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It also provides evidence to support the realistic and useful predictions you make in response to anxious fictions. In the next article, you'll think more about the development of avoidance, including how it's learned and why it persists. You'll also examine the typical but sometimes subtle forms of avoidance that create obstacles in your own life. This understanding will help you prepare for strategies to work through meaningful challenges rather than avoid them. Dendritic cells are classified as part of the innate immune system because their receptors are "hard-wired" and not "adaptable" like those of B and T cells. However, as I'm sure you now understand, DCs actually function as a "bridge" between the innate and the adaptive systems. Macrophages also are sentinel cells which stand guard over areas of our body that are exposed to the outside world. They can function as garbage collectors, antigen presenting cells, or ferocious killers - depending on the signals they receive from the microenvironment in which they reside. In a resting state, macrophages are good at tidying up, but they are not much good at antigen presentation. This is because macrophages only express enough MHC and co-stimulatory molecules to function as antigen presenting cells after they have been activated by battle cytokines such as IFN-g, or by having their pattern-recognition receptors (eg , their Toll-like receptors) ligated by invading pathogens. So macrophages resemble dendritic cells in that they efficiently present antigen only when there is something dangerous to present. However, it is important to recognize that dendritic antigen presenting cells don't kill and macrophages don't travel. Indeed, DCs can be pictured as "photojournalists" who don't carry weapons, who take snapshots of the fighting, and who then leave the battlefield to file their stories. In contrast, macrophages are heavily armed soldiers who must stand and fight. After all, macrophages are one of our main weapons in the early defense against invaders. Nevertheless, their lack of mobility raises an interesting question: What good is the activated macrophage's capacity to present antigen if it can't travel to lymph nodes where virgin T cells are located? Here's the answer. Once they have been activated by dendritic cells, T cells exit the lymph nodes, circulate through the blood, and enter inflamed tissues to help with the battle. However, these "experienced" T cells must be continually re-stimulated. Otherwise, they think the battle has been won, and they go back to a resting state or die of neglect. That's where activated macrophages come in. Out in the tissues, macrophages act as "refueling stations" which keep experienced T cells "turned on" so they can continue to participate in the battle. So mature dendritic cells activate virgin T cells, and activated tissue macrophages mainly function to re-stimulate experienced T cells. I was overweight my entire teenage life and through my early twenties. I have no memory of ever being below two hundred pounds. I began lying about my weight in the seventh grade. While I lost weight over the course of five years, I rapidly experienced a huge shift in size and weight toward the end of my journey (when I critically evaluated my E.F.F.O.R.T.). That change and drop in weight, size, and scale readings came quickly. And my brain did not have time to adapt to the "new" me. I would look in the mirror and see a smaller person . but I had been so focused on losing weight for so long that part of me felt incomplete unless I was chasing a number on the scale. I wasn't unhealthy, and I have always maintained a healthy weight for my height. But I had a difficult time adjusting to reaching the top of Mt. Weight Loss.
Maria Decasares joined Amara on March 11, 2020.


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