  794. see Antoninus Pius and his wife,
    Faustina the Elder,
  795. being carried to heaven on the
    back of a male personification.
  796. We see Roma,
    in the bottom right,
  797. and she is saluting them;
    she is bearing witness to what
  798. is a representation of their
    joint divinization.
  799. The two of them,
    Faustina the Elder,
  800. divinized at her death in 141;
    Antoninus Pius divinized at his
  801. death in 161.
  802. And yet we see them being
    carried to heaven as if their
  803. divinizations happened exactly
    at the same time.
  804. This is obviously a fiction.
  805. It is a conflation of time.
  806. It is a fiction of which the
    Romans were particularly adept
  807. in their sculptural
    representations.
  808. But I show it to you here
    because it has some bearing on a
  809. temple that I now want to talk
    about.
  810. This is the so-called Temple of
    Antoninus Pius and Faustina the
  811. Elder.
  812. It is a temple that Antoninus
    Pius put up in honor of his wife
  813. in 141, to her as a diva,
    after she was divinized.
  814. But at his own death,
    twenty years later,
  815. in 161, his successors--again,
    Marcus Aurelius and Lucius
  816. Verus--
    rededicated it to the two of
  817. them, to the divine Antoninus
    Pius and to the divine Faustina.
  818. It is quite well preserved
    today, and it is important for
  819. two main reasons.
  820. It is important because it is
    our best surviving temple that
  821. was put up to an emperor and an
    empress.
  822. It wasn't the only one,
    but it's the best surviving
  823. example of that.
  824. And it is another example of
    the way in which antiquities are
  825. reused over time,
    in other contexts and at later
  826. times,
    and how that reuse sometimes
  827. helps to preserve them.
  828. What I show you now on the
    screen is a coin,
  829. on the upper left,
    representing Faustina the Elder
  830. on the obverse of the coin,
    on the left,
  831. her portrait,
    and it refers to her as
  832. "Diva Faustina."
  833. So it is a coin that Antoninus
    Pius struck after her death and
  834. after her divinization.
  835. And we see on the back the
    temple that Antoninus Pius
  836. originally made,
    in her honor.
  837. Over here we see a series of
    drawings,
  838. that come from the Ward-Perkins
    textbook,
  839. that show once again a
    depiction of that original
  840. temple on the coin,
    and with a legend that says
  841. aeternitas,
    for eternity,
  842. because now she is a diva for
    eternity.
  843. And then a restored view,
    over here, of what the temple
  844. would've looked like after it
    was rededicated to Antoninus and
  845. Faustina, in 161.
  846. And then over here,
    the Baroque building that was
  847. built into it,
    in the seventeenth century
  848. A.D., when it was turned into
    the Church of San Lorenzo in
  849. Miranda,
    and I've put the name San
  850. Lorenzo in Miranda on your
    Monument List.
  851. If we look at the view of it,
    as it was after it was
  852. re-dedicated to Antoninus Pius
    and Faustina,
  853. we will see a typical Roman
    temple.
  854. All the features that we have
    described so very often in the
  855. course of this semester--the
    deep porch;
  856. the freestanding columns in the
    porch;
  857. the very tall podium;
    the single staircase;
  858. the façade emphasis--we
    see all of that here.
  859. A very conventional Roman
    temple, with sculpture in the
  860. pediment and decoration on the
    eaves of the temple as well.
  861. What we see on the bottom left
    is what happened to this temple
  862. in the seventeenth century.
  863. Part of it was preserved--maybe
    more of it was preserved,
  864. we're not absolutely sure--but
    at least part of it was
  865. preserved.
  866. The walls, the sidewalls,
    and also the columns and the
  867. front of the--
    well the sidewalls primarily,
  868. and the columns,
    and the lintel over here that
  869. has the inscription that
    dedicates the temple to
  870. Antoninus Pius and Faustina.
  871. But what you see behind it is
    the Baroque façade rising
  872. up,
    a Baroque façade that
  873. has buttresses--
    and I'm going to show it to you
  874. in actuality in a moment--
    that has buttresses on either
  875. side,
    that has this wonderful split,
  876. arcuated pediment--
    a split, arcuated pediment that
  877. would've been impossible to
    conceive,
  878. I believe, without these
    architects,
  879. Baroque architects of
    seventeenth century,
  880. looking back to the baroque
    element in Roman antiquity.
  881. The cross is added in the
    center, of course.
  882. But there's one major
    difference between this building
  883. and this building.
  884. Does anyone see what that is,
    besides the addition of the
  885. Baroque façade?
  886. Student: Podium.
  887. Prof: What?
  888. A little louder.
  889. Student: The podium.
  890. Prof: The podium,
    exactly.
  891. The podium is not there.
  892. The podium is not there.
  893. The staircase is not there.
  894. Why is that?
  895. Student: I don't know if
    it's because like the land is
  896. filling.
  897. Prof: Yes.
  898. Student:
    >
  899. Prof: Yes,
    the ground level has risen,
  900. so that at the time that they
    decide to turn the Temple of
  901. Antoninus Pius and Faustina into
    San Lorenzo in Miranda--
  902. this is where the ground level
    is.
  903. There's no podium anymore.
  904. The podium is completely
    underground, as are part of the
  905. columns;
    we see only the part of the--so
  906. they put the door at the bottom,
    what is the bottom at that
  907. particular time.
  908. Now let me show you the
    building today.
  909. It's very well preserved.
  910. So you see what I mean by the
    best-preserved monument to--the
  911. best-preserved temple to an
    emperor and an empress in Rome:
  912. extremely well preserved.
  913. You see its location is in the
    Roman Forum, with the backdrop
  914. of the Imperial Fora behind it:
    the Forum of Augustus,
  915. the Forum of Trajan.
  916. In the Roman Forum.
  917. So prime real estate for this
    temple, when Antoninus Pius
  918. decides to build it to his wife.
  919. We see here the original
    podium, the original staircase,
  920. the original columns:
    grey granite columns,
  921. white marble capitals.
  922. We see the original lintel with
    the inscription still preserved:
  923. To Divine Antoninus Pius,
    to Divine Faustina.
  924. We see the original tufa walls
    of the side.
  925. We see the lintel on this side
    that also has a frieze that is
  926. preserved from antiquity.
  927. And then we see,
    growing up behind it,
  928. the seventeenth-century Baroque
    church, with its buttresses and
  929. with its broken arcuated
    pediment.
  930. And if you look very carefully,
    you will see this was ground
  931. level, in the seventeenth
    century.
  932. This is the seventeenth-century
    door.
  933. This is the ancient door down
    here.
  934. I'll show you a couple of views
    where you can see that even more
  935. clearly.
  936. Here's another view showing you
    those grey granite columns,
  937. the white capitals,
    the seventeenth-century door.
  938. And then down here the ancient
    door,
  939. which shows you more
    dramatically than anything else
  940. I've been able to show you this
    semester,
  941. this change in ground level.
  942. And two more views that I took
    that show you the same here,
  943. the seventeenth-century door.
  944. So you have to think of all of
    this underground in the
  945. seventeenth century,
    and then only in more modern
  946. times was the temple excavated,
    temple and church excavated
  947. down to their original level.
  948. Here's another view showing you
    again the seventeenth-century
  949. doorway, the earlier doorway,
    the staircase.
  950. A little baby down here,
    which I was happy to have for
  951. scale.
  952. It gives you a sense once again
    of how--and that makes it even
  953. more dramatic,
    because--I don't know if it's a
  954. he or a she;
    she, she, sitting there,
  955. that she--it makes it even more
    dramatic to demonstrate to you
  956. again,
    since this is a lecture on
  957. bigger is better,
    that this Temple to Antoninus
  958. and Faustina was also very,
    very--also is very,
  959. very large in scale.
  960. When Antoninus Pius died,
    in 161, he was succeeded by
  961. Marcus Aurelius and Lucius
    Verus;
  962. Marcus Aurelius,
    one of the most famous of the
  963. Roman emperors,
    the great stoic philosopher,
  964. and you see him in a portrait
    here.
  965. You see Lucius Verus on the
    left-hand side.
  966. The two of them were
    co-emperors between 161 and 169.
  967. Lucius Verus died in battle in
    169.
  968. Marcus Aurelius continued on
    alone, until the year 180 A.D.
  969. So he too had a very long reign.
  970. Marcus spent most of his reign,
    however, on the front.
  971. During the period that he was
    emperor, the barbarians were
  972. literally at the gates.
  973. There was concern that they
    were going to,
  974. in fact, overrun the city
    completely,
  975. overrun the Empire completely,
    and he had to spend most of his
  976. reign on the frontiers,
    and he did, beating back those
  977. barbarians.
  978. For that reason,
    there was very little
  979. architectural construction.
  980. Even though he had a very long
    reign,
  981. there was very little
    architectural construction
  982. during the time of Marcus
    Aurelius,
  983. because of the time that he had
    to spend in war.
  984. He was succeeded by his son,
    Commodus, whose portrait you
  985. see down here;
    Commodus in the line,
  986. also in the megalomaniacal line
    of Nero and Domitian:
  987. a man who saw himself as a god
    on earth,
  988. who saw himself as the Greek
    hero Hercules.
  989. He called himself Hercules
    Romanus.
  990. And we see him in his most
    famous and most fabulous--this
  991. is about one of the best
    portraits preserved from ancient
  992. Rome.
  993. It's in the Capitoline Museums
    today,
  994. and you see him masquerading
    here as Hercules,
  995. with the lion's skin around his
    head,
  996. holding the club,
    holding the apples of the
  997. Hesperides,
    demonstrating that he has
  998. completed that last labor,
    just as Hercules had done,
  999. and is going to become a god in
    the manner of Hercules.
  1000. He used to parade around in
    Rome openly in this way,
  1001. and actually struck coins
    showing himself as Hercules
  1002. Romanus,
    just to give you a sense of how
  1003. extreme it was.
  1004. And he was always challenging
    people to hand-to-hand combat.
  1005. And, in fact,
    he eventually got his
  1006. comeuppance because although he
    himself also reigned for quite
  1007. awhile,
    between 180 and 192--so he
  1008. lasted for twelve years--
    but nonetheless even his
  1009. closest advisors eventually
    turned against him and plotted
  1010. behind his back and arranged for
    one of the most famous
  1011. gladiators of the day,
    Narcissus, interestingly called
  1012. Narcissus,
    to take up Commodus' offer to
  1013. fight anybody who wanted to
    fight him in the Colosseum.
  1014. And, of course,
    he thought that being emperor
  1015. protected him,
    and that he,
  1016. like Nero, who fixed the
    Olympic Games in his favor,
  1017. that Commodus would also never
    lose in a contest like this,
  1018. because he was by definition
    emperor.
  1019. But his advisors turned against
    him, let Narcissus loose,
  1020. and Commodus was slain by
    Narcissus in the Colosseum.
  1021. But he did--I do want to just
    mention,
  1022. and only in passing--Commodus
    did put up a column to his
  1023. father,
    Marcus Aurelius,
  1024. that is based very closely on
    the Column of Trajan in Rome.
  1025. I'm not going to go into it
    with you today,
  1026. because the architectural
    complex in which it was
  1027. originally found no longer
    survives.
  1028. But I just wanted you to be
    aware that the Column of Trajan
  1029. was succeeded by the Column of
    Marcus Aurelius.
  1030. I want to however turn,
    for the rest of the lecture,
  1031. to a new dynasty that came to
    the fore after the end of the
  1032. so-called Antonine emperors.
  1033. When Commodus died,
    there were no more Antonines to
  1034. succeed him,
    and Rome once again fell into a
  1035. civil war,
    and there were rivals warring
  1036. with one another for supreme
    power.
  1037. And the man who came to the
    fore was a man by the name of
  1038. Pertinax, P-e-r-t-i-n-a-x.
  1039. But he had other rivals,
    and one of them was the man who
  1040. eventually really came out on
    top, and his name was Lucius
  1041. Septimius Severus.
  1042. Lucius Septimius Severus was
    within that year,
  1043. between 92 and 93 ,
    able to get rid of not only
  1044. Pertinax but other rivals,
    and become supreme ruler of
  1045. Rome.
  1046. And because he,
    like Vespasian before him,
  1047. had two sons to succeed him,
    Caracalla and Geta,
  1048. he was able to set up a new
    dynasty,
  1049. the so-called Severan,
    what we call the Severan,
  1050. S-e-v-e-r-a-n,
    the Severan dynasty in Rome.
  1051. The Severan dynasty in Rome,
    extremely important,
  1052. because Septimius Severus
    commissioned some important
  1053. structures,
    both public structures and
  1054. private;
    he was an interesting emperor
  1055. because he combined an interest
    in the two.
  1056. And then his son,
    Caracalla, who epitomizes,
  1057. as I began today,
    the whole bigger is better,
  1058. or biggest is best philosophy,
    in life and in architecture.
  1059. I want to show you first,
    just to introduce you to these
  1060. two patrons, this wonderful
    painted tondo that is preserved
  1061. from Rome.
  1062. It was found--excuse me,
    not in Rome but in Egypt,
  1063. and is now in a museum in
    Berlin.
  1064. But it is important because it
    is our only surviving painting
  1065. of an emperor,
    and not only an emperor but an
  1066. emperor and his whole family,
    his wife and his children;
  1067. the only surviving painting of
    an emperor today.
  1068. But there were obviously many
    of these in antiquity.
  1069. It's a fascinating painting.
  1070. We see Septimius Severus with
    his grey hair and beard,
  1071. and his wonderful jeweled
    crown.
  1072. We see his wife,
    Julia Domna,
  1073. who--and by the way,
    I neglected to mention,
  1074. but one of the interesting
    things about Septimius Severus'
  1075. biography is the fact that he
    was born not in Rome,
  1076. and not in Spain,
    as Trajan and Hadrian had been,
  1077. but rather in North Africa,
    in a place called Leptis Magna,
  1078. L-e-p-t-i-s,
    new word, M-a-g-n-a,
  1079. in Leptis Magna,
    born in North Africa.
  1080. He hooked up with a woman from
    Syria, whose name was Julia
  1081. Domna.
  1082. She was the daughter of an
    important priest in Syria called
  1083. Bassianus.
  1084. She was famous in Rome for her
    wigs;
  1085. she used to wear wigs,
    and you can see her wearing one
  1086. of her wigs in this wonderful
    painted portrait.
  1087. She also clearly liked jewelry,
    because you can see her with
  1088. these fabulous triple pearl
    earrings and a wonderful pearl
  1089. necklace here also,
    looking very vibrant in this
  1090. portrait.
  1091. And then the two of them with
    their sons;
  1092. their elder son,
    Caracalla over her,
  1093. and their younger son,
    or what remains of him,
  1094. Geta, on the left.
  1095. Geta and Caracalla succeeded
    their father together,
  1096. as co-rulers.
  1097. But Caracalla,
    very jealous of his brother,
  1098. who was much more popular with
    the Roman populace than
  1099. Caracalla himself was.
  1100. And Caracalla eventually had
    his brother murdered,
  1101. and after his brother was
    murdered,
  1102. he convinced--that is,
    Caracalla--convinced the Roman
  1103. Senate to issue a damnatio
    memoriae,
  1104. or a damnation of the memory of
    Geta,
  1105. and an attempt was made to
    eradicate Geta from history by
  1106. eradicating him from art.
  1107. And you can see that he was
    snuffed out;
  1108. his face was removed on this.
  1109. But then it was left to stand,
    to show the power that
  1110. Caracalla had to destroy his
    brother, as you can see here.
  1111. This gives you a glimpse into
    the mind and psyche of
  1112. Caracalla.
  1113. I want to show you first though
    two buildings;
  1114. before we look at the Baths of
    Caracalla,
  1115. I do want to show you two
    buildings of Septimius Severus:
  1116. a public building first,
    the so-called Arch of Septimius
  1117. Severus in the Roman Forum,
    and then an extension to the
  1118. Palatine Palace.
  1119. The Arch of Septimius Severus
    in the Roman Forum dates to A.D.
  1120. 203, and it commemorates the
    Parthian victory of Septimius
  1121. Severus.
  1122. Septimius Severus,
    I already mentioned to you,
  1123. came to power in a civil war.
  1124. So like Augustus,
    and like Vespasian before him,
  1125. he needed to gain legitimacy by
    having an important foreign
  1126. victory,
    and he does this by looking
  1127. East, as Augustus had done
    before him,
  1128. looking to Parthia,
    and does war with Parthia,
  1129. and in fact has an important
    victory,
  1130. and celebrates that important
    victory in this triumphal arch
  1131. that is put up in his honor in
    203 A.D.,
  1132. in once again the choicest spot
    of real estate in Rome,
  1133. the Forum Romanum,
    the Roman Forum.
  1134. I show you a Google Earth view
    over here.
  1135. We've seen this one before,
    so you've undoubtedly got this
  1136. one memorized by now,
    this Google Earth image of the
  1137. Roman Forum as it looks today,
    with the Colosseum up there,
  1138. with the Via dei Fori
    Imperiali,
  1139. Imperial Fora,
    over here, the Circus Maximus,
  1140. the Palatine Hill,
    the Campidoglio,
  1141. Capitoline Hill as redesigned
    by Michelangelo,
  1142. the wedding cake of Victor
    Emmanuel here,
  1143. between the Campidoglio and the
    Colosseum.
  1144. We see, of course,
    the remains of the ancient
  1145. Roman Forum -- much lower ground
    level than the modern ground
  1146. level.
  1147. You'll recall the location of
    the Temple of Venus and Roma,
  1148. just underneath the Colosseum.
  1149. The Arch of Titus on the Velia.
  1150. And you should remember also
    that we talked,
  1151. way in the beginning of the
    term, about two arches,
  1152. two successive arches,
    built in honor of Augustus:
  1153. first his Actian victory,
    victory in Actium,
  1154. and then his victory over the
    Parthians,
  1155. which is over here.
  1156. And then if we look very
    close--it's a little hard to see
  1157. when I'm up this close--
    but we look very closely,
  1158. we will see the location--
    I think it's roughly around
  1159. here--of the Arch of Septimius
    Severus.
  1160. We can see it better in this
    plan of the Roman Forum as it
  1161. developed between the third and
    seventh centuries A.D.
  1162. We see the Tabularium at the
    top, which means we're close to
  1163. the Capitoline Hill.
  1164. We see two basilicas that were
    put up in the Republican period.
  1165. We see a temple that we did not
    study, that was put up in honor
  1166. of the divine Julius Caesar,
    by Augustus.
  1167. We see the Speaker's Platform.
  1168. We see the Senate House,
    which I will show you in a
  1169. later lecture.
  1170. And over here we see the
    location of what was originally
  1171. the Actian Arch of Augustus,
    and then the Parthian Arch of
  1172. Augustus.
  1173. And remember that the Parthian
    Arch of Augustus had a triple
  1174. opening.
  1175. And then if you look at the
    rest of the plan,
  1176. you will see the location of
    the Arch of Septimius Severus,
  1177. over there, diagonally across,
    in dialogue,
  1178. with the Parthian Arch of
    Augustus.
  1179. Was this coincidence?
  1180. Absolutely not.
  1181. This was clearly very carefully
    orchestrated by Septimius
  1182. Severus and his advisors to
    build his Parthian Arch in
  1183. dialogue with the Parthian Arch
    of Augustus.
  1184. With regard to its form,
    it also made reference to the
  1185. Augustan arch.
  1186. I show you here the Arch of
    Septimius Severus as it looks
  1187. today.
  1188. It is our first example that
    we've seen this semester of a
  1189. Roman arch with a triple
    arcuated opening:
  1190. a large arcuated opening in the
    center,
  1191. flanked by two smaller,
    lower arcuated entrances.
  1192. We have not seen that before --
    first surviving example in Rome.
  1193. We remember,
    if we think back to the arches
  1194. we have explored,
    from the time of Augustus on,
  1195. you'll remember that they are
    single-bayed arches.
  1196. Augustus' Actian arch,
    the Arch of Titus,
  1197. and even the second-century
    Arch of Trajan at Benevento.
  1198. But, as I've already said
    today, if we look back to the
  1199. coin--
    the arch no longer exists--but
  1200. we look back to a coin depiction
    of the Parthian Arch of
  1201. Augustus,
    it had three openings:
  1202. a central arcuated opening and
    then two rectangular openings,
  1203. trabeated openings,
    with pediments on either side,
  1204. flanking it.
  1205. So this is not--the Parthian
    arch of Augustus is not a triple
  1206. arcuated arch,
    but it is a three opening arch.
  1207. And I think there is no
    question that those three
  1208. openings are being alluded to in
    the Severan arch,
  1209. and being transformed into
    something that was new,
  1210. which was the idea of the
    triple-arcuated bay.
  1211. Or maybe it wasn't so new,
    because there's an arch--
  1212. the arch that you see down
    here--in the south of France,
  1213. at Orange -- and we'll look at
    this arch when we make our
  1214. journey to the south of France;
    in an upcoming lecture we will
  1215. look at this arch.
  1216. And it's a triple-bayed arch,
    just like the Arch of Septimius
  1217. Severus.
  1218. It's covered with sculpture,
    just like the Arch of Septimius
  1219. Severus.
  1220. So for a while there were
    scholars who dated this to the
  1221. time of Septimius Severus,
    although put up in the
  1222. provinces.
  1223. But recent scholarship,
    more recent scholarship,
  1224. has demonstrated--scholars have
    looked at the piles of arms and
  1225. armor on here,
    and identified it as piles of
  1226. arms and armor that had to do
    with battles that took place in
  1227. the south of France,
    or what is now the south of
  1228. France,
    in the age of Augustus.
  1229. There's also an inscription
    referring to a specific
  1230. historical figure who lived
    during the time,
  1231. the late period of Augustus,
    and into the time of Tiberius.
  1232. So it seems very likely that
    this is not a Severan arch but a
  1233. Tiberian arch.
  1234. And I show it to you here only
    because while we usually--
  1235. and this may be helpful to some
    of you who are doing paper
  1236. topics or city plans in the
    provinces--
  1237. we usually think of ideas
    flowing from the center to the
  1238. periphery.
  1239. But here we seem to have an
    idea that comes to the fore
  1240. first in the periphery,
    and then ends up ultimately in
  1241. the center;
    although, of course,
  1242. there are lots of missing
    pieces to the ancient puzzle.
  1243. There are lots of monuments
    that have not come down to us.
  1244. So it is not inconceivable that
    a triple-bayed arch was built in
  1245. Rome earlier,
    but we just have no evidence
  1246. for it.
  1247. I want to show you the arch
    itself very quickly,
  1248. because it's mainly a work of
    sculpture.
  1249. But just to show you the three
    bays.
  1250. Victories in the spandles;
    river gods down here;
  1251. inscription at the top.
  1252. You'll have to imagine the
    great bronze quadriga of the
  1253. emperor at the apex.
  1254. Decorated bases down here.
  1255. But most interesting are the
    panels that we see,
  1256. four panels that we see,
    two on either side of the arch.
  1257. And I show you a detail,
    a very good detail,
  1258. of one of them here;
    although it's weathered,
  1259. you can see it quite well.
  1260. You can see that this panel,
    instead of having full-length
  1261. figures standing on a single
    ground line,
  1262. as we saw, for example,
    in the frieze of the Ara Pacis,
  1263. we see figures on a number of
    tiers here,
  1264. small figures on a number of
    tiers.
  1265. It should remind you of the
    scenes on the Column of Trajan,
  1266. those spiral,
    the spiral frieze,
  1267. with the individual figures
    telling the story of war,
  1268. and in this case the Parthian
    War of Septimius Severus.
  1269. And so what I think happened
    here--
  1270. my theory, and there are others
    who've said the same--
  1271. is that what happened here is
    that the designer of this got
  1272. the idea to take excerpts,
    in a sense, from the Columns of
  1273. Trajan,
    or the Column of Marcus
  1274. Aurelius, and put them in panel
    format,
  1275. on this monument.
  1276. I don't know whether--you can
    think to yourselves whether you
  1277. think this is successful or not.
  1278. I think it probably was not
    deemed to be particularly
  1279. successful, because it is the
    only arch design of its type.
  1280. No one picked up afterwards and
    imitated this particular idea.
  1281. The bases down below
    representing Romans,
  1282. bringing back Parthian
    prisoners.
  1283. I want to speak very briefly
    also about Septimius Severus'
  1284. extension of the Imperial Palace
    on the Palatine Hill.
  1285. He extended it to the south.
  1286. He lived there,
    just like every emperor since
  1287. Domitian.
  1288. He extended it on the southern
    side--
  1289. that's the side nearest the
    forum--and he added a
  1290. façade to it,
    a very elaborate façade
  1291. that does not survive.
  1292. It doesn't survive because we
    know it was torn down in 1588 to
  1293. 1589 by one of the popes,
    because the pope wanted to use
  1294. it in his own papal building;
    wanted to use the building
  1295. materials in his own papal
    building.
  1296. But fortunately the artist,
    Marten van Heemskerck,
  1297. the Renaissance artist--and
    I've put his name on the
  1298. Monument List for you--
    Marten van Heemskerck drew some
  1299. of it while it was being
    dismantled.
  1300. And you see a piece of it over
    here in the Marten Van
  1301. Heemskerck drawing.
  1302. There's also the plan of the
    structure, also preserved on the
  1303. Forma Urbis, and we can see that
    marble plan of Rome from the
  1304. Severan period.
  1305. If we take both of those--that
    evidence together,
  1306. we can reconstruct it quite
    effectively.
  1307. We can see that it was a
    façade that looked very
  1308. much like a theater,
    with wings on either side,
  1309. with apses here,
    three large apses,
  1310. and columns inside those apses,
    with other elements that have
  1311. columns in three tiers:
    looking very much like a
  1312. theater stage set,
    all done in marble.
  1313. It might have been also a
    fountain.
  1314. There might have been a basin
    down here with a water display.
  1315. All of this serving as a new
    façade for Domitian's
  1316. Palace on the Palatine Hill.
  1317. It's important because it's
    another example of this use of
  1318. progression,
    recession, progression,
  1319. recession, across the
    façade,
  1320. to give an in-and-out,
    undulating movement,
  1321. using the traditional
    vocabulary of architecture in a
  1322. way that is striking and in a
    way that again heralds this new
  1323. baroque style in Roman
    architecture.
  1324. I also mention,
    just as the last point about
  1325. this monument,
    that we also--the reason it's
  1326. called the Septizodium or the
    Septizonium--
  1327. and you see that name on the
    Monument List for you--
  1328. the reason it's referred to as
    the Septizodium is because it
  1329. was thought to honor the--
    or to commemorate the seven
  1330. planets,
    which is not surprising in the
  1331. orbits of Septimius Severus and
    Julia Domna,
  1332. because we know that Julia
    Domna was an avid follower of
  1333. astrological signs,
    used to predict what was going
  1334. to happen in her husband's
    reign,
  1335. through those signs,
    and this is likely a nod to her
  1336. particular astrological
    interests.
  1337. In the nine or ten minutes that
    remain,
  1338. I want to end today with this
    extraordinary imperial bath
  1339. structure that was designed at
    the behest of the emperor
  1340. Caracalla.
  1341. When Septimius Severus died in
    211, he was succeeded by
  1342. Caracalla and by Geta.
  1343. I've already told you what
    Caracalla did to get rid of
  1344. Geta,
    and Caracalla became sole
  1345. emperor in 212 A.D.,
    and remained emperor until his
  1346. death in 217 A.D.
  1347. And one of his major
    commissions was this imperial
  1348. bath structure.
  1349. He wanted to ape his father,
    because we know that Septimius
  1350. Severus had also built a major
    public bath in Rome,
  1351. the Thermae Septimianae.
  1352. They do not survive.
  1353. We have very little knowledge
    of them, so there isn't anything
  1354. that I can show you or tell you
    about them.
  1355. But we know he built it.
  1356. So like father like son.
  1357. He wanted to outdo his
    father--this is like Bush One,
  1358. Bush Two--wanted to outdo his
    father, and to build an even
  1359. larger bathing establishment.
  1360. And he does it here,
    in Rome, a bathing
  1361. establishment called the Baths
    of Caracalla,
  1362. or the Thermae Antoninianae.
  1363. Baths of Caracalla:
    dates to 212 to 216 A.D.
  1364. Any of you who have seen it
    will agree with me this is one--
  1365. if we had, if Trajan's Forum
    was the mother of all forums,
  1366. this is certainly the mother of
    all imperial bath structures.
  1367. This is quite something.
  1368. Fortunately,
    much of it survives,
  1369. mainly the concrete shell,
    a concrete shell of itself.
  1370. But we can see the outlines
    here in this Google Earth image,
  1371. which shows you not only the
    bathing block,
  1372. but also part of the precinct
    that surrounded it.
  1373. Because we shall see,
    if we look at a plan of the
  1374. Baths of Caracalla--
    which you see here in the
  1375. bottom left--
    this is a detail of just the
  1376. bathing block,
    and if we compare the general
  1377. plan with the plan of the Baths
    of Trajan in Rome,
  1378. we will see that the Baths of
    Trajan,
  1379. which were very large in their
    own day,
  1380. have been exceeded here in
    terms of size,
  1381. but are very much in the same
    general format.
  1382. By that I mean a large bathing
    block here, inside a larger
  1383. precinct.
  1384. That precinct has around it a
    host of rooms that were used as
  1385. lecture halls and seminar rooms
    and Greek and Latin libraries.
  1386. So a great locus of
    intellectual,
  1387. as well as wellness,
    in the city of Rome,
  1388. in the third century A.D.
  1389. We see that in the Baths of
    Caracalla,
  1390. just as--if we look at the
    bathing block--
  1391. just as in the Baths of Trajan,
    we see that all the main
  1392. bathing rooms,
    which were used both for men
  1393. and women,
    but probably at different times
  1394. of day,
    are aligned with one another.
  1395. We see the great
    frigidarium here,
  1396. with a triple groin vault over
    that, buttressed by rooms with
  1397. barrel vaults on either side.
  1398. We see a conventional,
    vertically oriented
  1399. tepidarium;
    essentially a rectangle here,
  1400. leading into the
    caldarium.
  1401. So all of these on axis:
    frigidarium,
  1402. tepidarium,
    caldarium.
  1403. Caldarium,
    a roundish structure,
  1404. with alcoves and--but very
    large in scale.
  1405. In fact, you'll be interested
    to hear that the span of the
  1406. dome of the caldarium of
    the Baths of Caracalla was
  1407. almost as large as the span of
    the dome of the Pantheon in
  1408. Rome;
    just to give you a sense of the
  1409. extraordinary bigger is better
    scale in this particular bath.
  1410. Over here a natatio,
    located where it usually isn't,
  1411. but here on axis with the other
    rooms: an interesting
  1412. natatio with a scalloped
    side,
  1413. screened by columns.
  1414. And then otherwise all the
    rooms symmetrically disposed
  1415. around it.
  1416. The two palaestrae,
    one on either side -- matching
  1417. rooms symmetrically disposed
    around the central building
  1418. block.
  1419. So the same imperial bath
    structure type,
  1420. that we saw developed under
    Titus and Trajan,
  1421. but taken to much larger scale
    here.
  1422. This model shows you the hall
    here.
  1423. We are looking back at the
    walls, which were very plain on
  1424. three sides, toward the
    natatio,
  1425. toward the vaulting of the
    frigidarium.
  1426. And then the dome,
    as you can see there,
  1427. of the caldarium.
  1428. Interesting is the front side
    of the--
  1429. or the side where you can see
    the caldarium projecting
  1430. over here,
    which you can see is opened up
  1431. much more than the other sides,
    with a series of columns,
  1432. screened columns,
    and then columns screening and
  1433. opening up the caldarium
    as well,
  1434. on the southern side of the
    monument.
  1435. Just a few views,
    to give you a sense of what
  1436. this structure looks like today.
  1437. Again, it's mainly piles of
    concrete faced with brick.
  1438. But you can see some of the
    soaring vaults still there.
  1439. This is in fact--even in this
    view it's much smaller than it
  1440. would've been,
    because so much of the ceilings
  1441. and the vaults are missing
    today.
  1442. But you can get a sense by
    looking at this family of four,
  1443. standing next to it,
    the colossal scale of the Baths
  1444. of Caracalla in Rome.
  1445. Here's another view,
    with some tourists as well,
  1446. to also give you a sense.
  1447. Again, this is very incomplete
    today, but it still gives you
  1448. some idea of the colossal
    magnitude of this particular
  1449. bath structure.
  1450. As one walks through it,
    there's actually very little
  1451. ornamental decoration still
    preserved, but there was plenty
  1452. in antiquity.
  1453. You can see here and there some
    fragments of a frieze.
  1454. This is a restored view of what
    the frigidarium would
  1455. have looked like,
    the most important room in the
  1456. bath,
    which would have been
  1457. triple-groin vaulted,
    as you can see here,
  1458. which would have had grey
    granite columns with white
  1459. marble capitals,
    and would have had an
  1460. incredible sculptural display.
  1461. And Caracalla,
    like Domitian before him--
  1462. remember Domitian's Aula Regia
    and those colossal statues of
  1463. Dionysus and Apollo,
    with whom Domitian wanted to
  1464. associate himself--
    Caracalla, of the same ilk,
  1465. who also wanted to ally himself
    with great heroes of the past,
  1466. great gods of the past,
    and he follows the lead of
  1467. Commodus,
    in whose model he kind of--he
  1468. looked back again to Nero,
    Domitian, to Commodus--and he
  1469. likened himself to Hercules.
  1470. And we have sculpture,
    that is preserved from the
  1471. frigidarium that
    represents Hercules;
  1472. Hercules, the weary,
    the famous weary Hercules type.
  1473. This is now in Naples,
    in the Archaeological Museum,
  1474. this statue,
    but it comes from the
  1475. frigidarium of the Baths
    of Caracalla--
  1476. we're absolutely sure of
    that--and it depicts the weary
  1477. Hercules.
  1478. It is a Roman copy.
  1479. The artist, we know his name.
  1480. I've put his name on the
    Monument List for you,
  1481. Glykon of Athens.
  1482. So an Athenian sculptor,
    working in the time of
  1483. Caracalla, makes this copy.
  1484. But he makes it of a very
    famous lost Greek original by
  1485. the Greek sculptor Lysippus,
    whose name is also on your
  1486. Monument List,
    a work of art that he
  1487. originally made in the 330s B.C.
  1488. So Glycon of Athens copies
    Lysippus, also of Greece,
  1489. this statue at the behest again
    of Caracalla.
  1490. And the fact that this was a
    theme or a leitmotif that ran
  1491. through all the decoration of
    the frigidarium is
  1492. underscored by the fact that a
    composite capital that survives,
  1493. also from the
    frigidarium,
  1494. shows a figure of that same
    weary Hercules interspersed with
  1495. the acanthus leaves of that
    capital.
  1496. So again a very carefully
    orchestrated program to try to
  1497. underscore the relationships
    between Caracalla and Hercules.
  1498. Mosaics, geometric mosaics,
    not unlike those in Ostia,
  1499. found, and still exist,
    in the Baths of Caracalla today
  1500. --
    black and white with a little
  1501. addition of color.
  1502. Here another section that shows
    you the interest in geometry,
  1503. as well as floral motifs.
  1504. This detail,
    that you can also see on the
  1505. site still today,
    showing the sea scenes that
  1506. were not--
    were the kind of scenes one
  1507. would expect in a bath,
    very similar to those at Ostia
  1508. but done in a somewhat more--
    a better way.
  1509. And then the pièce de
    résistance,
  1510. I think, of the mosaics of the
    Baths of Caracalla,
  1511. and well preserved today,
    was a mosaic that you can see
  1512. is curved,
    to be placed into a room of
  1513. this shape that depict on the
    floor all the famous athletes
  1514. and gladiators of the day,
    either in full-length images or
  1515. in portrait images.
  1516. And I don't doubt that these
    would have been recognizable
  1517. stars,
    superstars--the Alex Rodriguez
  1518. of their day--
    superstars, flexing their
  1519. muscles for the public,
    and hoping to be recognized by
  1520. everyone who came to this bath.
  1521. And you can just imagine men
    and women standing above,
  1522. looking and trying to pick out
    who is depicted here.
  1523. Here's another view that I took
    that is in its current location,
  1524. which is in the Vatican Museums
    in Rome.
  1525. That's where one needs to go to
    see what survives of this
  1526. wonderful mosaic with the
    athletes and gladiators of the
  1527. day.
  1528. And I show them to you here as
    well.
  1529. And if you look at these,
    you can see that they not only
  1530. are shown--some are already
    victors, some are taking part in
  1531. their sport.
  1532. But once again,
    just as in the Alexander
  1533. Mosaic, we see the use of a lot
    of different colored tesserae.
  1534. We see cast shadows.
  1535. This is very well done:
    wonderful facial configurations
  1536. done by what must have been the
    leading mosaicist of the day,
  1537. for the Baths of Caracalla.
  1538. And just in closing today,
    I thought I would show you one
  1539. of those heads,
    blown up to poster size,
  1540. as you can see here,
    but also put it next to an
  1541. actual portrait of Caracalla.
  1542. This is not a course in
    sculpture, but I wanted to show
  1543. this to you, especially since
    it's a portrait that you can
  1544. see.
  1545. It's in New York,
    at the Metropolitan Museum of
  1546. Art -- a very powerful portrait
    of a very intense Roman emperor,
  1547. as you can see on the left.
  1548. But I think there is some
    relationship between the way in
  1549. which the sculptors have
    depicted Caracalla,
  1550. with his very cubic and
    abstract face,
  1551. his short military hairstyle,
    and the depictions of the
  1552. athletes and the gladiators.
  1553. So I think he was not only
    trying to draw a relationship
  1554. between himself and Hercules
    Romanus,
  1555. but also between himself and
    some of the greatest athletes
  1556. and gladiators of the day,
    to underscore his strength as a
  1557. leader.
  1558. It was all for naught
    ultimately, but nonetheless he
  1559. achieved it, and I think it also
    speaks to him as a man with that
  1560. bigger is better philosophy.
  1561. Thank you.