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(h) TROM - 1.1 Science

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    Can you hear me?
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    Yes,
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    I think you can hear me now,
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    but you don't see me.
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    That's because you have ears.
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    If you close your eyes and reach for the screen
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    you will know it's there.
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    You feel it through your skin.
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    If you have not been allowed to touch it,
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    at least you can smell it,
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    and after the hot plastic smell
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    you will realize that your monitor has to be there.
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    Luckily, you have a nose.
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    But, what if you taste it?
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    Well, it would be more difficult,
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    but eventually you'll taste the plastic,
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    because you have a tongue.
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    You understand the world around you,
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    I mean, everything that is around you,
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    through those five senses.
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    If you have ears,
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    you can hear.
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    If you have eyes,
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    you can see.
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    Through your skin,
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    you can feel.
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    The tongue will help you taste,
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    and if you have a nose, you can smell.
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    Eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin are the "tools"
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    with which you were born.
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    Tools that help you understand
    the world around you.
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    But, how did you know all this?
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    Just because you noticed?
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    And how did we divide them into five senses?
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    The answer is science.
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    Because the world is so complicated
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    we use science to discover and define.
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    But, what is science?
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    "Investigation and study of nature
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    by observation and reasoning."
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    or "the sum of all knowledge
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    obtained through research."
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    Basically a sum of tests, numbers and letters,
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    which, all together can define.
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    But how?
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    Most people recognize marks as values,
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    and the best known groups are
    letters and numbers.
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    They are inventions which help us
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    to understand our environment.
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    To better understand how these marks
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    came into existence
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    let's see a brief history of mathematics.
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    Human beings, from our earliest beginnings,
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    have searched for solutions to basic problems.
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    Building homes, measuring space,
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    keeping track of seasons and counting objects.
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    Over thirty thousand years ago
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    early paleolithic people
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    kept track of the passing seasons
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    and the changes of weather for planting.
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    To represent the passing of time
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    they carved tally marks on cave walls
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    or slashed tallies on bones, wood or stone.
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    Each tally stood for one.
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    But this system was awkward
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    when it came to large amounts.
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    So symbols were eventually created
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    that stood for groups of objects.
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    Sumerian clay stones have been found
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    that date to the fourth millennium BC.
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    A small clay column was used for one,
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    a clay ball was used for ten,
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    and a large cone stood for sixty.
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    Written records from around 3300 BC show
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    that Babylonians inscribed amounts
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    on clay tablets with a reed.
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    They used a nail shape for ones,
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    and a V on its side for tens,
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    combining these symbols to write other numbers.
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    For example,
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    Babylonians wrote the number 19 as...
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    The ancient Egyptians used objects
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    from their everyday life as symbols.
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    A rod stood for one, a cattle hobble was ten,
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    a coiled rope was a hundred,
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    a lotus flower was a thousand and so on.
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    The number 19 was a cattle hobble and nine rods.
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    The early Romans created a number system
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    that we still see today.
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    Along with other symbols
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    they used an X for ten and an I for one.
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    By the middle ages
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    Romans were putting the I to the right of the X
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    for eleven and to the left for nine.
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    So they wrote 19 as XIX.
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    All these creative number systems
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    show groups of objects, as well as individual objects.
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    Some of the oldest human counting systems
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    rely on fingers and toes.
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    So they were based on ones, fivers, tens and twenties.
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    The Zulu word for six means
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    to take the thumb of the right hand.
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    Meaning that all the fingers on the left hand
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    had been added up and the other thumb was needed.
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    Other systems evolved from commerce.
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    The Yoruba, in Nigeria,
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    used cowry shells as currency
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    and developed an amazingly complex number system.
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    It was based on 20s
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    and on the operations of multiplication,
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    subtraction and addition.
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    For example:
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    they thought of 45 as (3 x 20) - 10 - 5.
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    Knots tied in cords and strings were used
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    for recording amounts by many cultures,
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    like the Persians.
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    The Incas used a more refined version
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    called the "quipu":
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    A thick cord held horizontally
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    from which hung knotted string.
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    The kind of knot the Incas used
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    along with the length and color of the cord
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    represented 1s, 10s, and 100s.
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    In today's world almost every industrial culture
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    uses the numeral 0 through 9.
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    But these symbols weren't invented
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    until the third century BC in India
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    and it took another 800 years
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    for the idea of 0 with place value to be constructed.
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    This big idea
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    dramatically changed the face of mathematics.
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    We humans have always shared with one another.
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    When early cultures shared their food and water
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    or wanted to divide their land
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    in ways that were fair and equal,
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    fractions gradually emerged
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    as symbols for these fair share situations.
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    The ancient Egyptians used unit fractions.
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    Fractions where the numerator is 1,
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    like 1/2, 1/3 and 1/5,
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    and would add and halve these fractions.
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    If they wanted to divide three loaves of bread equally
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    among five family members,
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    they'd first divide the first and second loaves
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    into thirds.
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    Then, they'd divide the third loaf into fifths.
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    Finally, they'd take the remaining one third
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    from the second loaf and divide that into five pieces.
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    They wrote this as 1/3, 1/5, 1/15.
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    Today we would represent this sharing
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    with the fraction 3/5.
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    3/5 of a loaf for each person,
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    or 3 loaves divided by 5 people.
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    The Sumerians and early Babylonians
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    invented a number system of fractions
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    based on 60, that we still use 4000 years later.
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    Our days have 60 minute hours
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    and 60 second minutes,
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    and our circles encompass 360 degrees.
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    Chinese societies used an abacus
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    with a system based on 10s, although it had no 0.
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    An early form of decimal fractions
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    came from the abacus.
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    For example:
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    3/5 would be 6 out of 10 on an abacus
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    The Chinese lovingly named the numerator "the son"
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    and the denominator "the mother".
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    It wasn't until the 12th century
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    that common fractions,
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    with the bar notation that we use today,
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    were invented.
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    Even then, these fractions weren't widely used
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    until the renaissance period, only 500 years ago.
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    Throughout history every culture around the globe
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    has created inventive ways to calculate.
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    To solve a problem, say... 12 x 15,
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    early Russian peasants
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    used a system of doubling and halving.
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    When an odd number halved resulted in a fraction,
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    they rounded down,
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    then they added the factors
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    associated with the odd multipliers.
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    Ancient Egyptians relied on a doubling procedure
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    until they produced enough groups.
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    Then they added these groups to find the answer.
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    Across Europe and Asia, during the middle ages,
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    the abacus was the handheld calculator of its day.
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    But only very few people knew how to use it,
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    usually wealthy merchants and money lenders.
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    By simply moving beads that each had place value
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    an abacus was a highly efficient way to compute.
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    Then, the great Arab mathematician al-KhwÄrizmÄŤ
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    introduced the Hindu Arabic numerals 0 through 9,
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    into North America and Europe
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    and created new procedures for computation.
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    These algorithms could be written onto paper.
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    Over the centuries learning the algorithms
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    became the whole mark of an education
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    as students were taught to compute
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    long columns of figures,
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    borrow and carry,
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    and do long division efficiently and reliably.
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    They could now keep records of these procedures
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    and check results.
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    Today complex calculations
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    are done with a handheld calculator.
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    This means students need the ability
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    to check the reasonableness of the answer
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    and to have a rich repertoire
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    of mental math strategies to do that.
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    Most simpler computations like 12 x 15
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    can be solved mentally using a variety of strategies.
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    As we journey through the rich
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    and vibrant history of mathematics
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    we can see how ideas and creations
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    grew out of our very human need
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    to solve the problems in our everyday lives.
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    Through time, the mathematical explorations
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    of men and women from around the globe,
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    have given us fascinating lenses
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    that help us to mathematically view
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    and make sense of our world.
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    Science is the collection of facts
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    arrived at by defining what we observe
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    and running tests to discover.
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    Mathematics, chemistry, and physics represent fixed
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    languages which are not subject to interpretation.
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    Languages used to describe what we observe and
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    to test those observations in order to prove them.
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    Think of DNA,
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    cells, galaxies,
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    fruits,
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    laptops,
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    air conditioning.
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    Think about cars,
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    food,
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    houses,
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    fauna,
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    flora.
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    Think about atoms,
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    body parts,
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    climate,
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    or the clothes you wear.
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    And realize that everything is defined,
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    or created
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    by science.
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    To understand the whole concept of science,
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    you should know what a scientific theory is:
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    "A scientific theory
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    comprises a collection of concepts,
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    including abstractions of observable phenomena,
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    expressed as quantifiable properties,
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    together with rules (called scientific laws)
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    that express relationships
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    between observations of such concepts."
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    A scientific theory is constructed to conform to
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    available empirical data about such observations,
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    and is put forth as a principle or body of principles
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    for explaining a class of phenomena.
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    A scientific theory is totally different
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    from any other theory,
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    it is the most probable variant
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    resulting from recent discoveries.
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    Science is the best tool ever devised
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    for understanding how the world works.
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    Science is a very human form of knowledge.
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    We are always at the brink of the known.
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    Science is a collaborative enterprise
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    spanning new generations.
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    We remember those who prepared the way,
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    seeing through them also.
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    If you're scientifically literate
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    the world looks very different to you,
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    and that understanding empowers you.
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    There's real poetry in the real world.
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    Science is the poetry of reality.
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    We can do science, and with it,
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    we can improve our lives.
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    There's real poetry in the real world.
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    Science is the poetry of reality.
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    The story of humans is the story of ideas
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    that shine light into dark corners.
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    Scientists love mysteries, they love not knowing.
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    They don't feel frightened by not knowing things.
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    I think it's much more interesting.
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    There's a larger universal reality
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    of which we are all a part.
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    The further we probe into the universe,
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    the more remarkable are the discoveries we make.
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    The quest for the truth, in and of itself,
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    is a story that's filled with insights.
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    There's real poetry in the real world.
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    Science is the poetry of reality.
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    We can do science, and with it,
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    we can improve our lives.
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    There's real poetry in the real world.
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    Science is the poetry of reality.
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    The story of humans is the story of ideas
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    that shine light into dark corners.
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    From our lonely point in the cosmos,
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    we have through the power of thought
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    been able to peer back to a brief moment
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    after the beginning of the universe.
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    I think that science
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    changes the way your mind works.
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    To think a little more deeply about things.
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    Science replaces private prejudice
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    with publicly verifiable evidence.
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    There's real poetry in the real world.
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    Science is the poetry of reality.
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    We can do science, and with it,
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    we can improve our lives.
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    Science is a great tool
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    for understanding the surrounding world
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    think of it as a magnifying glass
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    through which you can see
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    the reality of the world.
Τίτλος:
(h) TROM - 1.1 Science
Περιγραφή:

http://tromsite.com - Full documentary, very well organized (download, youtube stream, subtitles, credits, share, get involved, and many more)

Documentary´s description :
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TROM (The Reality of Me) represents the biggest documentary ever created, it is also the only one that tries to analyse everything : from science to the monetary system as well as real solutions to improve everyone's life.

A new and ´real´ way to see the world.

"Before the Big-Bang, till present, and beyond."
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Video Language:
English
Duration:
15:34

English subtitles

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