17. Distributive Justice and the Welfare State

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Moral Foundations of Politics (PLSC 118)

The main focus of today's discussion is Rawls's third, and most problematic, principle is the difference principle, which states that income and wealth is to be distributed "to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged individual." This stems from the logic that what is good for the least advantaged individual will be good for the second-least advantaged, and the third, and so on. But what if slightly benefiting the least advantaged person comes at a huge cost to others? Professor Shapiro explores Rawls's defense. It is important to note that Rawls is not trying to give marginal policy advice, or even determine whether socialism or capitalism benefits the least advantaged (which he leaves to empirics), but trying to determine the basic structure of society. However, Professor Shapiro shows that the difference principle is not necessarily radical in the redistributive sense when compared with Pareto or Bentham, but it is radical in a philosophical sense. Rawls argues that the differences between individuals are morally arbitrary--it's moral luck that determines the family one is born into, what country one is born in, or one's capacities. However, some of the consequences are unsavory. Although Rawls tries in vain to exclude what one chooses to make of one's capacities, could not effort, or capacity to work, fall into this sphere as well? What is to be said of two equally intelligent people, one of who works hard and gets A's while the other lies on the couch and watches ESPN all day?

00:00 - Chapter 1. Principle of Justice I: Distribution of Liberties
04:46 - Chapter 2. Principle of Justice IIb: Fair Equality of Opportunity
09:16 - Chapter 3. Principle of Justice IIa: Incomes and Wealth
23:21 - Chapter 4. Incomes and Wealth: The Difference Principle
33:59 - Chapter 5. Incomes and Wealth: Rawls, Bentham and Pareto Compared

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses

This course was recorded in Spring 2010.