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https:/.../2019-09-09_hdo301_pt1.mp4

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    ♪ (music) ♪
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    Live from the University of Texas
    at Austin
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    The Liberal Arts Development
    Studio,
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    and the College of Liberal
    Arts, present:
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    Introduction to Human Dimensions of
    Organizations.
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    And now, here is your professor,
    Doctor Art Markman.
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    Hey, everybody, it is Monday, it's our
    first Monday together,
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    and we have folks in the studio again,
    say "hello," everybody.
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    Students off camera: Hello!
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    Alright, hope you could hear that
    at home.
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    Yeah, so I'm excited to be here,
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    and hope that the Longhorn loss on
    Saturday didn't drag the weekend
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    down for too many people.
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    But, what we're going to do today is we're
    gonna shift disciplines a little bit.
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    So, if you think about where we were last
    class,
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    we were talking about sociology
    and anthropology,
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    we were talking about the kinds of
    relationships that people engage in,
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    we talked a little bit about the content
    there, the four types of relationships,
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    we talked about methodology,
    how in the world would you study this,
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    and then we talked about practice,
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    that is, what is the influence of these
    kinds of relationships
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    on the way that people negotiate
    with each other.
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    So we went through that in the field of
    a social science,
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    and now we're gonna shift and
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    we're going to move
    to one of the humanities.
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    In particular, we're going to talk about
    history.
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    And, in fact, history is going to make up
    several of the next lectures.
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    So today, we're going to talk about some
    ancient history,
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    going back to ancient Greece.
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    Then next class, we're going to shift to
    something more modern,
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    go to the 1970's, where we're going to
    talk a little bit about Nixon,
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    and his ability to open up a relationship
    with China,
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    and then, the following week, actually
    on the following Wednesday,
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    we're going to have a special guest in
    class. An actual, live historian,
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    who's going to talk a little bit about
    what it means
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    to do research in history.
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    And so, the focus today and on
    Wednesday is going to be
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    on the content and practice associated
    with these episodes from history.
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    And then, we'll have one special class
    where we'll talk about methodology
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    in history.
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    So that's kind of where things are going
    to be going.
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    We're going to focus today a little bit
    on the concept of power,
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    and how that relates to negotiation.
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    And we're going to start by thinking
    about the concept of power
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    by actually looking at a negotiation back
    from Ancient Greece.
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    So we're going to talk about what happens
    when you can dictate the terms,
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    because you are negotiating from a
    position of extreme strength and power.
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    We'll focus on the Melian Dialogue,
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    which was written as part of the history
    of the Peloponnesian War
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    by, it was written by Thucydides.
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    And then we'll actually ask the question:
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    So, should the powerful folks always
    win?
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    Should they always get what they want?
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    And what does that mean?
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    And that'll actually touch on some of the
    ethical issues associated
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    with using your power.
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    And along the way, I'm going to have to
    show you a map.
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    So, there's a cool map utility
    we've got here,
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    so you're going to get to see me
    fumble with technology
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    in yet a new way this class.
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    So, to get started, I want you all to
    think for a moment -- in fact,
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    I'm going to give you ten or fifteen
    seconds to write this down
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    for yourself --
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    I want you to ask yourself:
    What is power?
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    So take a moment, and just write
    this down.
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    If you hear about the concept of power,
    what exactly does that mean?
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    (pause)
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    This, by the way, is not your quiz,
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    that'll come later, this is just
    something to write down.
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    And after you've thought a little bit
    about the concept of power,
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    I want you to also think a little bit
    about negotation.
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    So remember, we talked about this idea of
    negotiation being:
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    we've got conflicting goals, we've got two
    parties or sometimes more parties,
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    but let's just think about two
    different parties working together,
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    they have conflicting goals,
    they are negotiating in order
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    to try to figure out who's going to get
    what they want in the course
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    of achieving those goals.
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    So now I want you to think for a second,
    having written down your
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    definition of power,
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    I want you to write down: what does power
    allow you to do when you're negotiating?
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    (pause)
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    Take a couple of seconds to do that.
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    (pause)
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    You can even chat with each other about
    this on the chat facility, if you want.
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    But the reason I want you to do this
    is because whenever we're teaching
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    anything, one of the things that we're
    trying to do is to have you
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    actually make your own bets on things,
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    that is, to really think about:
    "Well, what do I know already?"
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    The issue isn't to be right or to wrong.
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    It's that we want to influence the way
    that you're thinking about things
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    and so the best way to do that is, for us
    to pull that up from your memory
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    so that it's a concept that active
    and ready for you to play with.
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    And then we can manipulate that
    concept a little bit.
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    So when I ask these kinds of questions,
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    it's really just to get you thinking
    about these kinds of concepts.
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    So, if we think about the notion
    of what is power,
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    let's actually dive into this by asking:
    "Well, what can you do with power?"
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    So, power could be physical strength,
    but it need not be physical strength,
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    power can also be, can also involve,
    having control over resources,
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    because a lot of what power is all about
    is the ability to control an outcome.
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    So, if you think about life, anytime
    you engage in an action,
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    there is the influence of the
    circumstance of what's going on,
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    and then there's the influence over what
    you bring to the table:
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    your physical attributes, your mental
    attributes, your resources.
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    And so, think about it like this.
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    To the degree that you can control
    what's going to happen next,
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    rather than the circumstances controlling
    what's going to happen next,
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    you have a degree of power.
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    And, to the extent that the circumstance
    is controlling what's going on,
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    then the circumstance has the power,
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    and you really don't.
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    And so, the circumstance could be
    the physical situation, right,
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    if you're caught in a tidal wave,
    then it's a physical circumstance
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    that has overpowered you.
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    But, you might also be
    in a social environment,
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    in which someone else has physical
    strength, or resources, or something else.
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    And that gives them the power.
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    So, to the extent that the situation is
    governing what's going on,
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    you are relatively powerless.
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    And, to the extent that you can actually
    influence what's going to happen,
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    you have some degree of power.
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    And, the factors that create that power
    depend on the nature of the circumstance.
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    If you're playing defensive line for the
    Longhorns,
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    then it is physical strength that guides
    power,
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    and a little bit of mental understanding
    of what's going on in the game.
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    If you are negotiating with someone
    over a business deal,
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    then your physical strength may not
    matter so much,
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    but your economic strength
    might matter.
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    And, of course, as you read in the
    Melian Dialogue,
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    we had Athens who was a military
    power,
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    so they had a tremendous amount of
    military strength that they were
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    bringing to bear, that enabled them to
    influence outcomes.
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    And so, when you have a degree of power,
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    one of the things that that enables you to
    do in a negotiation
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    is to begin to control that outcome.
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    Now, in some negotiations,
    one side has most or all of the power,
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    in which case, they have an opportunity
    to really dictate
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    everything that's going to go on.
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    In many negotiations, of course, each
    party has some source of power,
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    that they will bring to bear on
    the negotiation.
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    So, for example, if you think about
    labor negotiations for a second.
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    You have the employer,
    who has a certain amount of power,
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    because they get to decide how much
    they'd like to pay people,
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    what resources they're going to bring
    to that employment situation.
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    But if you have a labor negotiation,
    let's say with a union,
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    or some kind of collective bargaining,
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    then the employees also have some
    potential power,
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    because they might choose not to come
    to work, or to slow things down at work.
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    And so, each side is exerting it's power
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    in order to try to come to
    some accommodation,
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    because presumably the employer wants
    to pay as little as possible,
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    in order to get the work they want
    out of people.
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    While the employees would like
    to make as much as they can.
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    And, of course, that's a bit of an
    over-simplification of
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    the way that labor negotiations work,
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    but you have a conflict of interest,
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    and different sides have different
    amounts of power.
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    And, in fact, if you think about trying
    to development a certain amount of power
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    in a negotiation context
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    -- one of the reasons that unions
    developed in the first place --
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    is because when people negotiated as
    individuals against a big company
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    it's often very difficult for the
    individual to have any power at all,
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    because if that person chooses not to
    come to work,
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    there might be plenty of other
    people who are willing to come in.
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    And it is that collection of individuals
    that provides more power
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    to the folks on the
    employment side,
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    and that gives them a little bit more
    opportunity to try to control the outcome.
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    So again, this concept of power is that:
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    whatever the circumstance is, it is
    the ability to have some amount of
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    control over the situation,
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    rather than having the situation and the
    people in it having some degree
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    of control over you.
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    So that's really where we're
    going with this.
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    And, by the way, as we get into the
    Melian Dialogue,
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    what I want you to be thinking about
    is -- a lot of times we're going to
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    use terms, and I'm going to seemingly
    belabor the point here,
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    where I'm going to, you know,
    dig into what some of these terms mean --
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    and part of the reason for doing that is
    because a lot of times
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    we throw words around without
    necessarily really thinking deeply
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    about what influence they have.
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    The more that you understand where
    these terms come from,
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    and what they mean,
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    the better able you're going to be
    to manipulate those when
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    you're in a situation in which
    you have to influence what's happening.
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    Alright lets dive into the Melian Dialogue
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    So, the Melian Dialogue involves
    the island of Melos,
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    and the Melian Dialogue happened on the
    island of Melos between
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    Athens and the Melians.
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    And this was an invent that was
    laid out by Thucydides.
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    And Thucydides was an ancient Greek
    historian,
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    so he was born about 460 BCE
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    -- and remember the years as we get up
    to the start of the common era
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    will count downward until we get to zero,
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    and then we'll move up to the common era
    dates that,
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    we're in 2019 now, as I'm taping this --
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    So, he was born about 460,
    and of course oddly enough
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    people didn't really have good birth
    certificates back then,
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    so we just know he was born
    in that vicinity.
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    And he died sometime after 404.
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    He was the son of a wealthy Athenian,
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    and, of course, if you go back to ancient
    Greece or ancient Rome,
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    a lot of what we know about that era
    tends to be stuff that comes from
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    people who had some degree of wealth.
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    Unfortunately, we don't learn a lot
    about the people who are
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    sort of the common folks,
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    because they didn't necessarily have
    access to the ability
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    to write a history of things.
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    A lot of what we learn about the daily
    life of the more common folks
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    during these eras comes from
    archaeological digs,
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    in which we're able to look at housing
    and what people ate,
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    and things like that.
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    There isn't as much of a written record.
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    So we tend to get records from wealthy
    folks and people who
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    played significant roles during
    that period of history.
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    So, what we have is Thucydides
    who wrote a history of
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    the Peloponnesian War.
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    He was a general during the war, so
    played a pretty prominent role,
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    got that generalship in part because
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    he was already part of the wealthy
    class in Athens.
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    And after the war was over, he wrote
    a history of the war that
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    provides a tremendous amount about
    what we know now about
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    the Peloponnesian War.
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    And so, what in the world is the
    Peloponnesian War?
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    Well, it is a conflict between two
    nation-states:
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    Athens and Sparta.
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    And they differed in a variety of ways,
    and in particular,
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    they differed sort of politically and
    in their overall orientation
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    towards thinking about life.
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    So Sparta was a monarchy, so they
    had a king.
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    They were fairly conservative,
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    meaning that they were
    resistant to cultural change.
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    They really wanted to keep things
    relatively the same as they had been
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    for many years.
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    And so, they represented one pole of
    society in the area around Greece.
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    And then there was Athens.
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    And Athens was a second nation-state.
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    This was a democracy, so there was
    actually more power given to the people.
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    And, Athens was a much more innovative
    society.
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    They really were interested in innovation
    in a variety of ways:
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    innovation politically, innovation in
    terms of invention and technology,
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    and so it was a much more open
    and free-flowing society.
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    And, you know, often we see conflicts
    that occur between groups that are
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    relatively more open, and groups that are
    relatively more traditional
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    because that creates a significant
    conflict of interest.
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    And, at some point, when a conflict
    of interest breaks down,
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    and so you try to negotiate,
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    whenever you have, you know,
    a conflict between nation-states,
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    one of the things that happens is you
    often start by trying to negotiate,
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    and when negotiations break down,
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    you need some other mode of
    resolving a conflict.
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    And, of course, in the second-third and
    the middle-third of this class,
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    we're going to talk a lot about
    different modes of conflict resolution.
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    But one of them we're probably
    not going to spend a ton of time on,
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    is open warfare.
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    And that's something that happens
    between nations
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    where you can't resolve the conflict,
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    so what do you end up doing?
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    You end up going to war and bringing
    your military strength to bear on this.
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    So the conflict between Sparta and Athens
    boils over and turns into a war,
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    the Peloponnesian War began in
    431 BCE,
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    and the first phase of the war
    lasts for ten years.
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    And I want you to think for a moment
    about this.
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    You know, when you think about wars
    in the modern era,
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    many of the wars that we hear about
    are really not that long, right?
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    You know, World War One, the US
    is involved in this for three years.
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    World War Two, the United States
    is involved, you know, for five years.
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    And these are relatively short, and these
    feel like long wars to us,
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    and yet they really were
    much shorter than something
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    like the Peloponnesian war,
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    in part, of course, because you don't
    have airplanes
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    that can get around the world in a day.
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    And so, when someone's going to go to war,
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    they're going to have to sail to
    get there.
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    And, so, I'll show you a map in a
    few moments of the area,
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    but in order to get from one place
    to another,
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    you're hopping on a boat.
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    So everything takes a fair amount of time,
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    and there's a lot of seige warfare,
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    where you surround a place for a while,
    try to starve people out.
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    So, warfare takes place over a long
    period of time.
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    The Peloponnesian War no exception
    to that.
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    So, the first phase of the war about ten
    years long.
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    And it's really Athens is the one who's
    leading here,
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    they're the ones who are having the
    primary success.
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    And then, then there was 'half-time',
    there was a seven-year truce
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    where they tried to work things out
    via negotiation,
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    and so, and towards the end of
    that seven-year truce is when
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    we're going to pick up the story
    with the conquest of Melos,
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    which happened in 416 BCE.
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    And you'll notice that this is really
    towards the end of 'half-time',
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    and then the war becomes
    a kind of hot war again,
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    an open war, starting in
    let's see, it's 414.
  • 17:05 - 17:07
    And it lasts another ten years,
  • 17:07 - 17:10
    and the second phase of the war favors
    Sparta.
  • 17:10 - 17:12
    And this is going to become
    important,
  • 17:12 - 17:14
    so what I want you to
    remember here is:
  • 17:14 - 17:19
    first half of the war, Athens is largely
    the one who's the victor,
  • 17:19 - 17:20
    then there's the truce,
  • 17:20 - 17:23
    then in the second phase we're going
    to see that Sparta ends up
  • 17:23 - 17:27
    having a better time of it
    in the second half of the war.
  • 17:27 - 17:29
    So, hold onto that,
  • 17:29 - 17:31
    because that's going to become important
    as we understand
  • 17:31 - 17:34
    the implications of the Melian Dialogue.
  • 17:35 - 17:37
    Alright, so before we go to the map here,
  • 17:37 - 17:41
    I just want to tell you a little bit
    about the siege of Melos.
  • 17:41 - 17:44
    So, the Siege of Melos, 416 BCE,
  • 17:44 - 17:46
    it's the tail-end of this
    half-time period,
  • 17:46 - 17:48
    what was called the Peace
    of Nicias.
  • 17:48 - 17:50
    Athens wants Melos.
  • 17:50 - 17:55
    So, so just because Athens and
    Sparta aren't directly in conflict
  • 17:55 - 17:58
    doesn't mean that they're not
    strategically trying to do things.
  • 17:58 - 18:02
    So, you know, as we look
    at the map --
  • 18:02 - 18:06
    actually, why don't we go to the map
    here, can we do this? Let's see --
  • 18:06 - 18:09
    Hopefully this'll work. If we go to
    our map -- there we go!
  • 18:09 - 18:16
    We got Athens up here, so, this blue area
    here is the Mediterranean Sea.
  • 18:16 - 18:18
    So, if you think of your world map
    for a second,
  • 18:18 - 18:23
    the Mediterranean, you've got southern
    Europe and northern Africa,
  • 18:23 - 18:26
    you've got a fairly large body of water,
  • 18:26 - 18:29
    hopefully you've had a chance to look
    at that, maybe even visited
  • 18:29 - 18:30
    some of these places.
  • 18:30 - 18:36
    If we look at the map here, Athens is in
    the southern part of Greece,
  • 18:36 - 18:38
    which is just a little bit east of where
  • 18:38 - 18:42
    -- so Greece, of course, a little bit
    east of where Italy is today,
  • 18:42 - 18:43
    where modern Italy is --
  • 18:43 - 18:46
    Greece was one of the real world
    centers at this point.
  • 18:46 - 18:51
    We've got Athens, and then Melos is
    actually way down here.
  • 18:51 - 18:55
    So, if you've actually been to Athens
    or been to this area of the world,
  • 18:55 - 18:59
    you know there's a lot of islands
    around there and,
  • 19:01 - 19:04
    these days, kind of a a great place to
    spend a vacation, but
  • 19:04 - 19:10
    basically and Sparta, which is not
    really on the map, is sort of up here,
  • 19:10 - 19:13
    a little bit east of Athens.
  • 19:13 - 19:18
    And so basically, Athens wants
    to control the seas.
  • 19:18 - 19:20
    And the way that Athens is going to
    control the seas,
  • 19:22 - 19:26
    is by having outposts on the
    variety of islands
  • 19:26 - 19:30
    that are associated with this area.
  • 19:30 - 19:34
    And so, they want to really conquer
    the area, or at least,
  • 19:34 - 19:35
    have control over it.
  • 19:35 - 19:37
    So, I'm drawing here.
  • 19:37 - 19:42
    So they're going to go down to Melos
    and really try to see what they can do.
  • 19:42 - 19:46
    So what they did was, they packed up
    a force of about three-thousand soldiers,
  • 19:46 - 19:51
    a pretty significant number of people,
    particularly when you realize
  • 19:51 - 19:53
    that you're going to have to
    bring them on boats from
  • 19:53 - 19:55
    Athens all the way down to Melos.
  • 19:55 - 19:59
    And their aim was to bring
    a show of force.
  • 19:59 - 20:02
    So they were showing their
    military power.
  • 20:02 - 20:04
    You know, Melos is a small place,
    you can see it's kind of a
  • 20:04 - 20:07
    tiny island, not going to have
    three-thousand soldiers.
  • 20:07 - 20:12
    And so, Athens is bringing a superior
    military force,
  • 20:12 - 20:16
    and the aim is to negotiate
    with the Melians,
  • 20:16 - 20:19
    and that's where we pick up the
    Melian Dialogue.
  • 20:19 - 20:22
    So that's kind of setting the stage
    for where we are.
  • 20:23 - 20:25
    Alright, so what's going to happen?
  • 20:25 - 20:27
    Okay, the Melian Dialogue.
  • 20:27 - 20:32
    The Athenians come, and they want
    to present a case
  • 20:32 - 20:37
    to the entire population of Melos,
    that's their strategy.
  • 20:37 - 20:40
    And the idea here is several-fold.
  • 20:40 - 20:44
    The first, of course, is that, as I
    mentioned, Athens is a democracy.
  • 20:44 - 20:47
    And so, beacuse they're a democracy,
  • 20:47 - 20:50
    because they believe that people
    have the opportunity
  • 20:50 - 20:52
    to control their destiny,
  • 20:52 - 20:55
    they want to actually give a presentation
    to all the people
  • 20:55 - 20:57
    in the hope that the people will vote.
  • 20:57 - 21:00
    Now, of course, there's two reasons
    for them to want to do this.
  • 21:00 - 21:02
    One: Is that it's philosophically
  • 21:02 - 21:05
    related to what it is that they're
    trying to accomplish.
  • 21:05 - 21:10
    But also, honestly, if you're an
    individual, and you see
  • 21:10 - 21:13
    a whole bunch of boats out to sea
    that you know are filled
  • 21:13 - 21:17
    with soldiers, and you're
    an individual.
  • 21:17 - 21:21
    Are you really, as you look at this,
    thinking to yourself:
  • 21:21 - 21:24
    "Yeah, our best strategy is going to
    be to stand up to you."
  • 21:24 - 21:28
    As individuals, you're going to feel quite
    a bit of fear, I think,
  • 21:28 - 21:29
    in that moment.
  • 21:29 - 21:32
    And so, I think that one of the other
    reasons that the Athenians
  • 21:32 - 21:34
    wanted to present the case to everyone,
  • 21:34 - 21:39
    was basically to try and scare the
    general population,
  • 21:39 - 21:43
    with the hope that these individuals
    would decide that
  • 21:43 - 21:46
    they wanted to just give in to
    whatever the Athenians wanted.
  • 21:47 - 21:50
    Now, the Melians, they had a
    different idea.
  • 21:50 - 21:54
    What they wanted was this negotiation
    to be done by a small number of leaders.
  • 21:54 - 21:57
    So they wanted the leadership of Melos
  • 21:57 - 22:00
    to sit down with the leadership of
    the Athenian delegation,
  • 22:00 - 22:02
    and for them to hash it out.
  • 22:03 - 22:05
    And there are again two reasons for this.
  • 22:05 - 22:08
    One: Because from a leadership standpoint,
  • 22:08 - 22:13
    Melos is an independent group. They are
    an independent island.
  • 22:13 - 22:17
    They are not aligned either with Athens
    or Sparta,
  • 22:17 - 22:20
    and their government structure
    involved a fairly small number
  • 22:20 - 22:22
    of people who governed.
  • 22:22 - 22:25
    And so, they wanted their
    government structure,
  • 22:25 - 22:29
    the people who had the political power
    in Melos,
  • 22:29 - 22:33
    to be the ones who actually engaged
    in that negotiation.
  • 22:33 - 22:36
    And they wanted to do that with
    the people from Athens
  • 22:36 - 22:39
    who were authorized to make a decision.
  • 22:40 - 22:42
    And part of that, of course, is just that
    they wanted a negotiation
  • 22:42 - 22:45
    that fit with the way that they
    governed their own island.
  • 22:45 - 22:50
    But the other thing is,
    the Melians were aware of the fact
  • 22:50 - 22:54
    that the common person on the
    island of Melos
  • 22:54 - 23:00
    looking out over the sea, and seeing this
    superior military force,
  • 23:00 - 23:03
    they were aware of the influence
    that that was going to have on everyone.
  • 23:03 - 23:08
    And so, they wanted to really have a
    smaller number of people
  • 23:08 - 23:15
    involved in this negotiation who would
    be willing to create a force
  • 23:15 - 23:17
    that might stand up to the Athenians.
  • 23:18 - 23:22
    So, you know, if there's some
    possibility that you're going to
  • 23:22 - 23:26
    end up in a heated battle with
    a superior force,
  • 23:26 - 23:28
    it's going to be very hard to get
    people to want to do that
  • 23:28 - 23:33
    if everyone is involved
    in that decision,
  • 23:33 - 23:35
    because many of the people who
  • 23:35 - 23:37
    are going to make that decision
  • 23:37 - 23:39
    are not really going to be the ones
    who have to go to war.
  • 23:39 - 23:43
    And many of the ones who see themselves
    as having to go to war
  • 23:43 - 23:45
    against this superior force
  • 23:45 - 23:49
    are the ones who might actually
    not want to vote for that.
  • 23:49 - 23:53
    And so, you know, there's a reason why
    the Melians might actually want
  • 23:53 - 23:56
    to bring just their leadership
    to that situation.
  • 23:57 - 24:00
    So, ultimately the Melians get
    what they want on this.
  • 24:00 - 24:03
    They actually have the opportunity
    for a small number of Melians
  • 24:03 - 24:09
    to negotiate with the Athenian
    leadership.
  • 24:10 - 24:13
    Now, when they get into this
    negotiation,
  • 24:13 - 24:15
    and, if you've read this,
  • 24:15 - 24:19
    you're getting an overview of that way
    that this negotiation went,
  • 24:19 - 24:24
    what you mind is that Athens is
    primarily focused on their power.
  • 24:24 - 24:29
    After all, they've amassed three-thousand
    soldiers on boats
  • 24:29 - 24:32
    to come and sit off the coast
    of Melos.
  • 24:32 - 24:35
    And so they, on purpose, have brought
  • 24:35 - 24:39
    a display of force that should be
    overwhelming to the Melians,
  • 24:39 - 24:44
    and their view is that should open
    and close the negotiation.
  • 24:44 - 24:46
    And so, they come in
    and basically say:
  • 24:46 - 24:51
    "Look, we want to take you over.
    So come, let us take over
  • 24:51 - 24:55
    the island of Melos, install our own
    government here, and
  • 24:55 - 24:59
    you can be now part of the nation-state
    of Athens."
  • 24:59 - 25:02
    And they really aren't particularly
    interested in negotiating
  • 25:02 - 25:06
    in any other way, because they know
    that when push comes to shove,
  • 25:06 - 25:08
    they can come and take over the island,
  • 25:08 - 25:11
    if they want to, militarily,
    and impose their own government.
  • 25:11 - 25:17
    And so they'd rather just have the Melians
    willingly invite them onto the island.
Titel:
https:/.../2019-09-09_hdo301_pt1.mp4
Video Language:
English
Duration:
25:17

Untertitel in English

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