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← How to air-condition outdoor spaces

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Zeige Revision 8 erzeugt am 07/31/2013 von Thu-Huong Ha.

  1. Good evening.
  2. We are in this wonderful

  3. open-air amphitheater
  4. and we are enjoying ourselves
  5. in that mild evening
  6. temperature tonight,
  7. but when Qatar will host
  8. the football World Cup
  9. 10 years from now,
  10. 2022,
  11. we already heard it will be
  12. in the hot, very hot and sunny
  13. summer months of June and July.
  14. And when Qatar has been assigned
  15. to the World Cup all, many
  16. people around the world have been
  17. wondering, how would it be
  18. possible that football players
  19. show spectacular football,
  20. run around in this desert
  21. climate? How would it be
  22. possible that spectators sit,
  23. enjoy themselves in open-air
  24. stadia in this hot environment?
  25. Together with the architects of

  26. Albert Speer & Partner, our engineers
  27. from Transsolar have been
  28. supporting, have been developing
  29. open-air stadia based on 100 percent
  30. solar power, on 100 percent solar cooling.
  31. Let me tell you about that,

  32. but let me start with comfort.
  33. Let me start with the aspect
  34. of comfort, because many people
  35. are confusing
  36. ambient temperature
  37. with thermal comfort.
  38. We are used to looking at charts like

  39. that, and you see this red line
  40. showing the air temperature
  41. in June and July, and yes, that's right,
  42. it's picking up to 45 degrees C.
  43. It's actually very hot.
  44. But air temperature is not
  45. the full set of climatic
  46. parameters which define comfort.
  47. Let me show you analysis

  48. a colleague of mine did looking
  49. on different football, World Cups,
  50. Olympic Games around the world,
  51. looking on the comfort
  52. and analyzing the comfort
  53. people have perceived at these
  54. different sport activities,
  55. and let me start with Mexico.
  56. Mexico temperature has been, air

  57. temperature has been something between
  58. 15, up to 30 degrees C, and people
  59. enjoyed themselves.
  60. It was a very comfortable game
  61. in Mexico City. Have a look.
  62. Orlando, same kind of stadium,
  63. open-air stadium. People have
  64. been sitting in the strong sun,
  65. in the very high humidity
  66. in the afternoon, and they
  67. did not enjoy. It was not comfortable.
  68. The air temperature was not too high, but it was not
  69. comfortable during these games.
  70. What about Seoul? Seoul, because

  71. of broadcast rights, all the
  72. games have been in the late
  73. afternoon. Sun has already been
  74. set, so the games have been
  75. perceived as comfortable.
  76. What about Athens? Mediterranean

  77. climate, but in the sun it was
  78. not comfortable. They didn't perceive comfort.
  79. And we know that from Spain,

  80. we know that "sol y sombra."
  81. If you have a ticket, and you
  82. get a ticket for the shade,
  83. you pay more, because you're
  84. in a more comfortable environment.
  85. What about Beijing?

  86. It's again, sun in the day
  87. and high humidity,
  88. and it was not comfortable.
  89. So if I overlay, and if you

  90. overlay all these comfort
  91. envelopes, what we see is,
  92. in all these places, air temperature has
  93. been ranging something from 25
  94. to 35, and if you go on
  95. the line, 30, of 30 degrees C
  96. ambient temperatures. If you
  97. go along that line you see
  98. there has been all kind of
  99. comfort, all kinds of perceived
  100. outdoor comfort, ranging from
  101. very comfortable
  102. to very uncomfortable.
  103. So why is that?

  104. This is because there are
  105. more parameters influencing
  106. our thermal comfort, which is
  107. the sun, the direct sun,
  108. the diffuse sun, which is wind,
  109. strong wind, mild wind, which is
  110. air humidity, which is
  111. the radiant temperature of the
  112. surroundings where we are in.
  113. And this is air temperature.
  114. All these parameters go into

  115. the comfort feeling of our
  116. human body, and scientists
  117. have developed a parameter,
  118. which is the perceived
  119. temperature, where all these
  120. parameters go in and help
  121. designers to understand
  122. which is the driving parameter
  123. that I feel comfort or that
  124. I don't feel comfort.
  125. Which is the driving parameter
  126. which gives me a perceived
  127. temperature? And these parameters,
  128. these climatic parameters are
  129. related to the human metabolism.
  130. Because of our metabolism,

  131. we as human beings,
  132. we produce heat.
  133. I'm excited, I'm talking to you,
  134. I'm probably producing
  135. 150 watts
  136. at the moment. You are sitting,
  137. you are relaxed, you're looking
  138. at me. It's probably 100
  139. watts each person is producing,
  140. and we need to get rid of that
  141. energy. I need, with my body,
  142. to get rid of the energy, and
  143. the harder it is for myself,
  144. for my body, to get rid of the
  145. energy, the less comfort I feel.
  146. That's it. And if I don't
  147. get rid of the energy,
  148. I will die.
  149. If we overlay what happens

  150. during the football World Cup,
  151. what will happen in June, July,
  152. we will see, yes, air
  153. temperature will be much higher,
  154. but because the games and
  155. the plays will be in the afternoon,
  156. it's probably the same comfort
  157. rating we've found in other
  158. places which has perceived
  159. as non-comfortable.
  160. So we sat together with a team

  161. which prepared the Bid Book, or goal,
  162. that we said, let's aim
  163. for perceived temperature,
  164. for outdoor comfort in this range,
  165. which is perceived with a
  166. temperature of 32 degrees
  167. Celsius perceived temperature,
  168. which is extremely comfortable.
  169. People would feel really fine
  170. in an open outdoor environment.
  171. But what does it mean?

  172. If we just look on what happens,
  173. we see, temperature's too high.
  174. If we apply the best architectural design,
  175. climate engineering design,
  176. we won't get much better.
  177. So we need to do something active.

  178. We need, for instance, to bring
  179. in radiant cooling technology,
  180. and we need to combine this
  181. with so-called soft conditioning.
  182. And how does it look like in a stadium?

  183. So the stadium has a few
  184. elements which create that
  185. outdoor comfort. First of all,
  186. it's shading. It needs
  187. to protect where the people
  188. are sitting against strong
  189. and warm wind.
  190. But that's not all what we need

  191. to do. We need to use
  192. active systems.
  193. Instead of blowing a hurricane
  194. of chilled air through the stadium,
  195. we can use radiant
  196. cooling technologies, like a
  197. floor heating system where water
  198. pipes are embedded in the floor.
  199. And just by using cold water
  200. going through the water pipes,
  201. you can release the heat
  202. which is absorbed during the day
  203. in the stadium, so you can
  204. create that comfort, and then by
  205. adding dry air instead of
  206. down-chilled air, the spectators
  207. and the football players can
  208. adjust to their individual
  209. comfort needs, to their
  210. individual energy balance.
  211. They can adjust and find
  212. their comfort they need to find.
  213. There are 12 stadia probably

  214. to come, but there are
  215. 32 training pitches where
  216. all the individual countries
  217. are going to train.
  218. We applied the same concept:
  219. shading of the training pitch,
  220. using a shelter against wind,
  221. then using the grass.
  222. Natural-watered lawn is a
  223. very good cooling source
  224. stabilizing temperature,
  225. and using dehumidified air to
  226. create comfort.
  227. But even the best passive design

  228. wouldn't help.
  229. We need active system.
  230. And how do we do that?
  231. Our idea for the bid was

  232. 100 percent solar cooling,
  233. based on the idea that we use
  234. the roof of the stadia,
  235. we cover the roofs of the stadia
  236. with PV systems.
  237. We don't borrow any energy
  238. from history.
  239. We are not using fossil energies.
  240. We are not borrowing energy
  241. from our neighbors.
  242. We're using energy we can harvest
  243. on our roofs, and also on the
  244. training pitches, which will be
  245. covered with large, flexible
  246. membranes, and we will see
  247. in the next years an industry
  248. coming up with flexible
  249. photovoltaics, giving
  250. the possibilities of shading
  251. against strong sun and producing
  252. electric energy in the same time.
  253. And this energy now is

  254. harvested throughout the year,
  255. sent into the grid,
  256. is replacing fossils
  257. in the grid, and when I need it
  258. for the cooling, I take it
  259. back from the grid and I
  260. use the solar energy
  261. which I have brought to the grid
  262. back when I need
  263. it for the solar cooling.
  264. And I can do that in the first
  265. year and I can balance that
  266. in the next 10, and the next
  267. 20 years, this energy,
  268. which is necessary to condition
  269. a World Cup in Qatar,
  270. the next 20 years, this energy
  271. goes into the grid of Qatar.
  272. So this -- (Applause)

  273. Thank you very much. (Applause)

  274. This is not only useful

  275. for stadia. We can use that also
  276. in open-air places and streets,
  277. and we've been working on
  278. the City of the Future
  279. in Masdar, which is in the
  280. United Emirates, Abu Dhabi.
  281. And I had the pleasure to work
  282. on the central plaza.
  283. And the same idea to use there,
  284. to create outdoor conditions
  285. which are perceived
  286. as comfortable. People enjoy
  287. going there instead of going
  288. into a shopping mall, which is
  289. chilled down and which is
  290. cooled. We wanted to create
  291. an outdoor space
  292. which is so comfortable that
  293. people can go there in the
  294. early afternoon, even in these
  295. sunny and hot summer months,
  296. and they can enjoy and meet there
  297. with their families. (Applause)
  298. And the same concept:

  299. shade against the sun,
  300. shade against the wind,
  301. and use, use and take advantage
  302. of the sun you can harvest
  303. on your footprint.
  304. And these beautiful umbrellas.
  305. So I'd like to encourage you

  306. to pay attention to your
  307. thermal comfort, to your
  308. thermal environment,
  309. tonight and tomorrow,
  310. and if you'd like to learn more
  311. about that, I invite you
  312. to go to our website.
  313. We uploaded a very simple
  314. perceived temperature calculator
  315. where you can check out
  316. about your outdoor comfort.
  317. And I also hope that you
  318. share the idea that
  319. if engineers and designers
  320. can use all these different
  321. climatic parameters,
  322. it will be possible to create
  323. really good and comfortable
  324. outdoor conditions,
  325. to change our thermal perception
  326. that we feel comfortable
  327. in an outdoor environment,
  328. and we can do that
  329. with the best passive design,
  330. but also using the energy source
  331. of the site in Qatar which is
  332. the sun.
  333. (Applause)

  334. Thank you very much. (Applause)

  335. Shukran. (Applause)