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Showing Revision 15 created 12/18/2019 by Erin Gregory.

  1. [Citizens of the world]
  2. [We face a global crisis
    of unprecedented scale]

  3. [Please stand by for a message from ... ]

  4. [the Secretary-General of
    the United Nations António Guterres]

  5. The climate emergency
    is the defining crisis of our time.

  6. We are in a race against time,
    and we are losing.
  7. There is a growing tide of impatience,
    especially among young people,
  8. with global inaction.
  9. We need more ambition from all:
  10. governments, cities, businesses,
    investors and people everywhere.
  11. So I'm pleased you are
    launching TED Countdown.
  12. Your influence and ideas
    can help accelerate momentum
  13. for a carbon-neutral world by 2050.
  14. That is the only way to avert
    the worst impacts of global heating.
  15. We have the tools, the science
    and the resources.
  16. Let us now get into this race
    with political will and energy.
  17. To do anything less will be a betrayal
    of our entire human family
  18. and generations to come.
  19. Thank you.
  20. Announcer: And now, please welcome

  21. one of the architects
    of the Paris Climate Agreement
  22. Christiana Figueres
  23. and the head of TED, Chris Anderson.
  24. (Applause)

  25. Chris Anderson: Welcome, welcome.

  26. Something remarkable
    is going to happen in the next hour.
  27. The world's single
    most alarming challenge,
  28. which looks something like this ...
  29. is about to go head-to-head
  30. with some of the world's
    most amazing minds
  31. and courageous hearts,
  32. which look something like you.
  33. The extraordinary audience we have
    here in New York and around the world.
  34. Christiana, it's quite the crowd
    we get to hang out with this morning.
  35. Christiana Figueres:
    It sure is, no kidding.

  36. It's a good thing
    that everyone is here together,
  37. because actually, this initiative
    that we're just about to launch
  38. needs everyone to participate.
  39. And here it is.
  40. Countdown.
  41. CA: Countdown is a global initiative
    to cut greenhouse gas emissions.

  42. It's seeking bold solutions
    in five big areas,
  43. imagining what could be achieved
  44. if different groups broke out
    of their silos and acted together.
  45. Starting today, you can go to
  46. and sign up to join the Countdown.
  47. Early in 2020,
  48. we'll be sharing plans
    on how you can connect
  49. with others in your company,
    your city or your school
  50. to engage in this issue.
  51. It's all leading up to global gatherings
  52. on 10.10.2020.
  53. Everyone in the world
    is invited to participate.
  54. CF: And so that's why,

  55. although I've been part
    of many initiatives along the years,
  56. I'm really excited about this one.
  57. Because Countdown
    is an invitation to everyone, everyone,
  58. to play their part in saving our planet
  59. and creating an exciting future.
  60. Politicians and citizens,
  61. CEOs and their customers,
  62. their employees, their investors,
  63. old and young,
  64. north and south.
  65. CA: (Laughs) I see what you did there.

  66. (Laughter)

  67. But look, our goal is not to plunge in

  68. with something new that is competitive
  69. with the amazing initiatives
    already out there.
  70. No.
  71. It's to identify the best solutions
    that have already been worked on,
  72. to cross-fertilize them, to amplify them
  73. and then activate them
  74. by bringing together
    these different groups.
  75. CF: And if that happens,

  76. we believe there is a way out
    of the climate crisis.
  77. That's what we want to facilitate.
  78. But now, Chris, question:
  79. Why are you and TED
    interested in participating
  80. and actually activating
    the climate agenda,
  81. when I thought you were
    all about spreading ideas?
  82. CA: Well, indeed, that has been
    our focused mission for the last 15 years,

  83. Ideas Worth Spreading.
  84. But last summer,
  85. we concluded that the urgency
    of some issues,
  86. and especially climate,
  87. demanded that we try to do more
    than just spread ideas,
  88. that we actually try to activate them.
  89. Now, we're just a relatively
    small nonprofit --
  90. that would not amount to anything
    if we fail to bring other people on board.
  91. But the amazing thing
    is that that has happened.
  92. Everyone we've spoken to about this
    has got excited about participating.
  93. And one of the key moments, frankly,
    was when you came on board, Christiana.
  94. I mean, you were key
    to the Paris Agreement.
  95. And the world was stunned
    at the consensus that emerged there.
  96. What was the key to creating
    that consensus?
  97. CF: I would say it was to really challenge
    and change people's assumption

  98. about what is possible
    if we set a shared intention
  99. and then collectively
    pursue it and achieve it.
  100. So our mantra then, and continues to be:
  101. "Impossible is not a fact,
  102. it's an attitude."
  103. In fact, only an attitude,
  104. and that is something we can change.
  105. CA: Well, that mantra, certainly,
    we're going to have to hold onto

  106. in the months ahead,
  107. because the scientific consensus
    is actually worsening.
  108. For a quick report from the front lines,
  109. here's the head
    of the thousands of scientists
  110. who make up the IPCC, Dr. Hoesung Lee.
  111. (Video) Hoesung Lee: We recently released
    three special reports

  112. that show the damage and risks
    of past and future climate change.
  113. They also show that stabilizing climate
  114. would imply a drastic reduction
    in greenhouse gas emissions
  115. in the near term.
  116. Society will have to go
    through unprecedented changes
  117. to meet this goal.
  118. Even limiting warming
    to 1.5 degrees Celsius
  119. will bring more extreme weather,
  120. rising sea levels
  121. and water shortages in some regions,
  122. and threats to food security
    and biodiversity.
  123. Higher temperature will bring
    more of these damages,
  124. threatening lives and livelihoods
  125. of millions of people
    all around the world.
  126. CA: We're lucky to have with us
    another world-leading scientist,

  127. Johan Rockström here.
  128. He was responsible for creating
    the Planetary Boundaries framework.
  129. Johan, how serious is our situation?
  130. (Video) Johan Rockström: Last week,
    we released in "Nature"

  131. the 10-year update of the risk
    of crossing tipping points,
  132. irreversible tipping points,
    in the Earth system.
  133. We know 15 such tipping points,
  134. including the Greenland
    and West Antarctic ice shelf,
  135. and the permafrost
    in the Siberian tundra, for example,
  136. and we today have observational evidence,
  137. I mean, empirical evidence,
  138. that nine of the 15 have woken up
    and are on the move.
  139. We haven't crossed the tipping point yet,
  140. the window is still open,
  141. but they are warning us
    that now is the time to truly move,
  142. because the moment we cross them,
  143. like, for example, approaching
    a tipping point in the Amazon rain forest,
  144. we would risk losing the battle,
  145. because the planet will be taking over
    its self-reinforced warming.
  146. So that is why this initiative
    is so incredibly important.
  147. Let's go.
  148. CA: Well said.

  149. (Applause)

  150. So, both are very clear there
    that this agenda of cutting emissions

  151. is absolutely crucial.
  152. How has that been going?
  153. CF: Not very well,
    because despite what we know,

  154. despite everything
    that science has told us,
  155. despite everything that we have done,
  156. including adopting the Paris Agreement,
  157. we've actually been increasing
    greenhouse gases consistently
  158. over the past few decades,
  159. to the point where
    we're now at 55 gigatons
  160. of carbon dioxide equivalent
  161. that we are collectively, as humanity,
    emitting every year.
  162. And as we have heard, we have one path,
  163. there is one path
    that we have to follow, and that is:
  164. Start now to decrease emissions,
  165. instead of going up, go down --
  166. reverse the trend, bend the curve.
  167. Reduce emissions, starting in 2020,
  168. to the point where we will be at one half
    the current level of emissions by 2030,
  169. and then continue decreasing them,
    until we are at net zero by 2050.
  170. It's the only path that we can accept.
  171. CA: How do you even begin to start
    tackling a goal as daunting as that?

  172. CF: Well, we could starting by breaking

  173. the simple, yet daunting, challenge
  174. into its constituent pieces,
  175. five main areas.
  176. CA: And so these five together
    are actually all huge,

  177. and if we can find compelling
    solutions in each of them,
  178. they would actually add up
    to an action plan
  179. that matches the scale of the problem.
  180. Well, here are the five.
  181. CF: Power.

  182. How rapidly can we move
    to 100 percent clean energy?
  183. CA: The built environment.

  184. How can we re-engineer
    the stuff that surrounds us?
  185. CF: Transport.

  186. How do we transform the ways
    we move -- ourselves and goods?
  187. CA: Food.

  188. How can we spark a worldwide shift
    to healthier food systems?
  189. CF: And certainly, nature.

  190. How extensively can we re-green the earth?
  191. Now, it's worth noting
    that the answers to these questions
  192. and the measures that we would undertake
  193. don't just reduce net emissions --
  194. they do that, certainly,
    together, to zero --
  195. but they also point the way to a future
  196. that is much better
    and genuinely exciting.
  197. So, think about cool
    new forms of transport,
  198. clean air, healthier food,
    beautiful forests
  199. and oceans bursting with life.
  200. So, you know, solving the climate crisis
  201. isn't about sacrificing
    and settling for a mediocre future,
  202. it's about the exact opposite.
  203. It's about co-creating
    a much better future for all of us.
  204. CA: So how do we tackle these questions?

  205. (Laughter)

  206. CA: Let's take this question here
    and think about this.

  207. How extensively can we re-green the earth?
  208. I mean, there are obviously
    many responses to this question,
  209. many proposals.
  210. It's fundamentally about,
  211. "How do we increase the amount
    of sustainable photosynthesis
  212. on planet Earth."
  213. Photosynthesis sequesters carbon.
  214. There could be proposals
    around giant kelp forests or seagrass,
  215. or about forms of plants
    that have deeper roots
  216. and can sequester across the planet.
  217. But suppose a major proposal that came out
    was about reforestation.
  218. A massive, global reforestation campaign.
  219. I mean, a single organization,
    no matter how big,
  220. cannot take that on.
  221. The key is for everyone to join forces,
  222. for governments (with zoning),
  223. businesses to invest,
  224. investors to do that investing,
  225. environmental groups
    and philanthropists who support them,
  226. and just a massive movement
    among citizens everywhere,
  227. transforming their lawns, their cities,
    their neighborhoods,
  228. going on trips together.
  229. That is where, suddenly,
    you can dream about something really big.
  230. CF: So can we test that theory?

  231. Because we are fortunate
    to have with us today
  232. someone who grew up inside
    a tree-planting movement,
  233. probably the most well-recognized
    tree-planting movement.
  234. And she is the daughter
    of the Nobel Prize winner
  235. Wangari Maathai,
  236. and she heads up the Wangari Maathai
    Foundation today.
  237. So can we invite our very dear
    friend Wanjira Mathai?
  238. (Applause)

  239. (Video) Wanjira Mathai:
    Thank you very much,

  240. Christiana and Chris, for doing this.
  241. Trees have been, indeed, a part of my life
    for as long as I can remember,
  242. but we also know that for centuries,
  243. trees and forests have cushioned us
    against the harsh impacts
  244. of climate variation
  245. for very many years.
  246. In my lifetime, my mother,
  247. through the Green Belt Movement,
    as you mentioned,
  248. inspired the planting
    of 50 million trees and counting
  249. through the work of the Green
    Belt Movement, one organization.
  250. But the world now needs us
  251. to plant 100 times more trees
    than we did then.
  252. And the only way to do that
    is for all of us to come together --
  253. cities, citizens, governments,
    companies, environmental organizations --
  254. and we must believe, therefore,
  255. in the capacity for each of us
    to be potent agents of change.
  256. And that together, we are a force.
  257. And I hope you will all join us.
  258. (Applause)

  259. CF: So together we are a force.

  260. I think Wanjira really hits it
    right there on the head,
  261. because it's all about collaborating
  262. across a pretty broad spectrum of people.
  263. And happily, there are representatives
    from all of those groups here today.
  264. And we will be inviting you
    toward further engagement.
  265. But we wanted today to introduce you
    to a couple of those people,
  266. speaking from their own perspective.
  267. So we would like to start
    with the voice of a politician.

  268. We are incredibly honored
    to have with us today
  269. the former prime minister of Bhutan,
  270. and I will have you know that Bhutan
    is the only country in the world
  271. that actually absorbs more carbon
    than what it emits.
  272. Our good friend, Tshering Tobgay.
  273. (Applause)

  274. Tshering Tobgay: My country
    is typical of the global south,

  275. in that we have not caused
    this climate-change crisis.
  276. Indeed, we are blessed
  277. with lush forests
    and many bountiful rivers
  278. that have enabled my country, Bhutan,
    to remain carbon-negative.
  279. And yet, climate change
    threatens to destroy our forests.
  280. And to turn those very rivers
  281. into terrible dangers for our people,
  282. as the Himalayan glaciers melt
    and threaten both near-term flooding
  283. and the longer-term loss
    of our natural water reserves.
  284. So, I'm proud to join
  285. this Countdown initiative
  286. and work with all of you
    and with you, and with you,
  287. (Laughter)

  288. constructively, to find solutions
    that are both powerful and just.

  289. Thank you.

  290. (Applause)

  291. CA: Thank you.

  292. (Applause)

  293. CA: Business, of course,
    has a crucial role to play,

  294. and so do those who control the world's
    vast pools of investment capital.
  295. I was pleased to make
    the acquaintance recently
  296. of the chief investment officer
  297. of Japan's 1.6-trillion-dollar
    government pension fund.
  298. It's actually the world's
    largest pension fund.
  299. He's willing and interested
    to come with us on this journey
  300. and to bring others with him.
  301. So, somewhere is, I believe, Hiro.
  302. Hiro Mizuno.
  303. And you're live. Welcome, Hiro.
  304. (Video) Hiro Mizuno: Great.

  305. Thanks, Chris and Christiana,
    and the staff of TED,
  306. for making this possible.
  307. As a person in charge
    of the largest pension fund in the world
  308. and responsible for securing pension
    benefits for multiple generations,
  309. it is a hugely important issue,
    how to manage climate risk.
  310. We recently analyzed our global portfolio,
  311. how it's aligned with the Paris Agreement.
  312. It was diagnosed,
  313. our portfolio is on the path
    for more than three degrees.
  314. Far away from the Paris Agreement goals.
  315. Our portfolio is not only sizable
  316. but also one of the most
    globally diversified portfolios.
  317. So that means, the world is on that path.
  318. I'm tired of hearing
    the same comment repeatedly
  319. from our portfolio companies
    and, obviously, investment professionals:
  320. "We are realistic."
  321. Sorry, but being "realistic"
    is no longer an option.
  322. We are fully aware of our responsibility
    as the world's largest asset owner
  323. to inspire changes in the capital market.
  324. We will be actively engaging
    with all actors in the capital market
  325. to move the needle.
  326. I look forward to participating
    in this crucial dialogue with you all.
  327. Thank you.
  328. (Applause)

  329. CF: I'm sure all of you know
    that throughout the past 12 to 18 months,

  330. what has really been new
    and powerful and exciting
  331. is the amazing voices
    of so many young people,
  332. millions of young people
    who are out there on the streets,
  333. with anger, with outrage, with despair,
  334. and also, asking us to do our thing.
  335. And they have been inspired
    by Greta Thunberg
  336. but by so many other
    fantastic young people
  337. in almost every country of the world.
  338. And today, we are delighted to have
    four young activists
  339. come join us today.
  340. (Applause)

  341. (Cheers)

  342. (Applause)

  343. Alexandria Villaseñor: This Friday,

  344. I'll have been
    on climate strike for 52 weeks.
  345. That's an entire year.
  346. During that time,
  347. I found that many people
    don't know about climate change
  348. or how serious the climate crisis is.
  349. So I founded Earth Uprising International
  350. to teach young people
    about climate change,
  351. because when they know
    the science and the impacts,
  352. they want to take action.
  353. Being an activist
    means making change happen.
  354. Jamie Margolin:
    I became a climate activist

  355. because my life depends on it.
  356. I'm applying to colleges right now,
  357. trying to plan for my future.
  358. There will be nothing to look forward to
  359. if we don't take urgent action
    to stop the climate crisis now.
  360. I started the youth climate justice
    movement called Zero Hour back in 2017,
  361. because this is zero hour
    to act on climate change.
  362. We have no more time.
  363. It became clear to me
  364. that our leaders were not
    going to take real action
  365. unless the people stood up
    and demanded it,
  366. so that's exactly what we did.
  367. Natalie Sweet: I became
    a climate-justice activist

  368. because if I don't fight
    for the rights of the people today,
  369. and for the people in the future,
  370. who will?
  371. Xiye Bastida: I became
    a climate justice activist

  372. when I realized that the climate crisis
    impacts marginalized communities the most,
  373. including my town in Mexico.
  374. I strike with Fridays for Future
  375. every Friday,
  376. because our movement
    is not about gaining momentum
  377. but about igniting cultural change.
  378. But the fact that thousands
    of students strike for climate
  379. means that we are already
    implementing climate justice
  380. into every aspect of our lives,
  381. which is already redefining the world.
  382. JM: Over the course of our lifetimes,

  383. we've seen the Earth deteriorate
    at a rapid speed
  384. and groups of people
    traumatized and displaced
  385. by an ever-increasing number
    of natural disasters.
  386. In 2030, I'll be 28 years old.
  387. AV: I'll be 24 years old.

  388. XB: I will be 27.

  389. NS: I'll be 26.

  390. We want to be able to hand
    the planet over to our children
  391. and our children's children,
  392. just like many of you
    have been able to do.
  393. AV: So unless everyone --

  394. governments, companies, schools,
    scientists and citizens --
  395. make a united commitment
    to reversing the damage that we've caused,
  396. it will be too late.
  397. XB: We are not only asking you
    to take care of our future,

  398. we are also asking you
    to take care of our past.
  399. Indigenous people have been taking care
    of the Earth for thousands of years,
  400. which is why indigenous
    philosophy is crucial
  401. when implementing climate action.
  402. JM: This climate crisis can feel
    like an impossible thing to fix.

  403. But it's not.
  404. And it can't be,
  405. because failure is simply not an option.
  406. Failure means losing everything we love
  407. and everything that matters.
  408. So many of us are already working
    to save the future of our world,
  409. but it can't just be
    on the next generation to fix.
  410. This is too much of a burden
    to just put on young people's shoulders.
  411. It is time for you to go all hands on deck
  412. and do everything within your power
    to save everything before it's too late.
  413. Are you with us?
  414. Audience: Yes.
  415. (Applause and cheers)

  416. (Applause)

  417. CA: Thank you. Thank you, thank you.

  418. And then, of course,
  419. there's a crucial role to be played
    by the world's storytellers,
  420. and those with influence
    on social media platforms.
  421. Each of the following
    has expressed excitement
  422. to be part of this project.
  423. They've lent us their names and support.
  424. We have some of them here today.
  425. Thank you so much for being here.
  426. And let's hear from one of them, actually.
  427. Jimmy Kimmel: Hi, I'm Jimmy Kimmel,

  428. and I was asked to explain
    why I'm passionate about climate change.
  429. And the reason I'm passionate
    about climate change
  430. is the same reason people who are drowning
    are passionate about lifeguards.
  431. I care about this planet,
    because I live on it.
  432. I don't want to move to Mars,
  433. Mars seems terrible.
  434. I want my kids and their kids
    to be able to live on Earth,
  435. with air they can breathe
    and water they can drink.
  436. That's why I care about climate change.
  437. And also, I have a crush
    on Leonardo DiCaprio.
  438. (Applause)

  439. CF: So with all these
    people coming together,

  440. we have an opportunity to explore
    a new space of possibility
  441. for solutions based on working together,
  442. challenging each other
  443. and inspiring one another.
  444. So in October next year,
  445. we will be inviting
    more or less 1,000 people
  446. from different constituencies
    to meet in Bergen, Norway
  447. to align on specific answers
    to our five big questions.
  448. CA: It will certainly be an epic event.

  449. But even more significant
    than what happens in Norway
  450. is what happens elsewhere in the world.
  451. Because on the final day
    of that conference,
  452. we're planning a major activation
    of our global TEDx community.
  453. TEDx allows initiatives
    to organize local events,
  454. and there are now
    4,000 such events annually.
  455. Here's what they look like.
  456. They take place in more than 200
    different countries,
  457. generate more than a billion views
    annually on YouTube.
  458. We're expecting to see events
    in hundreds of cities.
  459. We'll be connecting our TEDx organizers
  460. with city mayors committed
    to a clean future for their cities.
  461. This is the key to this.
  462. It's this connection between the powerful,
  463. who usually own the conversation,
  464. and millions of people around the world.
  465. Because of the zeitgeist shift
    that's happened in the last year or two,
  466. suddenly, ignition can happen here,
  467. because there's enough
    critical groundswell.
  468. If we can give people
    visibility of each other,
  469. connection to each other,
  470. let's dream a little here,
  471. and give each other permission to dream.
  472. CF: So our goal here
    is to build connections

  473. with and among all of the other
    organizations that are working on climate.
  474. For example,
  475. the Solutions Project
    is a wonderful initiative
  476. founded by Mark Ruffalo and Don Cheadle.
  477. And let's hear from some of the leaders
    that they have supported.
  478. CA: Welcome, you're live.

  479. (Laughter)

  480. (Video) Wahleah Johns:
    Hi, my name is Wahleah Johns,

  481. I'm with Native Renewables,
  482. and we are working to provide
    solar power for tribes
  483. throughout the world.
  484. We have over 15,000
    Native American families
  485. that don't have access to electricity,
  486. and we are working to provide solar
    plus battery storage for these families
  487. in the United States
  488. that don't have access to electricity.
  489. And they are located on my reservation,
  490. the Navajo Nation.
  491. Anna Lappé: Hi, everyone,

  492. I am Anna Lappé with Real Food Media,
  493. and we work to uplift the stories
    of farmers and ranchers
  494. as a key solution to the climate crisis.
  495. The global food system right now
    is a huge contributor to this crisis,
  496. but it doesn't have to be.
  497. Farmers and ranchers we really see
  498. as on the front lines
    of being part of solving the crisis.
  499. So we try to share the stories
    of the millions of farmers
  500. from Andhra Pradesh, India
    to the highlands of Oaxaca
  501. that are using regenerative agriculture
    to build healthy, carbon-rich soil,
  502. grow good food
  503. and foster the kind of resilient
    communities that we need.
  504. Rahwa Ghirmatzion: Hello
    from PUSH Buffalo -- my name is Rahwa --

  505. where every day, residents
    are visioning, planning and designing
  506. an equitable, holistic
    and sacred neighborhood,
  507. like where I'm phoning in from, School 77,
  508. a renovated vacant school building
  509. that has the first 100 percent
    affordable community solar array
  510. in New York state
  511. installed by local residents.
  512. It's also serving 30 affordable
    senior apartments
  513. and a mix of intergenerational spaces
  514. that serves as a community hub,
  515. where we're practicing
    new economy strategies
  516. towards a livable planet.
  517. CF: Thank you.

  518. CA: Bravo.

  519. (Applause)

  520. CA: It's so great.

  521. (Applause)

  522. CF: So you see, this is about everyone.

  523. It's about cities,
  524. it's about grassroots organizations,
  525. but it's also, of course, about business.
  526. And so we're inviting all companies --
  527. underlined "all" --
  528. to join this initiative,
  529. to engage with your employees
    on how you can best protect the planet
  530. and your future, at the same time.
  531. So early next year,
    we'll be sharing a toolkit
  532. that can guide companies
  533. toward moving quickly
    towards science-based targets,
  534. which gets them then to net zero emissions
  535. by 2050 at the latest.
  536. CA: So think about this,

  537. because as an individual,
  538. many individuals
    feel powerless on this issue.
  539. But if you were to team up
    with others in your company,
  540. you might be amazed at how much
    power you actually have.
  541. Almost all emissions come from
    a company somewhere on the planet.
  542. And the thing is, many CEOs today
  543. are actually eager
    to help solve the problem.
  544. We just heard this morning
    from Anand Mahindra,
  545. who heads India's biggest business group,
  546. that he is personally
    committed on this issue
  547. and wants to be part
    of this journey with us --
  548. he's a supporter of Countdown.
  549. CEOs will be able to move much faster
  550. if there's a group of employees there
    to brainstorm with, to support them,
  551. to keep that sort of sense
    of urgency on the topic.
  552. Our website will help you connect
    with others in your company
  553. and give you guidance
    on smart questions to ask,
  554. initiatives to suggest,
  555. because if companies can be persuaded
    to do the right thing,
  556. suddenly, this problem
    seems to become solvable.
  557. CF: So all of these efforts are building
    toward one fantastic day:

  558. Saturday, October 10, 2020 --
  559. that is, "10.10.2020." --
    easy to remember --
  560. when this fantastic gathering
    will take place around the world.
  561. And we hope to have, by then,
  562. thrilling news of the report
    of the very specific solutions
  563. that nations, cities, companies, citizens
  564. are actually already
    collaborating on by then.
  565. It's a day when every
    citizen of the planet
  566. is invited to participate.
  567. Your one ticket of entrance
    is you are a citizen of the planet.
  568. CA: Key to the success of the event
    is for this to happen at scale.

  569. We want to make it easy
    for anyone and everyone
  570. to find out about the initiative
    and to play an active part in it.
  571. But how do you do that?
  572. You know, the world's a noisy place.
  573. I mean, the TED platform
    can help a bit, maybe,
  574. but there's a much bigger
    content platform out there.
  575. It's called YouTube.
  576. And we're delighted to be working
    with them on this endeavor.
  577. We'll be inviting
    many of their top creators
  578. to be part of Countdown.
  579. Collectively, they could reach
    an audience in the many millions.
  580. In fact, let's meet one of them,
  581. Dr. Joe Hanson of "Hot Mess,"
  582. a new web series about the impact
    of climate change on all of us.
  583. (Video) My name's Joe Hanson,

  584. and I am a YouTube educator.
  585. And you can count me in.
  586. I work with tomorrow's scientists,
    inventors and leaders,
  587. and they deserve to know the truth
    of what the science says,
  588. so that they can help us invent
    a better future for everyone.
  589. CA: Imagine that multiplied
    by many others --

  590. it's very, very exciting, honestly.
  591. CF: And of course, when it comes
    to spreading the word,

  592. every one of you in this room
    can actually play your part.
  593. So if you have any way of reaching anyone
  594. who is concerned
    about building a better future --
  595. and that should be
    every single one of us --
  596. please, invite them to join Countdown.
  597. CA: There's one more card up our sleeve.

  598. We're excited to unveil
    a global media campaign.
  599. This is a campaign with a difference.
  600. Just as TEDx exploded
  601. by being allowed to grow
    as a grassroots phenomenon,
  602. this campaign is designed
    to be co-opted everywhere on the planet.
  603. If you happen to own a billboard company,
  604. or a TV station, or a radio station,
  605. or a website,
  606. or a social media account,
  607. we invite all of you to take the images
    you're about to see
  608. and to just spread them far and wide.
  609. Our website will make this easy.
  610. We actually plan to translate them
    into many languages,
  611. courtesy of our volunteer army
    of more than 20,000 translators worldwide.
  612. Some of them are with us here.
  613. If you're a TED translator,
    would you wave, please?
  614. CF: There we go.

  615. (Applause)

  616. CA: Your work carries powerful ideas
    to every corner of the earth.

  617. We're so proud of you, so grateful to you.
  618. So this campaign's designed
    to grab attention
  619. and to communicate, yes, urgency
  620. but also a little smidgen of hope.
  621. We think it might be that combination
    is what is needed to really drive action.
  622. We'd love you to let us know
    what you think of these.
  623. CF: Right now.

  624. [Choose your future.]

  625. (Applause)

  626. [Turn fear into action
    Join the countdown.]

  627. (Applause)

  628. [Action inspires action

  629. Join the countdown.
    The Earth will thank you.]
  630. (Applause)

  631. [10.10.2020
    Climate's Day of Destiny. You're invited.]

  632. CF: Remember the date.

  633. [Mass destruction. No biggie.
    (If we prevent it.)]

  634. (Applause)

  635. [Giant asteroid heading our way
    The common enemy that can unite us.]

  636. (Applause)

  637. [We love natural disasters
    anyway -- said no one ever.

  638. So why are we causing them?]
  639. (Applause)

  640. [Relax, there's nothing
    you can do about the climate

  641. Unless you work for a company.
    Or live in a city.
  642. Or own a phone. Or a brain.]
  643. [Cause of death: Apathy.
    But there's an antidote.]

  644. (Applause)

  645. [Stop f*cking everything up

  646. Inaction on climate is obscene.
    We can fix this.]
  647. CA: Too much?

  648. CF: No, not too much, yay, go for it.

  649. (Applause)

  650. [Have you gotten any action lately?

  651. Here's your chance.
    Help turn the tide on climate.]
  652. (Laughter)

  653. CA: I didn't like this one,
    but my team, you know --

  654. CF: Apparently, there are many
    who do like it.

  655. (Laughter)

  656. [We give up. Sincerely, TED.

  657. Spreading ideas isn't enough.
    It's time to act. Join us?]
  658. CA: This is, unfortunately,
    truer than you know.

  659. [Some things matter more
    than partisan politics

  660. Come fight the enemy that can unite us.]
  661. (Applause)

  662. [Stop burnout

  663. Your company can help save the earth.]
  664. [Give the planet more
    than you take from it

  665. Join the countdown.]
  666. [Despair, meet hope

  667. We can avoid climate catastrophe
    if we take urgent action now.]
  668. CA: That's it.

  669. (Applause and cheers)

  670. CF: To bring this full circle,

  671. we would like to bring
    someone very special in.
  672. (Video) Hi, I'm Claire O'Neill.

  673. I am the COP president-designate
    for next year's Conference of the Parties,
  674. the annual UN climate change talks,
    which will be in the UK,
  675. and we're looking forward
    to welcoming you there.
  676. But right now, I'm in Spain, in Madrid,
  677. at COP25, this annual event
  678. where we send negotiators and activists
    from all over the world
  679. to see what we can do
    to reduce CO2 emissions.
  680. But the problem is this:
    emissions are going up, not down.
  681. And what I'm feeling is that 2020
    is the year of action,
  682. the year where we have to stop talking
  683. and we have to start acting.
  684. And not just here,
    in these conference centers,
  685. but everybody.
  686. And so the value of the TED process,
  687. the value of what we're all doing together
  688. is that we're spreading out
    the conversations
  689. and the solutions from inside this space
  690. out to everybody.
  691. And I'm really looking forward
    to working with the TED group
  692. over the next year.
  693. 2020, for me, will be the most
    important year for climate action,
  694. and we're all going
    to deliver this together.
  695. (Applause)

  696. CF: OK, friends, so we're nearly there

  697. but just a few more very special snippets.
  698. First, a word from one
    of the many great minds
  699. who will be accompanying us
    on this journey.
  700. A message from the great author,
    historian and futurist
  701. Yuval Harari.
  702. Yuval Harari: Climate change
    is about inequality.

  703. Inequality between the rich,
    who are mainly responsible for it,
  704. and the poor, who will suffer the most.
  705. Inequality between us, Homo sapiens,
  706. who control this planet,
  707. and the other animals,
    who are our helpless victims.
  708. Inequality between the scientists,
  709. who painstakingly search for the truth,
  710. and the professional deceivers,
  711. who spread falsehoods
    at the click of a button.
  712. Climate change is about making a choice.
  713. What kind of planet do we want to inhabit,
  714. and what kind of humans do we want to be?
  715. A choice between greed and compassion,
  716. between carelessness and responsibility,
  717. between closing our eyes to the truth
  718. and opening our hearts to the world.
  719. Climate change is a crisis,
  720. but for humans, a crisis is always
    also an opportunity.
  721. If we make the right choices
    in the coming years,
  722. we cannot only save the ecosystem,
  723. but we can also create a more just world
  724. and make ourselves better people.
  725. (Applause)

  726. CF: So isn't that a powerful framing
    of what we have ahead of us,

  727. and honestly, I think it is tragic
  728. that the power of transformation
    that we have ahead of us
  729. is so severely diminished by those
    who would want to politicize the issue
  730. and separate it into partisan politics.
  731. It cannot be a partisan issue,
  732. it cannot be a politicized issue.
  733. Happily, there are some
    who are working against that.
  734. Today, we have one of those people,
  735. a fantastically courageous
    climate scientist,
  736. who is a committed Christian,
  737. and who has been working on this issue
  738. with conservatives and with the religious
    and spiritual communities for years,
  739. with incredible courage.
  740. Katharine Hayhoe.
  741. (Applause)

  742. Katherine Hayhoe: When someone
    says climate change, we often think,

  743. "Oh, that's just an environmental issue.
  744. People who are tree huggers
    or scientists care about it,
  745. or maybe people who are on the left
    hand-side of the political spectrum."
  746. But the reality is,
    whether we know it or not,
  747. we already care about climate change,
    no matter who we are.
  748. Why?
  749. Because climate change affects
    everything we already care about today.
  750. It affects our health,
  751. it affects the food we eat,
  752. the water we drink,
    the air that we breathe.
  753. Climate change affects the economy
    and national security.
  754. I care about a changing climate
    because it is, as the military calls it,
  755. a threat multiplier.
  756. It takes issues like poverty and hunger,
  757. disease, lack of access to clean water,
  758. even political instability,
  759. and exacerbates or amplifies them.
  760. That's why, to care
    about a changing climate,
  761. we don't have to be
    a certain type of person.
  762. A thermometer isn't blue or red,
  763. liberal or conservative --
  764. it gives us the same number
    no matter how we vote.
  765. And we are all affected
    by the impacts of a changing climate.
  766. So to care about a changing climate,
  767. all we have to be is one thing:
  768. a human, living on planet Earth.
  769. And we're all that.
  770. (Applause)

  771. CF: And finally,

  772. the man who brought this issue
    so powerfully to everyone's attention
  773. years ago
  774. and has continued tirelessly
    to work on that issue ever since.
  775. The one and very only, Al Gore.
  776. (Applause)

  777. (Video) Al Gore: Thank you.

  778. (Applause)

  779. Thank you so much, Christiana,

  780. and thank you for
    your outstanding leadership,
  781. and thank you, Chris Anderson
    and the entire TED community,
  782. YouTube and all of the others
    who are joining
  783. in this fantastic initiative.
  784. I have just three messages.
  785. Number one, this crisis
    is incredibly urgent.
  786. Just yesterday, the scientists
    gave us the report
  787. that emissions are still going up.
  788. Every single day,
  789. we're putting 150 million tons
    of man-made global warming pollution
  790. into the thin shell of atmosphere
    surrounding our planet.
  791. The accumulated amount now
    traps as much extra energy every day
  792. as would be released by 500,000
    first-generation atomic bombs
  793. exploding every single day.
  794. And the consequences
    are increasingly clear --
  795. all that mother nature is telling us,
  796. the fires, and the sea-level rise,
  797. and the floods, and the mud slides,
  798. and the loss of living species.
  799. But the second message that I have
    is the hope is very real.
  800. We actually do have
    the solutions available to us.
  801. It is unfortunately true at this moment,
  802. that the crisis is getting worse faster
    than we are mobilizing these solutions.
  803. But renewable energy and electric vehicles
  804. and batteries
    and regenerative agriculture,
  805. circular manufacturing,
  806. and all of these other solutions
    are gaining momentum.
  807. The late economist Rudi Dornbusch,
  808. in articulating what's known
    as Dornbusch's law, said,
  809. "Things take longer to happen
    than you think they will.
  810. But then, they happen much faster
    than you thought they could."
  811. We can pick up the pace.
  812. We are gaining momentum
  813. and soon, we will be gaining
    on the crisis.
  814. But it is essential that everyone join --
  815. of every political persuasion,
  816. every ideological persuasion,
  817. every nationality,
  818. every division has to be obliterated,
    so that we, humanity,
  819. can join together.
  820. And in closing, I would just say
    that for anyone who doubts
  821. that we as human beings
  822. have the ability to rise to this occasion,
  823. when everything is on the line,
  824. just remember that political will
    is itself a renewable resource.
  825. (Laughter)

  826. (Applause)

  827. CA: Thank you so much.

  828. Thank you so much, Al,
    for your leadership on this issue
  829. for so many years.
  830. None of this would be possible
  831. without an extraordinary
    and fast-growing list of partners.
  832. I'd like to acknowledge them.
  833. (Applause)

  834. If you're watching this,

  835. you believe your organization
    should be part of this,
  836. you can help in some way,
  837. join us, email me, chris@ted.com.
  838. This is going to take everyone.
  839. OK, before the Q and A,

  840. I just want to ask you a question
    personally, Christiana.
  841. Like, what do you really think?
  842. (Laughter)

  843. No, you've been in so many of these.

  844. Does this initiative have a chance?
  845. CF: Well, first of all,

  846. we are at the point
    where everything plays.
  847. Everything plays.
  848. And I'm really excited about this,
  849. because it has been very painful to me
    to see how over the past 12 to 18 months
  850. because of the tragically
    insufficient response
  851. that we have had to climate change,
  852. how that zeitgeist has been changing
    from where we were in Paris,
  853. which was pretty positive and optimistic,
  854. to, now, despair, helplessness, anger.
  855. That's what is out there,
    roaming on the streets.
  856. And I don't blame them,
    and I have the same feelings.
  857. But the point is,
  858. we have to be able to transform that
    into making the difference.
  859. And I think this is what this initiative
    is actually potentially ready to do,
  860. which is to give every single person
    who feels helpless --
  861. give them a tool to do something.
  862. Some will contribute small efforts,
  863. some will contribute large efforts --
  864. depends on what your influence area is.
  865. And to those who feel angry
    and despairing,
  866. well, give them also an opportunity
    to channel that energy --
  867. which is very powerful energy --
  868. into solutions.
  869. And finally, what is very
    exciting about this
  870. is the scale, Chris, right?
  871. I mean, just look at those partners
    that are going to be there.
  872. We have attempted many, many things
    to bring to scale.
  873. But this, I think, is the most promising
    initiative that I have seen,
  874. to be able to bring people to scale,
  875. to bring efforts and solutions to scale.
  876. And speed.
  877. Because if there's one thing
    that we cannot, cannot fail on,
  878. is addressing climate change,
  879. but not only that,
  880. to do so in a timely way.
  881. CA: Thank you, that is eloquent.

  882. And thank you.
  883. That's it.
  884. (Applause)

  885. OK, we have many members
    of the world's leading media here.

  886. We're going to have a Q and A,
  887. they should probably have
    priority on questions.
  888. If it all goes deathly silent,
    someone else can ask a question.
  889. If you're a member of the media here,
  890. please feel free to put your hand up --
    we'll throw a mic to you,
  891. and we'll do the best we can.
  892. Rachel Crane: Hi, Rachel Crane from CNN.

  893. My question for you
    is about more specific action
  894. that will come out of Countdown.
  895. We heard a lot today
  896. about how this is mobilizing
    the globe on this issue,
  897. breaking people out of their silos,
    companies out of their silos,
  898. but I'm curious to know,
    paint a picture for us,
  899. of what the action
    that will come out of this initiative
  900. could potentially look like.
  901. I'm sure it's all in early phases,
  902. we won't hold you specifically to this.
  903. CA: There's an intense process
    going on between now and October,

  904. where we're trying to engage
  905. all of the world's best
    thinking on climate
  906. around those five big areas.
  907. What we're hoping to have there
    is multiple proposals in there
  908. that collectively take a huge bite
    out of those issues.
  909. Some of them, there may be
    one big one that dominates.
  910. You know, so transport, for example.
  911. Could we accelerate the end
  912. of the internal
    combustion engine, somehow?
  913. What would that take?
  914. That would be a classic problem
    made for this approach,
  915. because what governments decide right now
  916. depends on what they see
    happening elsewhere.
  917. Would the decisions
    of auto executives be shifted
  918. if they saw millions of people
    on social media saying,
  919. "I will never buy a combustion engine"?
  920. Would they be shifted by the market signal
    of a few hundred mayors, saying,
  921. "We are creating
    a carbon-zero zone in our city,
  922. and we're going to expand it,
  923. and we're doing that soon"?
  924. Would they be shifted by a visionary
    auto CEO taking the risk
  925. and coming forward and saying,
  926. "You know when we said
    we were going to continue this till 2050?
  927. No. We can see the writing on the wall,
  928. we want to be on
    the right side of history,
  929. we're doing this in 2030."
  930. We think there might be a pathway to that.
  931. So on some of these issues,
  932. it's going to depend on a massive amount
    of discussion, bringing people together,
  933. showing -- this is what
    you're so masterful at --
  934. is showing that other people
    don't have the attitudes
  935. that you think they have.
  936. They're actually shifting,
    you better shift.
  937. And so it's mutually raising
    everyone's ambition level.
  938. And that is a cycle that happens,
  939. and we've already seen it happening.
  940. And so, on each of these issues,
    that's what we're looking for.
  941. The biggest, boldest things.
  942. Dream bigger than we normally do,
  943. because there are more people at the table
    than there normally are,
  944. i.e. millions of citizens engaged in this.
  945. That's the process,
    and while that is happening,
  946. there'll be multiple other engagements
    in companies and cities around the world.
  947. We hope that it all comes together
    in a thrilling manner in October
  948. and we have something to celebrate.
  949. Dominique Drakeford:
    My name is Dominique Drakeford

  950. with MelaninASS, or social media
    as a form of media.
  951. In understanding the inherent correlation
  952. between the accumulation
    of carbon in the atmosphere
  953. and the cumulative exploitation
  954. and extraction, extractivism economy,
  955. which creates sacrifice zones
    for black and indigenous communities,
  956. how do we plan to,
  957. or how do you guys plan to mitigate
    those systems of oppression
  958. as part of your strategies
    within those five various components,
  959. so that we can really
    begin to reduce emissions?
  960. CF: If the transformation
    in our economy and our society

  961. does not include inequality closing
    and social justice issues,
  962. then we're doing nothing.
  963. Because all of those things
    will come back to bite us.
  964. So we have to put our arms
    around the entire package.
  965. That is not easy,
    but it is entirely possible.
  966. And that's one of the things
    that I am so excited about climate change,
  967. because it is at the front
    of this transformation,
  968. but it will bring many of the other issues
  969. that have been relegated to nonattention.
  970. It will bring those issues
    to the fore as well.
  971. So the transformation
    has to be an integrative transformation.
  972. Ellen Maloney: Hi, Chris, hi, Christina.

  973. My question is, are individual efforts,
  974. like ditching plastic straws
    or going vegan,
  975. making a difference
  976. or are they just tokenistic
    drops in the ocean?
  977. CF: Good question.

  978. CA: It's a good question.

  979. CF: They are totally important.

  980. Absolutely important.
  981. Because it's not just
    about the one straw that I use.
  982. It's about me not using that straw,
  983. going to a restaurant
    and telling the waitress,
  984. "Excuse me, I don't want
    a plastic straw, because --"
  985. and giving her a little lesson,
  986. then she goes up to the manager,
    the manager comes to the table and says,
  987. "Excuse me, could you explain that to me?"
  988. Then you go through the lesson.
  989. And sooner than you think,
  990. you have that restaurant,
    plus the other ones.
  991. Actually, information is contagious.
  992. And wanting to do the right thing
    is also contagious.
  993. So don't look at it as just
    simply, you know, "What is a straw?
  994. Am I using the straw
    or am I not using plastic bags,
  995. I have my plant-based bags
    to go shopping," etc., etc.
  996. All of that counts.
  997. It counts for you, first of all,
  998. because it is a personal reminder
    of who you are and what you stand for,
  999. but it is also a very important tool
  1000. to educate everyone around you.
  1001. CA: Right, and I think
    the core of our initiative is,

  1002. all that stuff matters -- what you eat,
  1003. how you transport yourself, etc.,
    it matters a lot.
  1004. But there is another piece of power
    that individuals have
  1005. that they don't think about
    as much, perhaps,
  1006. and that we think that they should,
    we invite them to,
  1007. which is what they can do as an employee
  1008. and what they can do
    as a member of a city.
  1009. There's a coming together here,
  1010. where by getting organized,
    by connecting with others,
  1011. we think there is a direct route
    to changing decisions
  1012. that will have an even bigger
    impact on the problem.
  1013. So it's yes, all of that,
    but more as well.
  1014. (Laughter)

  1015. CF: There is an online [question],
    from a classroom of children.

  1016. CA: From a classroom of children?

  1017. CF: "What can students do?"

  1018. Yay, I love that question,
    totally love that question.
  1019. So first of all,
  1020. Fridays, 11 o'clock, go strike.
  1021. I mean, honestly, right?
  1022. (Applause)

  1023. Let's go, let's go.

  1024. And that pressure has to be maintained.
  1025. I'm totally delighted
    that there's some people here
  1026. who've been here doing it for 52 weeks.
  1027. The problem with this is, folks,
  1028. this is not a sprint, it's a marathon.
  1029. So you better get ready
    for many more 52 weeks, right?
  1030. And get more people involved,
  1031. because this is not easy.
  1032. If it were easy, we would have done it.
  1033. This is going to be a long-term effort.
  1034. But fantastic to be out there
    in the streets,
  1035. you are getting so much
    more attention from the media,
  1036. from us stupid adults
    who have not done our job --
  1037. it is fantastic.
  1038. So, you know, get your voices out there.
  1039. Also, in school,

  1040. you can definitely go and improve --
  1041. The question that you just asked to TED,
  1042. that's the question every student
    should be asking their school:
  1043. "Where's my energy coming from?"
  1044. Let's get with it, right?
  1045. Students in colleges --
  1046. how is it possible that we still have
    colleges and universities
  1047. that are not 100 percent clean energy
  1048. and that haven't shifted
    their capital and their endowment
  1049. over to low carbon?
  1050. I mean, it's just incredible.
  1051. (Applause)

  1052. And finally, the most important thing
    that young people can do

  1053. is ask your parents,
  1054. "What the hell are you doing
    about my future?"
  1055. Because here is an amazing thing.
  1056. I have spoken in --
    I was thinking how many --
  1057. I've spoken to at least three if not four
    CEOs from the oil and gas industry.
  1058. I've spoken to three or four
    major investors,
  1059. heads of their investment firms,
  1060. who come up to me, usually in private,
  1061. and say, "Christiana, the reason
    why I'm changing what I do in my business
  1062. is because my daughter, or my son,
  1063. asks me at night, 'What the hell
    are you doing about my future?' "
  1064. That is a very powerful question,
  1065. and only young people
    can ask that question.
  1066. Use that tool --
  1067. ask your parents what are they
    doing about your future.
  1068. Sorry about the h-word.
  1069. (Applause)

  1070. Jo Confino: Hi,
    I'm Jo Confino, the HuffPost.

  1071. Christiana, a question for you,
  1072. which is one of the things
    that didn't come out so much
  1073. and this is about the spiritual traditions
  1074. and the role they play,
  1075. because what we're seeing
  1076. is that, actually,
    old wisdom is coming out
  1077. in terms of interdependence
  1078. and nothing is separate
    from anything else.
  1079. What is the spiritual tradition
    we can bring to this
  1080. that will make, also, a difference?
  1081. CF: What I think is very powerful
    about understanding,

  1082. whether you happen to be
    a spiritual person
  1083. that pursues meditation and mindfulness
  1084. or whether you're a religious
    person or not,
  1085. what I think is very powerful
  1086. about the spiritual understanding
    of the human presence on this earth,
  1087. is to understand that we are not separate.
  1088. It's not like,
    "Over there is planet Earth,
  1089. and then humans are over here."
  1090. And we are totally interconnected
    with all other species
  1091. and with all other living beings,
  1092. and doing the responsible thing by them,
  1093. does the responsible thing by us.
  1094. And vice versa.
  1095. And so that interconnectedness
  1096. is one that comes
    from the spiritual traditions,
  1097. but you don't have to be religious
    or spiritual to understand that.
  1098. You know, the fact is,
  1099. every single drop of water
    that we drink comes from nature.
  1100. Every single morsel of food that we eat
  1101. comes from nature.
  1102. And we've got to heal that connection.
  1103. CA: We would welcome engagement.

  1104. (Applause)

  1105. Kaley Roshitsh: Hi, Kaley Roshitsh
    from Women's Wear Daily.

  1106. Obviously, the fashion industry
    is responsible for a lot
  1107. of the carbon output,
  1108. so I wondered what is your perspective
    on conscious consumption?
  1109. CA: The key goal here is to align,
    at the same time,

  1110. to change opinion on what companies do,
  1111. what employees do, what consumers do.
  1112. It's the shifts all happening
    at the same time that can make change.
  1113. Right now, someone else
    is always the problem.
  1114. "Our investors wouldn't allow
    us to do that."
  1115. "There is no market for this better,
    more sustainable product."
  1116. And so, all the pieces
    need to happen at the same time.
  1117. That's our hope.
  1118. And so the lead on this is not us,
  1119. it's employees and CEOs
    and leadership teams
  1120. working in that industry.
  1121. Get together, make something happen.
  1122. And ride the tide of the zeitgeist shift
    that is happening --
  1123. it's going to work out
    from the business point of view as well.
  1124. CF: Can I jump on that as well?

  1125. Because for years, for centuries,
  1126. we have been on a consumer
    extract-and-consume mentality.
  1127. They way we go about our life
  1128. and the way that businesses are created
  1129. is extract, use, discard,
    extract, use, discard.
  1130. That's a simplification, but honestly,
    it's about as simple as that.
  1131. And to understand that that linear
    extraction to discard
  1132. can no longer be the case,
    that it needs to be circular now,
  1133. we have to go into a circular economy
  1134. that uses every single resource
    that we extract --
  1135. because we will continue to extract --
  1136. that uses it not once
    but two, three, four, five, 10 times,
  1137. around and around in circles.
  1138. That's a circular economy.
  1139. And we have to get to that point,
  1140. because frankly, we're running out
    of resources to continue to extract.
  1141. Jodi Xu Klein: Hi, my name
    is Jodi Xu Klein.

  1142. I'm with the South China Morning Post,
    a Hong Kong publication here in the US.
  1143. So, we've been reporting on trade war
    for more than a year,
  1144. and we're actually living in a world
  1145. where countries are decoupling
    from each other.
  1146. How do you overcome that trend
    and bring everyone together?
  1147. CA: We don't know,

  1148. these are really challenging issues.
  1149. What we do know is that we have to bring
    everyone to the table
  1150. and have the discussion.
  1151. There are so many people in China,
  1152. including, on many occasions,
  1153. the Chinese government has made bold steps
  1154. to tackle this issue.
  1155. There's a lot that the West can learn
    from what's happening in China.
  1156. CF: I would say,

  1157. in a world in which we're seeing
    a wave of nationalism and populism,
  1158. the way we go at this
    is actually to expand
  1159. the breadth of engagement,
  1160. so not to let the responsibility
    of engaging on climate
  1161. be in national government hands only.
  1162. Yes, they have an important role,
  1163. but we can bring it down as well
  1164. to a different level of engagement
    which is every single human being.
  1165. And once we understand
    that we're all human beings
  1166. and that we all have a common future,
  1167. there's no such thing
    as all of us being in a boat
  1168. and only the one closest to the hole
    in the boat are going to sink.
  1169. No.
  1170. Either we all sink
    or we all float together.
  1171. Justine Calma: My name is Justine Calma,
    I'm with The Verge,

  1172. thanks so much for this.
  1173. My question is about TED and YouTube's
    own carbon footprint.
  1174. Streaming video eats up
    a huge amount of energy,
  1175. and I'm curious what TED and YouTube
  1176. might be doing to reduce
    their own greenhouse gas emissions
  1177. connected to that.
  1178. CA: I can't speak for YouTube, obviously.

  1179. I will say that, to quote
    a line from George Monbiot,
  1180. all of us are hypocrites in this movement.
  1181. If you've ever bought something
  1182. or you're wearing clothes,
    or you're eating food,
  1183. you're a hypocrite,
    you're creating emissions.
  1184. It's part of life.
  1185. And I think perfection is --
  1186. There's a risk that perfection,
  1187. that an overpursuit and focus on that
  1188. and the judging that comes with it
    can slow everyone down.
  1189. We want this to be a coalition
    of the willing who accept
  1190. that they're not perfect
    but are willing to act.
  1191. Now, this whole process
    has sparked a huge conversation in TED
  1192. about how we act more responsibly,
  1193. and that will continue.
  1194. We're certainly not going to stop
    streaming videos.
  1195. At some point you have to do math,
  1196. it's like that -- give to the planet
    more than you take from it,
  1197. I think is the golden rule
    that I personally really believe in.
  1198. And so if an idea, powered
    by a little bit of electricity,
  1199. can ignite in someone's brain,
  1200. I would bet on the idea
    over saving the electricity.
  1201. But there's no perfection in this.
  1202. And we definitely have a lot
    that we need to improve on.
  1203. Let's go here and then back.
  1204. Lane Florsheim: Hi, I'm Lane Florsheim
    from the Wall Street Journal Magazine

  1205. and Chris, I really liked
    what you were saying
  1206. about the fashion industry
    and what they can do to change
  1207. and how it requires employees
    and CEOs to meet together
  1208. because who understands an industry
    better than the people in it
  1209. and their processes and infrastructure,
  1210. but I'm wondering, what about companies
    with huge footprints,
  1211. and two that come to mind first
    are Amazon and Zara,
  1212. where, by all accounts,
  1213. the workers, the employees there
    don't have very much power
  1214. and the CEOs don't have
    very much incentive to change right now.
  1215. What would you say
    about those kinds of companies?
  1216. CA: So this is going to be such
    an important conversation going forward,

  1217. because we're in the ironic position
  1218. where the people who can do
    the most to solve this problem
  1219. are the people who are currently
    the worst offenders.
  1220. So what do we do?
  1221. Do we make them part
    of the conversation or not?
  1222. I say we make them
    part of the conversation,
  1223. so long as we see serious engagement.
  1224. So take Amazon.
  1225. Jeff Bezos has actually listened
    to what many of his employees have said --
  1226. they've been very vigorous,
    the employee base there,
  1227. about carbon footprint --
  1228. has listened, has engaged
    with you and with others.
  1229. And they have announced,
    I think it's correct to say announced --
  1230. CF: Yes, they have.

  1231. CA: ... an acceleration
    of their own commitment

  1232. to go to, basically, a net zero track
    by 2040, if I have it right.
  1233. It's the companies with the thousands,
    the tens of thousands of trucks
  1234. and the packaging and all the rest of it.
  1235. That is how this problem will get solved.
  1236. So I say we invite these CEOs
    to be part of this,
  1237. and urge them to take it seriously
  1238. and to go fast and maybe even faster
    than they're completely comfortable doing.
  1239. But that's, I think, what we have to do.
  1240. Not to defame, denounce,
  1241. before we've at least had
    a serious conversation about,
  1242. "It's time,
  1243. your employees want to do this,
  1244. your customers want to do this,
  1245. your investors increasingly
    want to do this, let's do this."
  1246. That's our hope.
  1247. CF: And the wonderful thing
    about companies the size of Amazon,

  1248. or Walmart when they did it,
  1249. is that they have a huge
    trickle-up effect.
  1250. Because when Jeff Bezos came out and said,
  1251. "I'm going to make Amazon
    climate-neutral by 2040 -- "
  1252. Paris Agreement says 2050,
  1253. of course he wants to do
    everything better than that,
  1254. so 2040 is for Amazon.
  1255. Well good, we're going to keep him to it.
  1256. Now, the amazing thing about that
  1257. is that in order for Amazon
    to be climate-neutral by 2040,
  1258. they have to work
    with all their supply chain going up.
  1259. They have to work
    with all of those companies
  1260. that deliver services and goods to them
  1261. for them to also be climate neutral ASAP.
  1262. Because otherwise, they can't meet
    their own commitment.
  1263. So large companies are actually
    very, very key and instrumental to this,
  1264. because it's not just
    about their footprint,
  1265. it's about the embedded footprint
    that they inherit in their supply chain.
  1266. And the transformation of that
    is really huge.
  1267. CA: Last question.

  1268. Jackie Padilla: My name is Jackie
    with NowThis News,

  1269. and every day, I work
    with young climate activists
  1270. like the ones we've heard today,
  1271. but when we do stories on them,
  1272. you know, including Greta Thunberg,
  1273. I see fierce criticism that they face
  1274. and largely, it's because
    of a generational gap.
  1275. I don't know if you're familiar
    with the phrase "OK Boomer,"
  1276. but it seems like there's a lot
    of guilt or accountability
  1277. that some are looking for,
  1278. and on the other end,
    we're looking at a lack of education
  1279. or just ignorance on the issue.
  1280. So what is your advice to young people
    to respond to that criticism
  1281. to foster constructive conversations?
  1282. CF: We should probably ask them.

  1283. XB: Hi, thank you for your question.

  1284. CA: Come here.

  1285. (Applause)

  1286. XB: It is true that we
    increasingly face criticism,

  1287. and it's not only when we speak to people,
    with climate deniers
  1288. or things like that,
  1289. but also on social media.
  1290. It is as much a tool to spread information
  1291. and organize our strikes
  1292. and get the information out there,
  1293. but it's also a tool for people
    who want to undermine us,
  1294. to personally attack us.
  1295. And the way in which we stay resilient
  1296. is when we build community
    with each other,
  1297. when we organize,
  1298. we mimic the world we want to see.
  1299. There is no hierarchy in our organizing,
  1300. we are all working towards
    the same goal constructively,
  1301. choosing our passions towards
    making the strike the best it can be.
  1302. We got 300,000 people
    striking in New York,
  1303. we put together a whole concert,
  1304. people called it
    "Climchella," it was great.
  1305. (Laughter)

  1306. But the point is that
    it's not going to stop us.

  1307. The criticism is not going to stop us.
  1308. And even though we know that we are kids,
  1309. and we are not here to tell you
    all the solutions
  1310. that already are out there.
  1311. We are going to do it,
  1312. because every kid who cares
    about the climate crisis
  1313. is going to grow up to study
    through an environmental lens
  1314. and to change the world through that.
  1315. So we are here to tell you,
  1316. personally, climate activists that I know
    don't use "OK Boomer,"
  1317. because we strive
    for intergenerational cooperation.
  1318. And I think that blaming
    and dividing each other
  1319. is not going to get us anywhere,
  1320. which is why we don't use it,
  1321. and I don't think it should be used,
  1322. and I actually want to thank everybody
    who is doing something,
  1323. because action inspires action.
  1324. And you inspire us,
  1325. and we're glad
    that we inspire you as well.
  1326. (Cheers and applause)

  1327. (Applause)

  1328. CA: Wow.

  1329. (Applause)

  1330. CF: There you have it.

  1331. (Applause and cheers)

  1332. (Applause)

  1333. CA: There is no better note
    on which to end this.

  1334. Thank you.

  1335. (Applause)