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← 19. The "Household" Paul: The Pastorals

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Showing Revision 1 created 09/16/2013 by Amara Bot.

  1. Prof: What we're doing
    this week is extending our
  2. conversation we started last
    week about how was Paul used as
  3. a figure in early Christianity.
  4. Today we're going to talk about
    the Pastoral Epistles,
  5. which is I and II Timothy and
    Titus,
  6. and then next time we'll talk
    about The Acts of Paul and
  7. Thecla because these are two
    practically opposite ways of
  8. interpreting Paul and using Paul
    that came about probably in the
  9. second century.
  10. The Pastoral Epistles are
    called "pastoral"
  11. because it presents Paul as
    writing to Timothy and Titus,
  12. two of his followers,
    but he's telling them how to be
  13. good pastors of a church.
  14. In fact he's also doing
    something like almost acting
  15. like they're going to become
    bishops;
  16. they are also supposed to be
    appointing other people as
  17. pastors of churches.
  18. We call these the Pastoral
    Epistles because it presents
  19. Paul as himself serving in a
    sort of pastoral role for his
  20. churches and assigning Timothy
    and Titus pastoral roles for his
  21. churches also,
    and establishing leadership
  22. positions,
    what kind of leadership
  23. structures he wants to go on in
    the churches.
  24. Most of us scholars believe
    that these letters are
  25. pseudonymous.
  26. We don't believe Paul wrote
    them.
  27. There has been some question in
    the last several years that
  28. maybe the actual historical Paul
    wrote II Timothy because II
  29. Timothy looks sort of like a
    last will and testament of Paul
  30. that he may have written in
    prison.
  31. But I don't tend to buy that.
  32. I tend to group all three of
    them together as being probably
  33. by the same author and all being
    pseudonymous.
  34. Why do we think they're
    pseudonymous?
  35. Well again, as we saw with
    Ephesians and Colossians,
  36. the writing style in these
    letters is very different from
  37. the seven letters that scholars
    all agree Paul actually wrote,
  38. so the writing style is a big
    issue.
  39. As I'll show today there are a
    lot of ways of seeing that these
  40. letters simply presuppose a
    different stage in early
  41. Christianity.
  42. They don't look like they're
    from the more primitive sort of
  43. time of when Paul was actually
    founding churches.
  44. The theology looks different,
    the church structure looks
  45. different,
    as I'll talk about,
  46. positions on the household,
    on marriage,
  47. on slavery, on family,
    on women, all of these things
  48. are different.
  49. I'm using the Pastoral Epistles
    in this lecture as one
  50. illustration of how Christianity
    changes in different
  51. trajectories.
  52. One trajectory becomes very
    much pro-household.
  53. The traditional Roman style or
    Greco-Roman family is promoted
  54. as the Christian way for
    families to be and even the
  55. church itself is molded to look
    like a household with a
  56. paterfamilias,
    the head of the household on
  57. top, women below that,
    children and slaves below that.
  58. When we get to The Acts of
    Paul and Thecla, we'll see
  59. that that interpretation of Paul
    makes Paul anti-household.
  60. He actually is presented as
    going around preaching against
  61. marriage,
    against sex,
  62. against the Roman household,
    and preaching a very kind of
  63. hierarchical disrupting,
    even city-,
  64. polis-disrupting Gospel
    and certainly a household- and
  65. family-disrupting Apostle.
  66. These two trajectories of
    Pauline Christianity show the
  67. diversity of Christianity as it
    developed,
  68. and even how they used the same
    figure,
  69. Paul, as founder of
    Christianity in radically
  70. different ways.
  71. When did these letters come
    about?
  72. It's everybody guess.
  73. I actually tend to think that
    the Pastoral Epistles were
  74. probably written sometime in the
    second century,
  75. and maybe even toward the
    middle of the second century.
  76. That's a bit later than a lot
    of scholars would put them,
  77. and we're just guessing anyway.
  78. We sort of have to imagine what
    kind of level of early
  79. Christianity,
    what kind of phase of early
  80. Christianity do we imagine
    taking place before we can get
  81. this kind of a letter with this
    kind of theology and church
  82. structure written.
  83. It is interesting that when we
    talked about Marcion early,
  84. remember the heretic in Rome
    who made his own first Canon
  85. list of New Testament books?
  86. Remember he included Luke as
    his Gospel in his own edited
  87. version of it and he included
    the letters of Paul.
  88. We don't have any evidence that
    Marcion actually knew about
  89. these three letters,
    I and II Timothy and Titus.
  90. If Marcion was writing in the
    middle of the second century,
  91. maybe Marcion,
    if he didn't mention them,
  92. maybe he didn't know them,
    and maybe that's evidence that
  93. they weren't yet highly
    circulated so that's one of the
  94. things that people have talked
    about,
  95. the dating of these letters.
  96. Since Marcion didn't seem to
    know them, perhaps they were
  97. either just being written or not
    long written around the middle
  98. of the second century.
  99. First let me back up because I
    want to go through Paul really
  100. quickly and talk about what
    Paul's own view of the household
  101. is.
  102. Look with me in 1 Corinthians
    7, we're going to review some
  103. things that we've gone on before
    but keep your Bibles in front of
  104. you.
  105. Look at 1 Corinthians 7:1:
    Concerning the matters about
  106. which you wrote,
    "it is well for a man not
  107. to touch a woman."
  108. But because of cases of sexual
    immorality each man should have
  109. his own wife and each woman her
    own husband;
  110. the husband should give his
    wife her conjugal rights,
  111. likewise the wife to her
    husband.
  112. Notice how Paul balances these
    things.
  113. He tells basically the man,
    you have control of the body of
  114. your wife, but he also tells to
    the woman, you have control of
  115. the body of your husband.
  116. There's something of
    reciprocity in 1 Corinthians 7.
  117. This will be important because
    that kind of reciprocity doesn't
  118. exist when you get to the
    Pastoral Epistles.
  119. That's one thing to notice.
  120. Verse 5:
    Do not deprive one another
  121. except perhaps by agreement for
    a set time to devote yourselves
  122. to prayer.
  123. Then come together again so
    that Satan may not tempt you
  124. because of your lack of self
    control.
  125. This I say by way of
    concession, not of command.
  126. I wish that all were as I
    myself am but each has a
  127. particular gift from God,
    one having one kind and another
  128. a different kind.
  129. Notice he's basically saying,
    have sex within marriage.
  130. He's not condemning sex,
    but he really prefers that all
  131. Christians be single like he
    himself is.
  132. Paul's preference is not
    marriage and sex within
  133. marriage.
  134. That's a concession that he
    gives for people that he says
  135. can't control themselves.
  136. To the unmarried and widows,
    I say that it is well for them
  137. to remain unmarried as I am,
    but if they are not practicing
  138. self control they should marry.
  139. It is better to marry than to
    burn.
  140. That's what the Greek actually
    says, "It is better to
  141. marry than to burn."
  142. That's been an interesting
    question of scholars,
  143. what does he mean by
    "burn"?
  144. Does he mean burn in hell?
  145. That it's better to marry than
    to be tempted to sin with sex
  146. outside of marriage and then
    you'd burn in hell?
  147. I've argued that what he means
    is "burn with desire"
  148. because it was very common in
    ancient Greek culture to portray
  149. any kind of erotic desire as
    actually a physical burning.
  150. They even portrayed it as a
    disease.
  151. When you start having that
    itchy feeling that we all know
  152. so well,
    that's because your body is
  153. actually heating up,
    and that's what causes that
  154. desire.
  155. The ancient Greek doctors,
    Greek and Roman doctors,
  156. gave all kinds of prescriptions
    to people to control that
  157. burning so they can control
    their erotic desire because they
  158. felt like it made you actually
    unhealthy.
  159. Desire was unhealthy and sexual
    activity was dangerous.
  160. This was a concern throughout
    the ancient world and I think
  161. that's what Paul's talking
    about.
  162. What I've argued,
    and have argued this in my
  163. Corinthian body book and a few
    other places,
  164. is that Paul actually prefers
    that people avoid sex entirely,
  165. Christians avoid sex entirely.
  166. If they can't avoid sex
    entirely, and they're starting
  167. to have sexual desire burning in
    them and that gets dangerous,
  168. then they should get married
    and have sex but only to
  169. decrease the burning.
  170. What Paul wants is for them to
    experience sexual intercourse,
  171. even in marriage,
    without any erotic desire.
  172. Now that's kind of a radical
    idea but I believe that's
  173. actually what Paul was teaching
    here,
  174. is that he concedes it possible
    that Christians could have sex
  175. without experiencing desire,
    and that's his goal.
  176. Notice Paul doesn't have a very
    positive view of sex,
  177. even within marriage,
    it's a concession he allows
  178. people.
  179. Notice in none of this passage
    does he talk at all about having
  180. kids.
  181. Sexuality for Paul is not to
    make children in Paul's own
  182. letters.
  183. You have sex in marriage only
    to keep you from desiring.
  184. That's Paul's concern.
  185. That will change later.
  186. That's one place where--we also
    saw in I Thessalonians 4,
  187. if you'll remember,
    we had this same kind of thing.
  188. There, Paul is just talking to
    the men of the congregation and
  189. he says, don't you start wanting
    your brother's wife.
  190. He calls them skeuos,
    your vessel,
  191. he says, "Each of you
    should have your vessel."
  192. And the debate is whether he's
    talking about their genitalia,
  193. which is one possible
    interpretation of the Greek,
  194. or their wife's body,
    which is another possible
  195. interpretation of the Greek.
  196. For Paul, in I Thessalonians 4,
    he's telling men also,
  197. control yourself--and he says,
    "Not in passion of desire
  198. like the Gentiles,"
    so there again,
  199. in I Thessalonians,
    4, Paul is really concerned
  200. that the Thessalonian disciples
    are not lusting after their
  201. fellow Christian's wife.
  202. Keep your own vessel,
    and that's how your control
  203. yourself.
  204. And notice again he's excluding
    the idea of passion and desire.
  205. It just does not have a part in
    it.
  206. I admit that this is kind of a
    radical argument,
  207. and there are a lot of people
    out there who haven't bought my
  208. argument,
    but that seems to me to be
  209. precisely what the text is
    saying.
  210. Paul never allows for a good
    notion of sexual pleasure or
  211. sexual desire.
  212. He seems to want to exclude it
    in order to keep you from
  213. experiencing desire and he
    believes that he can do that
  214. even by having sex.
  215. In those ways we see Paul is
    not anti-marriage exactly,
  216. but he's certainly not
    pro-marriage,
  217. and he's not anti-sex exactly,
    but he's certainly is not
  218. pro-sex.
  219. The one thing he does seem to
    be anti is desire,
  220. sexual desire.
  221. All right, where do women fit
    in all this?
  222. I pointed out that in I
    Thessalonians 4 Paul doesn't
  223. seem to think about women at all
    there.
  224. In fact, I even proposed when I
    lectured on I Thessalonians that
  225. by the time Paul wrote that
    letter,
  226. which is one of his earliest
    letters,
  227. maybe the earliest letter we
    have in the Canon,
  228. Paul may have been conceiving
    of the Christian group as being
  229. sort of a male club because
    that's the way he tends to be
  230. talking to them.
  231. A male club of mainly working
    class manual laborers.
  232. That's changed by the time we
    get to I Corinthians,
  233. right?
  234. Because Paul directly talks
    about women a lot,
  235. he sees women as being in
    something like a co-relationship
  236. with their husbands and sexual
    activity in I Corinthians 7.
  237. He addresses women as leaders
    of churches at times.
  238. So by the time Paul writes I
    Corinthians, women are
  239. acknowledged as an important
    part of his churches.
  240. But in 1 Corinthians 11,
    look there, he doesn't have
  241. women on a completely equal
    stance with men apparently.
  242. In I Corinthians 11 he says:
    I commend you because you
  243. remember me in everything and
    maintain the traditions just as
  244. I handed them onto you.
  245. But I want you to understand
    that Christ is the head of every
  246. man and the husband is ahead of
    the wife as God is ahead of the
  247. church.
  248. There is a clear hierarchy
    there, and Paul goes on to talk
  249. about what this is going to have
    to do with women veiling their
  250. heads when they pray and
    prophesy,
  251. which another very complicated
    and controversial passage in
  252. Paul.
  253. It's clear that Paul views,
    just as he views God as the
  254. head of Christ,
    that is Christ of being
  255. somewhat inferior person
    compared to God the Father,
  256. so women are in an inferior
    position with regard to their
  257. husbands.
  258. The Greek words here,
    they're just the words for
  259. "man"
    and "woman."
  260. But since the Greek doesn't
    have special terms for
  261. "husband"
    and "wife,"
  262. when you see a Greek term like
    this in this context,
  263. you have to make the decision:
    are you going to translate this
  264. as "man"
    or "woman,"
  265. and make this a generic kind of
    idea that women in general are
  266. supposed to be subordinated to
    men in general,
  267. or do you take the terms and
    translate them into
  268. "husband"
    and "wife."
  269. Both translations are fine,
    as far as the Greek goes,
  270. and then you're taking that
    sort of inferiority
  271. subordination complex to be
    something that's talking about
  272. with husbands and wives.
  273. Look at I Corinthians 14:33:
    As in all the churches of the
  274. saints,
    women should be silent in the
  275. churches for they are not
    permitted to speak but should be
  276. subordinate as the law also
    says.
  277. If there is anything they
    desire to know,
  278. let them ask their husbands at
    home.
  279. For it is shameful for a women
    to speak in church,
  280. or did the word of God
    originate with you,
  281. or are you the only ones it has
    reached?
  282. That's odd, he seems to telling
    the women not to speak in church
  283. at all,
    although previously he had
  284. given instructions for how they
    could pray and prophesy in
  285. church as long as they are
    wearing a veil.
  286. What is going on here?
  287. Also, doesn't this have
    something--have something of a
  288. conflict with Galatians 3:28
    which is a famous verse in which
  289. Paul says,
    "In Christ there is no Jew
  290. nor Greek,
    there's no free or slave,
  291. there's no male and
    female."
  292. Now that verse has been
    interpreted, especially since
  293. the 1970s, as teaching that Paul
    taught the equality of men and
  294. women in Christ;
    if in Christ there's no male
  295. and female doesn't that mean
    they're equal?
  296. Yes sir.
  297. Student: What letter is
    that?
  298. Prof: Galatians 3:28.
  299. This has been an argument,
    this is why I'm talking about
  300. the stuff--
    those of you who are writing
  301. papers this week need to talk
    about,
  302. but notice this is complex.
  303. You've got Galatians 3:28 that
    looks like an egalitarian
  304. statement,
    except a very famous biblical
  305. scholar wrote an article arguing
    that Galatians 3:28 is not an
  306. egalitarian statement because
    Paul was talking about in the
  307. resurrection human beings--
    Christians will be androgynes,
  308. that they'll be male/female
    combinations,
  309. and in that male/female
    combination the masculinity is
  310. still superior to femininity
    even in the androgyne body of
  311. the resurrection.
  312. Is Galatians 3:28 an
    egalitarian statement by Paul?
  313. Some people say yes.
  314. Is it not an egalitarian
    statement by Paul?
  315. I say it's not.
  316. That's a complicated argument
    also.
  317. If Galatians 3:28 is an
    egalitarian statement,
  318. how does that fit then with
    this 1 Corinthians 14 passage
  319. where Paul seems to be saying
    women should be silent in church
  320. and be subordinate,
    ask your husband at home.
  321. Did any of you notice that
    those verses I just read in 1
  322. Corinthians 14 are in some
    translations in brackets,
  323. in parentheses?
  324. How many people have a
    translation of 1 Corinthians
  325. 14:34-36 that's in either
    brackets or parentheses?
  326. Raise your hand.
  327. How many people have a
    translation where they're not in
  328. brackets or parentheses,
    anybody?
  329. Okay, so some of you don't have
    them in brackets.
  330. That's showing you that these
    editors are not sure whether
  331. that was actually part of the
    original letter.
  332. There's a dispute here.
  333. If you looked at your footnotes
    of your Bible,
  334. your footnotes might even say,
    "some ancient
  335. authorities"
    don't include this or include
  336. these verses in a different
    place.
  337. This is the issue,
    and we do have some Greek
  338. texts,
    some Greek manuscripts that
  339. either don't have these verses
    or have them in a different
  340. place in the text.
  341. Well how would that happen?
  342. Well, the idea goes that some
    scribe,
  343. at some point,
    was copying over I Corinthians
  344. 14 and got to the point where
    this is in the text and wrote
  345. out in the margin,
    well wait a minute this is not
  346. right because of course the
    scribes are living at a later
  347. time when women definitely were
    in a more inferior position in
  348. churches.
  349. They couldn't be priests,
    they couldn't be bishops and
  350. this sort of thing,
    and that scribe writes in,
  351. well no,
    of course, women can't do that,
  352. so there's a little note that
    occurs there on the margins of
  353. the text.
  354. Other scribes come along and
    find this manuscript and they
  355. decide, well that shouldn't be
    out here in the margin;
  356. that should go into the text
    someplace.
  357. So one scribe copying it over
    puts that excerpt in this part
  358. of the text and another one puts
    it in this part of the text in
  359. different places.
  360. And then those manuscripts are
    copied over by other scribes.
  361. And you end up with Greek
    manuscripts with these verses in
  362. different places in I
    Corinthians 14.
  363. Some scholars have said that
    all looks like those verses that
  364. teach the subordination of women
    in I Corinthians 14 were not
  365. originally by Paul but were a
    later scribal interpolation,
  366. insertion into the text.
  367. Other scholars disagree with
    that, and they think that these
  368. verses were original with I
    Corinthians 14.
  369. In other words,
    I've given you a lot of
  370. problems to deal with.
  371. If you're going to talk about
    what was Paul's view of women
  372. you've got to figure out,
    well, what do you think
  373. Galatians 3:28 really teaches.
  374. Is it an egalitarian statement
    or not?
  375. Is I Corinthians 14--these
    verses--is that part of Paul's
  376. original teaching or not?
  377. Then you've got the situation
    where in Romans 16,
  378. several verses in Romans 16,
    Paul actually addresses women
  379. as leaders of churches.
  380. There are places where Paul is
    willing to talk to women as
  381. leaders of churches.
  382. In fact, one of the verses in I
    Corinthians 16,
  383. Paul addresses two people,
    Andronicus and Junia,
  384. and he says,
    "These are esteemed among
  385. the Apostles."
  386. "Among the Apostles,"
    that sounds like he's actually
  387. saying that Andronicus and Junia
    are themselves Apostles.
  388. And Paul thinks himself--the
    Apostles, in Paul's view,
  389. doesn't include just the
    twelve, right?
  390. Because he thinks he's an
    Apostle and he's not one of the
  391. twelve.
  392. The word "Apostle"
    for Paul is wider than the
  393. twelve, and it refers to people
    who go out and spread the
  394. Gospel.
  395. Apparently, Paul is calling two
    people, Andronicus and Junia,
  396. "Apostles"
    in Romans 16.
  397. Interestingly enough,
    that word "Junia,"
  398. that might be in your
    translation as "Junia"
  399. nowadays,
    but in older English versions,
  400. it was translated as
    "Junias,"
  401. which would be a man's name.
  402. In Latin, if you add an
    "s"
  403. on that word it looks like a
    man's name,
  404. if you don't have the
    "s,"
  405. it looks like a woman's name.
  406. There was debate among scholars
    about how to translate it.
  407. It looks the same basically in
    Greek because of the way the
  408. word occurs in the sentence.
  409. When you translated it,
    are you going to make it a
  410. man's name or a woman's name?
  411. People had always made it a
    man's name.
  412. Why?
  413. Because scholars just
    thought--of course all these
  414. scholars are men themselves
    throughout hundreds of years of
  415. tradition--
    they thought,
  416. well you can't have a woman
    Apostle,
  417. so it must be a man's name.
  418. In the seventies some feminist
    biblical scholars came along and
  419. pointed out that
    "Junias"
  420. is a very,
    very, very rare man's name but
  421. "Junia"
    is a very common woman's name,
  422. and argued again through
    textual criticism that Paul
  423. originally was addressing a
    woman, Junia.
  424. And now you have basically most
    scholars admitting that this is
  425. a woman.
  426. It's a woman's name.
  427. Paul was addressing a man,
    Andronicus, and a woman,
  428. Junia, and calling them both
    Apostles.
  429. There's some evidence that Paul
    actually doesn't have such a
  430. negative view of women if he's
    going to allow them to have
  431. leadership roles in his
    churches.
  432. So you've got Paul in rather
    confusing situations.
  433. Is Paul a feminist?
  434. Is he for egalitarian theology
    with men and women?
  435. How does this relate to these
    different issues that come up in
  436. his letters?
  437. Those are Paul's basic views of
    both marriage and the family,
  438. and sex, and the roles of
    women.
  439. Often in early Christianity,
    in the history of Christianity,
  440. these two things go together.
  441. What a text is going to teach
    about the role of women in the
  442. church and in the world often
    has something to do with what it
  443. teaches about the family.
  444. Most of the time when a text is
    really, really pro-family,
  445. they teach the subordination of
    women more directly.
  446. When they're anti-family,
    they often tend to allow women
  447. bigger roles in their
    congregations.
  448. So it's kind of a pairing that
    goes along,
  449. and that's exactly what we'll
    see this week when we see the
  450. Pastoral Epistles that take Paul
    down the pro-family anti-woman
  451. route,
    and The Acts of Paul and
  452. Thecla,
    which takes Paul down the
  453. anti-family pro-woman route.
  454. Let's look at the Pastorals,
    first.
  455. What is this author in I
    Timothy attacking?
  456. I'm going to spend most of my
    time in I Timothy because that's
  457. where I can get these examples.
  458. A lot of this stuff occurs in
    the letter to Titus also because
  459. the letter to Titus repeats a
    lot of the stuff that's in the
  460. first letter of Timothy.
  461. In I Timothy 1:3,
    I urge you, as I did when I was
  462. on my way to Macedonia,
    to remain in Ephesus so that
  463. you may instruct certain people
    not to teach any different
  464. doctrine,
    not to occupy themselves with
  465. myths and endless genealogies
    that promote speculations rather
  466. than the divine training that is
    known by faith.
  467. This and vain discussions and
    genealogies--in I Timothy 4:7 he
  468. talks about godless and silly
    myths.
  469. Titus 1:10 and 14 also--and he
    also in Titus says that he's
  470. against people who are teaching
    circumcision and Jewish myths,
  471. he calls them.
  472. What are these myths?
  473. Well, we're not really sure.
  474. Are these sort of Gnostic-type
    myths about many different gods
  475. doing things and having to
    placate those gods in order to
  476. reach the highest God as we've
    seen in some Gnostic texts that
  477. we talked about earlier in the
    semester?
  478. We don't know,
    but there's some kind of
  479. stories about either angels or
    gods that some people are
  480. teaching, and this author is
    writing against it.
  481. Some aspect--something's Jewish
    about this he doesn't like.
  482. Look at I Timothy 4:1:
    Now the spirit expressly says
  483. that in later times [in the
    latter days]
  484. some will renounce the faith by
    paying attention to deceitful
  485. spirits and the teachings of
    demons,
  486. through the hypocrisy of liars
    whose consciences are seared
  487. with a hot iron.
  488. They forbid marriage and demand
    abstinence from foods which God
  489. created to be received with
    thanksgiving by those who
  490. believe and know the
    truth."
  491. This author is against people
    who are challenging marriage.
  492. He's against people who are
    promoting some kind of ascetic
  493. behavior with regard to food,
    so avoiding certain kinds of
  494. foods: is this kashrut?
  495. Maybe he's talking about people
    who are teaching people not to
  496. eat pork, not to eat shellfish.
  497. Are they teaching Jewish food
    laws?
  498. He's not explicit.
  499. He's against people who are
    teaching that,
  500. he's against people who are
    forbidding marriage and teaching
  501. any kind of dietary
    restrictions.
  502. Look at I Timothy 5:23.
  503. This is when he tells Timothy,
    "No longer drink only
  504. water but take a little wine for
    the sake of your stomach and
  505. your frequent ailments."
  506. Why does he have to tell
    somebody to drink some wine and
  507. not just drink water?
  508. Well, because there were
    ascetics who taught to avoid
  509. wine in the ancient world.
  510. That was one of those things
    that very strict ascetics might
  511. decide to avoid was wine and
    rich food.
  512. This author says to Timothy,
    nope, you should drink wine.
  513. This was our favorite verse
    when I grew up in a church that
  514. didn't allow drinking,
    of course.
  515. I always like to throw this one
    back at the elders of the
  516. church.
  517. Look at I Timothy 6:20,
    "Timothy,
  518. guard what has been entrusted
    to you.
  519. Avoid the profane chatter and
    contradictions of what is
  520. falsely called knowledge."
  521. What is the Greek word for
    knowledge?
  522. Pardon?
  523. Student: Gnosis.
  524. Prof: Gnosis,
    exactly.
  525. See, you're getting more than
    you paid for in this course.
  526. You didn't know you were going
    to learn Greek,
  527. and you're getting some good
    cocktail party information,
  528. and even some Greek language.
  529. Gnosis is the word for
    knowledge here,
  530. and this guy is attacking
    people who are going around
  531. boasting about falsely called
    knowledge.
  532. Again, that's led some scholars
    to say is he talking about some
  533. kind of Gnosticism?
  534. Is that what he's opposing?
  535. That would go along with this
    idea that they're using this
  536. word gnosis in ways he
    doesn't like.
  537. They're teaching myths,
    they're teaching asceticism,
  538. they're teaching the avoidance
    of marriage,
  539. well that does look a bit like
    other early Christian,
  540. second century Christian
    groups, some of whom their
  541. opponents would call Gnostics,
    but we don't have enough
  542. information for it to be easy to
    tell.
  543. Now look at one more text,
    this is II Timothy 2:18,
  544. he's actually giving some names
    of people he doesn't like.
  545. In 2:18 it says,
    "These people have swerved
  546. from the truth by claiming that
    the resurrection has already
  547. taken place."
  548. He's condemning that.
  549. Remember how I even talked
    about with Colossians and
  550. Ephesians last time,
    you had this idea that they
  551. almost sound like the
    resurrection has already taken
  552. place.
  553. In your baptism with Christ you
    have been raised with Christ,
  554. and maybe there are other
    people wandering around the
  555. second century,
    Christians, saying that you've
  556. already been raised from the
    dead,
  557. you've already experienced the
    resurrection.
  558. This author really condemns
    that.
  559. He wants to say,
    no, the resurrection hasn't
  560. taken place yet,
    so he's condemning false
  561. teachers for all kinds of
    different activities and
  562. teachings that he doesn't like.
  563. So we're seeing a definite
    split here between different
  564. kinds of Paulinism.
  565. There's a Paulinism represented
    by these texts which is
  566. pro-family, pro-marriage,
    pro-procreation.
  567. We'll talk about later that
    he's for having children and
  568. mentions this explicitly;
    anti-asceticism,
  569. against forcing people to
    control what they eat and these
  570. sorts of things and this idea
    about maybe Jewish myths being
  571. something and the teaching of
    the resurrection.
  572. I Timothy 1:9,
    then, gets us into another
  573. issue: what is the law and what
    is this author's take on it?
  574. I Timothy 1:9,8:
    "Now we know that the law
  575. is good if one uses it
    legitimately."
  576. That of course can be a
    quotation right out of Romans
  577. because Romans itself has Paul
    says the law is good.
  578. This means understanding that
    the law is laid down not for the
  579. innocent but for the lawless and
    disobedient,
  580. for the godless and sinful,
    for the unholy and profane,
  581. for those who kill their father
    or mother,
  582. or murderers,
    fornicators,
  583. sodomite,
    slave traders,
  584. liars, perjurers,
    whatever else is contrary to
  585. sound teaching that contradicts
    the gracious,
  586. the glorious gospel of the
    blessed God,
  587. which he entrusted to me.
  588. Notice this guy doesn't have
    really a problem with the law
  589. that we've seen sometimes in
    Paul's writings.
  590. The law is basically just a set
    of rules designed to keep people
  591. who can't control themselves in
    line.
  592. In fact, he goes on to say that
    if you're a good person you
  593. don't even need to worry about
    the law.
  594. Now this is again different
    from what Paul's view is.
  595. Paul did not want his Gentile
    followers to keep the Jewish
  596. law, and Paul said in Romans
    that the law is good.
  597. For Paul the law is still this
    cosmic entity almost that
  598. invaded history.
  599. This is very much Galatians,
    remember when I gave the
  600. lecture on Galatians and Romans
    I talked about how the Jewish
  601. law for Paul is not simply a
    list of rules.
  602. It was this thing that came
    into the cosmos as an invader,
  603. it enslaved humanity,
    it was the pedagogue that
  604. swatted humanity down when
    humanity was in its childish
  605. state.
  606. Obeying the law for Paul is
    equal to trying to worship the
  607. stoichea of the cosmos,
    these elemental spirits of the
  608. universe.
  609. So the law for Paul isn't
    simply a list of rules.
  610. The law for Paul is a very
    ambiguous cosmic entity.
  611. It's just mythological in a
    sense for Paul.
  612. For this author that's not what
    the law is.
  613. The law--you don't need to obey
    it,
  614. he says, and he's against
    teaching his Gentile converts to
  615. keep the Jewish law,
    but he just says,
  616. it's not important.
  617. It's only for people who are
    sinners who can't control
  618. themselves.
  619. As long as you're not a sinner,
    as long as you don't do this
  620. list of things that I can give
    you, you don't need to concern
  621. yourself about the law.
  622. So this is another one of the
    reasons that people like me say,
  623. this is not Paul writing.
  624. People who believe Paul wrote
    these letters would say,
  625. well they're written years
    later, it's to a different
  626. context,
    and Paul changed his mind,
  627. or Paul's nuancing his message
    differently for a different
  628. context.
  629. So there are scholars who would
    defend these letters being by
  630. Paul and that's what they would
    say.
  631. I look at it and I say that's
    so not like Paul.
  632. It's a totally different view
    of the law and its role in the
  633. cosmos than you see in Romans or
    Galatians,
  634. which is another piece of
    evidence for me that Paul is not
  635. the author of this letter.
  636. The strategy,
    then, of this author,
  637. he's trying to argue against
    all kinds of myths and practices
  638. that somebody's going through
    Paul's churches and teaching.
  639. So he writes a letter in Paul's
    name, seemingly addressed to
  640. Paul's follower Timothy,
    and he lays out what he doesn't
  641. like about that.
  642. But that's not all of his
    strategy.
  643. What is his strategy for
    combating these things that he
  644. considers false teachings?
  645. First, he makes the church
    itself a household.
  646. Now this is where all that
    lecturing in the first part of
  647. the semester,
    when I talked over and over
  648. again, what is the patriarchal
    household,
  649. what is the Roman household,
    what is the
  650. paterfamilias,
    what is the structure of the
  651. household,
    what is the patron client
  652. relationship,
    what is the role of wives and
  653. women in the household,
    and children, and slaves?
  654. All of that was because when
    you get to some of these aspects
  655. of early Christianity,
    this author is using the Roman
  656. household as the model for the
    church itself.
  657. That wasn't the way Paul did
    it, right?
  658. Paul never talked about the
    church as if it just had the
  659. same structure of a household.
  660. He didn't talk about men always
    being on top of the leadership
  661. organization,
    and he didn't promote marriage
  662. very much, which is what this
    author does.
  663. I Timothy 3:14:
    I hope to come to you soon,
  664. but I am writing these
    instructions to you so that if I
  665. am delayed you may know how one
    ought to behave in the household
  666. of God,
    which is the church of the
  667. living God,
    the pillar and bulwark of the
  668. truth.
  669. The church is the household of
    God.
  670. The same thing happens in I
    Timothy 5, the beginning of I
  671. Timothy 5:
    Do not speak harshly to an
  672. older man;
    speak to him as a father,
  673. to younger men as brothers,
    to older women as mothers,
  674. to younger women as sisters,
    with absolute purity.
  675. Notice everybody in the church
    has some familial role.
  676. Older guys are fathers,
    your younger men in the church
  677. are your brothers,
    younger women sisters,
  678. older women mothers,
    everybody has a household role
  679. in the church.
  680. This is different--we might
    think this is automatic but,
  681. notice, this is not treating
    the church as an
  682. ecclesia,
    that Greek word that we
  683. translate "church."
  684. Where did the term
    ecclesia come from?
  685. Do you remember?
  686. In Greek, what does the term
    ecclesia originally refer
  687. to in classical Greek?
  688. Student: Assembly.
  689. Prof: The assembly of
    the city.
  690. It's the assembly of the
    city-state that came together
  691. for political purposes and to
    vote.
  692. It comes out of the Greek
    democracy, with its notions of
  693. some kind of equality among
    citizens and all the--at least
  694. the men citizens getting a vote.
  695. It's important that early
    Christians, for some reason,
  696. chose this word ecclesia
    to describe their house
  697. churches.
  698. It was ridiculous.
  699. An outsider would have--might
    have thought this is kind of
  700. ridiculous;
    you're using the term that
  701. people would have heard as the
    town assembly for a few people
  702. who can fit into one dining
    room?
  703. It's kind of acceding more
    importance to yourself than you
  704. really should.
  705. I think it's important that
    early Christian groups use that
  706. term for themselves.
  707. Why didn't early Christian
    groups call themselves
  708. "synagogues"?
  709. That was a term already in use
    by Jews;
  710. it would have been a normal
    term to use.
  711. We don't find many early
    Christians using the term
  712. "synagogue"
    for their groups.
  713. We do find them using
    ecclesia very quickly,
  714. but an ecclesia isn't a
    household.
  715. What this author is doing is
    shifting,
  716. in a not so subtle way,
    understanding these house
  717. groups as being more like town
    assemblies,
  718. and making them look more like
    Roman household.
  719. Also, then, men have certain
    roles.
  720. I Timothy 2:8:
    "I desire than that in
  721. every place the men should pray,
    lifting up holy hands without
  722. anger or argument,
    also that the women should pray
  723. lifting up holy hands without
    argument."
  724. No, Dale's lying to you again.
  725. The women should dress
    themselves modestly,
  726. decently, and in suitable
    clothing,
  727. not with their hair braided
    [girls,
  728. are you listening?]
    or with gold,
  729. pearls,
    or expensive clothes,
  730. but with good works as is
    proper for women who profess
  731. reverence for God.
  732. Let a woman learn in silence
    with full submission.
  733. I permit no woman to teach or
    have authority over a man.
  734. She is to keep silent.
  735. For Adam was formed first,
    then Eve, and Adam was not
  736. deceived but the woman was
    deceived, and became a
  737. transgressor.
  738. Yet she will be saved through
    childbearing,
  739. provided they continue in faith
    and love and holiness with
  740. modesty.
  741. Now this is something that my
    mom used to hate it when they
  742. would preach about this in
    church.
  743. Also, it's controversial;
    does it mean that she's saved
  744. from the dangers of
    childbirth?
  745. That's one way of reading it.
  746. She'll be saved from the
    dangers of childbirth if she
  747. lives a pious and holy life.
  748. Or, a bit more of a radical way
    of reading,
  749. it would be to say,
    by having babies women help
  750. constitute their own salvation--
    that having children is one of
  751. the ways that women save
    themselves.
  752. Either way you look at it,
    this author really wants women
  753. to be in a subordinate role,
    silent in church.
  754. They can't have any leadership
    authority or teaching authority
  755. over a man.
  756. As we'll see,
    they do have some offices.
  757. There are roles that women can
    play in the Pastoral Epistles,
  758. but not in authority over men.
  759. Then there's this odd thing
    about childbearing.
  760. And I think what it means is
    that childbearing actually can
  761. help save women from their sins
    in some way.
  762. Women have to be modestly
    dressed, no jewelry,
  763. saved through childbearing.
  764. In order to maintain this kind
    of household structure,
  765. a very hierarchical household
    structure, this author sets up
  766. offices in the church.
  767. And here's another reason to
    call these "the Pastoral
  768. Epistles,"
    because he's setting up
  769. pastoral offices.
  770. Look in I Timothy 3:1-7,
    "The saying is sure
  771. whoever is aspires to the office
    of bishop desires a noble
  772. task."
  773. Now a bishop--does anybody have
    a different translation for what
  774. I just read as
    "bishop"?
  775. Student:
    "Overseer."
  776. Prof:
    "Overseer,"
  777. yes, "overseer"
    is a translation.
  778. Anybody have a different
    translation?
  779. The word "bishop"
    here is--
  780. the Greek word is
    episkopos,
  781. where we get the English word
    "bishop"
  782. and you get the name for the
    Episcopal church because it's a
  783. church that has bishops.
  784. In Greek it basically means
    "an overseer"
  785. or "someone in
    charge."
  786. The bishop must be above
    reproach,
  787. married only once,
    temperate, sensible,
  788. respectable,
    hospitable, an apt teacher,
  789. not a drunkard,
    not violent but gentle,
  790. not quarrelsome,
    not a lover of money.
  791. He must manage his own
    household well,
  792. keeping his children submissive
    and respectful in every way.
  793. For if someone does not know
    how to manage his own household,
  794. how can he take care of God's
    church?
  795. Again the church is a household.
  796. If you're going to be the
    bishop over the church you have
  797. to be married,
    because how can you manage the
  798. household of the church if you
    can't prove it by managing your
  799. own household well?
  800. "He must not be a recent
    convert…"
  801. The bishop or the
    episkopos is already
  802. himself now a male head of
    household.
  803. The other office he talks about
    in 5:17,
  804. "Let the elders,"
    now just as the word we
  805. translated "bishop"
    or "overseer,"
  806. comes from the Greek word
    episkopos,
  807. the Greek for elder here is
    presbyteros,
  808. presbyter, and this is where
    the Presbyterian church gets the
  809. name of its church.
  810. They're Presbyterians because
    the Presbyterian church rejected
  811. the use of bishops like they
    found in Catholic and Anglican
  812. churches,
    and chose a plurality of
  813. elders, so they're called
    "elders"
  814. in the Presbyterian church,
    and the Presbyterian church
  815. comes from this Greek word
    meaning "elder,"
  816. presbyteros and this is
    actually--
  817. this came to be later in
    English the name for a bishop
  818. who was not just the head of one
    particular church but became the
  819. head of a series of churches,
    a bunch of churches,
  820. that is the bishop now is not
    the head of one church but the
  821. head of a whole diocese,
    that is a geographical grouping.
  822. The word's changed a bit but
    that's--
  823. bishop comes from this word and
    presbyteros turned into
  824. the word priest,
    so one of the suggested
  825. etymology's for where the
    English word "priest"
  826. came from is from this Greek
    word itself,
  827. and you can kind of say
    presbyteros,
  828. priest.
  829. It just kind of happens in
    English over a few hundred
  830. years.
  831. Elders also have to have wives,
    be family men,
  832. and all this sort of thing.
  833. There are other offices to look
    at--real quickly we're going to
  834. go through this.
  835. Deacons: 3:8:
    Deacons likewise must be
  836. serious, not double-tongued,
    not indulging in much wine,
  837. not greedy for money.
  838. They must hold fast to the
    mystery of the faith with a
  839. clear conscience.
  840. Let them first be tested,
    then, if they prove themselves
  841. blameless, let them serve as
    deacons.
  842. Women likewise must be serious.
  843. Now there's an exegetical
    problem, does this
  844. "women"
    refer to women who would
  845. themselves independently be
    deacons?
  846. In other words,
    is he allowing women to be
  847. deacons on their own,
    or is it supposed to be taken
  848. to be just the wives of the male
    deacons?
  849. That they're called deacons
    also, or deaconesses;
  850. the word for "deacon"
    here comes from the Greek
  851. diakonos,
  852. it comes into English directly,
    and that word just means
  853. "a servant,"
    "someone who serves or
  854. ministers."
  855. The women in 3:11--some
    exegetes would say this shows
  856. that this author does allow at
    least women to be deacons,
  857. deaconesses,
    and they have certain kinds of
  858. roles.
  859. Verse 12: "Let deacons be
    married only once,
  860. let them manage their children
    and their households well,
  861. for those who serve well as
    deacons gain a good standing for
  862. themselves."
  863. Notice, in the beginning,
    all of these roles,
  864. whether it's the elder,
    presbyter, or the bishop--
  865. and there's some debate about
    whether "presbyter"
  866. refers to the same role as a
    bishop in these letters--
  867. they seem to be combined in
    some of the later pastoral
  868. letters,
    or whether they refer to two
  869. separate offices,
    so there's a bit of a debate.
  870. All of these people,
    whether you're from bishops,
  871. presbyters, deacons,
    they all are required to be
  872. married and all are required to
    have children.
  873. In the beginning of early
    Christianity,
  874. see, you did not have the
    celibate ministr.
  875. The celibate ministry comes
    about later.
  876. This is in line with this
    author's intention to set up the
  877. church as a household structure
    with men on top,
  878. women having their own roles.
  879. Now there are other roles here
    too, look at I Timothy 5:3-10,
  880. "Honor widows,"
    this is I Timothy 5:3:
  881. Honor widows who are really
    widows.
  882. If a widow has children or
    grandchildren they should first
  883. learn their religious duty to
    their own family and make some
  884. repayment to their parents,
    for this is pleasing in God's
  885. sight.
  886. The real widow,
    left alone, has set her hope on
  887. God and continues in
    supplications and prayers,
  888. night and day.
  889. But the widow who lives for
    pleasure is dead even while she
  890. lives.
  891. Give these commands as well so
    that they may be above reproach.
  892. Whoever does not provide for
    relatives, and especially for
  893. family members,
    has denied the faith and is
  894. worse than an unbeliever."
  895. [Now it gets really
    interesting.]
  896. Let a widow be put on the list,
    let her be registered.
  897. It seems like he's actually
    creating another kind of office
  898. in the church,
    that is, the office of widows.
  899. And, sure enough,
    in Christianity later,
  900. "widow"
    became almost like an office in
  901. early Christianity.
  902. They could be registered,
    and they received financial
  903. help from the churches.
  904. "Let a widow be put on the
    list if she is not less than
  905. sixty years old and has been
    married only once."
  906. Notice over and over here,
    we've seen this thing about
  907. being married once.
  908. Apparently this author believes
    in marriage and wants people to
  909. be married, but his ideal is
    that people should be married
  910. once.
  911. You certainly should not be
    divorced and remarried.
  912. Paul himself forbids people in
    his church from being divorced
  913. and remarried,
    as we saw in I Corinthians 11.
  914. But this author seems to say
    that if you're married and your
  915. spouse dies, he still kind of
    prefers that these women be
  916. married once.
  917. He also said that the bishop or
    the presbyteros should be
  918. men who are married only once,
    so multiple marriages are
  919. really frowned on even though
    marriage itself is highly
  920. valued.
  921. This led to what is currently
    the practice in many of the
  922. eastern churches.
  923. Eastern Orthodox,
    the Greek Orthodox,
  924. the Russian Orthodox,
    they do not forbid their
  925. priests from being married,
    but you have to be married
  926. before you become a priest.
  927. So you'll have a lot of young
    men in Greece or Russia who are
  928. going to become priests,
    and they want to quickly get
  929. married right out of seminary.
  930. So they're looking around for a
    partner, because if they become
  931. ordained as a priest and they're
    not married, they're expected to
  932. stay unmarried.
  933. If their wife dies after they
    become a priest,
  934. they're expected to stay
    celibate and single for the rest
  935. of their lives also.
  936. This led to the tradition in
    Eastern Christianity,
  937. that you can be a married
    priest, unlike the Roman
  938. Catholic Church,
    but only if you get married
  939. before you become a priest.
  940. And it kept this idea of being
    married once only.
  941. I can't go into the rest of
    this but notice how this whole
  942. hierarchy of man and woman in a
    household,
  943. old and young,
    is also extended to children
  944. and slaves.
  945. Already in Colossians and
    Ephesians we had what we called
  946. the household codes:
    masters treat your slaves well;
  947. slaves be obedient to your
    masters;
  948. husbands treat your wives well;
    wives submit to your husbands;
  949. children submit to your fathers;
    fathers treat your
  950. children--these are called
    household codes.
  951. Already in Colossians and
    Ephesians they set up the
  952. household in a clear
    hierarchical patriarchal
  953. situation.
  954. That is intensified in the
    Pastoral Epistles.
  955. You have much longer household
    codes, and, whereas in
  956. Colossians and Ephesians
    that--those writers at least
  957. said there was some reciprocity.
  958. They would address the slaves,
    you would have to obey the
  959. master but they would also
    address the master and say,
  960. treat your slaves well.
  961. When you get to the Pastoral
    Epistles they left out the
  962. reciprocity,
    it's mainly directed to the
  963. slaves,
    to the children,
  964. to the wives,
    saying,
  965. submit.
  966. This is the strategy that this
    writer uses to combat the forms
  967. of Christianity that he doesn't
    like,
  968. to construct the church as a
    rigid patriarchal household in
  969. which each person has a role.
  970. Even young women,
    he says they're not supposed to
  971. be enrolled as widows,
    if you have young women who are
  972. widows,
    and they start running around
  973. gossiping and getting in a lot
    of trouble,
  974. he says get them married off
    again.
  975. Old women, of course,
    you couldn't marry off again,
  976. they're not enough old men
    around in the ancient world to
  977. marry them off,
    so he creates this structure by
  978. which women,
    older women,
  979. get pulled back into the
    household by this role as
  980. widows.
  981. No matter what happens to a
    woman, in this author's view,
  982. they have to be put back into
    their submissive place in the
  983. household structure,
    even if that means creating a
  984. new role for them called
    "widows."
  985. This strategy this author uses
    to bring Paul into his own time.
  986. He's taking a Paul that we've
    seen as a bit different from
  987. this and he's reinventing Paul
    for a second century Christian
  988. environment and restructuring
    the church as a household.
  989. We'll see an author on
    Wednesday doing precisely the
  990. opposite with Paul.
  991. See you next time.