YouTube

Teniu un compte YouTube?

New: enable viewer-created translations and captions on your YouTube channel!

English subtítols

← Tolkien's Great War

Obtén el codi d'incrustació
31 llengües

Showing Revision 21 created 10/09/2016 by Jonathan Rebetz.

  1. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien,
    was born on the 3rd January, 1892.

  2. He and his brother Hilary,
    experienced a difficult childhood.
  3. When Tolkien was just four,
    they lost their father, Arthur,
  4. to rheumatic fever.
  5. As a widow with low income,
    his mother Mabel,
  6. home schooled the brothers and played
    a vital role in their early education
  7. and development.
  8. Tolkien was a smart young boy, with
    a fascination and thirst for languages.
  9. Tolkien sat the entrance exam for King
    Edward's School, Birmingham and passed.
  10. From the Autumn of 1900,
    for a fee of 12 pounds a year,
  11. Tolkien would be educated
    in an environment
  12. that would help fulfil
    his academic potential.
  13. John Garth: Going to King Edward's
    was vitally important to Tolkien;
  14. he was an exceptionally talented boy.
  15. King Edward's offered him
    a vast amount of scope
  16. and also the company of other boys
    who were similarly talented.
  17. Which was probably quite
    hard for Tolkien to find.
  18. Simon Stacey: Not only did he play rugby
    but he was a leading light
  19. in the debating society
    and the literary society.
  20. He was the life and soul really,
  21. and he missed the school a great deal,
    I think, when he finally had to leave.
  22. VO: At the age of just 11, Tolkien
    and his brother Hilary
  23. lose their mother Mabel to diabetes.
  24. Grief stricken, he plunges
    himself into school life
  25. more energetically than before.
    Academically he excels,
  26. but in 1905 meets his intellectual rival,
    Christopher Wiseman.
  27. John Garth: Tolkien met his greatest
    friend at King Edward's,
  28. No està sincronitzat
    Christopher Wiseman on the rugby pitch.
  29. No està sincronitzat
    A musician, a mathematician;
    quite different from Tolkien.
  30. No està sincronitzat
    They developed such a strong
    bond on the rugby field
  31. No està sincronitzat
    that they called themselves;
    "The Great Twin Brethren",
  32. No està sincronitzat
    which was a phrase from
    "Lays of Ancient Rome" by Lord Macauley.
  33. No està sincronitzat
    Simon Stacey: They also were
    friendly rivals in the school,
  34. No està sincronitzat
    both being very academic boys.
    Wiseman had a formidable intellect
  35. No està sincronitzat
    and he was interested
    in a lot of the things
  36. No està sincronitzat
    that Tolkien was getting interested in;
  37. No està sincronitzat
    languages, I think he was looking at
    Egyptian and was looking at hieroglyphics.
  38. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: Tolkien and Wiseman
    must have helped define each other
  39. No està sincronitzat
    through their teenage years
    because they would argue;
  40. No està sincronitzat
    they would argue strongly
    about all their beliefs in life.
  41. No està sincronitzat
    Simon Stacey: Wiseman was
    a very talented musician;
  42. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien was supposed to be tone deaf
    but that didn't stop them getting on!
  43. No està sincronitzat
    VO: Tolkien also befriends,
    son of the headmaster, Rob Gilson.
  44. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien, Wiseman and Gilson,
    form a strong bond
  45. No està sincronitzat
    which will last throughout
    their school years and beyond.
  46. No està sincronitzat
    Outside of King Edward's, Tolkien's life
    is about to change, yet again.
  47. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: Tolkien was living
    in lodgings with his brother, Hilary,
  48. No està sincronitzat
    and when he was 16 he met fellow lodger,
    Edith Bratt, who was 19 at the time.
  49. No està sincronitzat
    And she was a beautiful young girl;
    talented pianist and also an orphan.
  50. No està sincronitzat
    And the two of them bonded
    on their shared sadnesses
  51. No està sincronitzat
    but also on their hopes and dreams.
  52. No està sincronitzat
    The difficulty for Ronald,
    as she called him, and Edith,
  53. No està sincronitzat
    was that he was a Roman Catholic
    and she was an Anglican.
  54. No està sincronitzat
    VO: Tolkien's Guardian, Father Francis
    Morgan, a Catholic Priest,
  55. No està sincronitzat
    feels this is major divide; and also
    believes that Edith will distract Tolkien
  56. No està sincronitzat
    from his attempts to get
    into Oxford University.
  57. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: Father Francis Morgan,
    forbade them from seeing each other,
  58. No està sincronitzat
    or even from communicating.
  59. No està sincronitzat
    He was thrown back upon
    his friendships at King Edward's
  60. No està sincronitzat
    and it was this final phase of his time
    here, that he began to flourish
  61. No està sincronitzat
    and make the place his own;
    he and his friends ruled the roost.
  62. No està sincronitzat
    VO: Making the most of
    his final year at King Edward's
  63. No està sincronitzat
    and the friendships he has formed,
  64. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien and his peers create
    an informal society.
  65. No està sincronitzat
    These young intellectuals gather
    in the school library
  66. No està sincronitzat
    and do what they are
    forbidden to do: brew tea.
  67. No està sincronitzat
    Outside of school hours, they meet
    in a cafe at Barrow's Stores in Birmingham
  68. No està sincronitzat
    and so, self-mockingly, they call themselves
    the "Tea Club and Barrovean Society"
  69. No està sincronitzat
    or the TCBS for short.
  70. No està sincronitzat
    (nostalgic music)
  71. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: The core of the TCBS was probably
  72. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien and Wiseman and the others
  73. No està sincronitzat
    gravitated around them. There was Robert
  74. No està sincronitzat
    Quilter Gilson, the son of the headmaster
  75. No està sincronitzat
    here; Rob was a cultured and sociable chap,
  76. No està sincronitzat
    he was perhaps the social glue of the group;
  77. No està sincronitzat
    he would welcome anyone and find common
  78. No està sincronitzat
    cause with them. A gentle artistic fellow
  79. No està sincronitzat
    who loved to sketch.
  80. No està sincronitzat
    Simon Stacey: He was a gifted artist and
  81. No està sincronitzat
    had ambitions to be an architect.
  82. No està sincronitzat
    There was a late arrival, Geoffrey Bache Smith,
  83. No està sincronitzat
    who was fascinated by mythology, Celtic
  84. No està sincronitzat
    mythology; so this gave him common ground
  85. No està sincronitzat
    with Tolkien; it was another of Tolkien's
  86. No està sincronitzat
    passions.
  87. No està sincronitzat
    Simon Stacey: Smith was quite an accomplished
  88. No està sincronitzat
    and advanced poet who recommended contemporary
  89. No està sincronitzat
    poetry to Tolkien. When he started writing
  90. No està sincronitzat
    poetry, Tolkien was to a certain extent,
  91. No està sincronitzat
    inspired by Smith and the wider group.
  92. No està sincronitzat
    And that was really the beginnings of
  93. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien as a writer.
  94. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: From the beginnings which were
  95. No està sincronitzat
    mostly about fun, later on, during the war years,
  96. No està sincronitzat
    this developed into a fellowship from which
  97. No està sincronitzat
    each of them drew tremendous strength and
  98. No està sincronitzat
    comfort.
  99. No està sincronitzat
    VO: Later that year, Tolkien's time at
  100. No està sincronitzat
    King Edward's comes to an end and he begins
  101. No està sincronitzat
    his first term at Oxford, having successfully
  102. No està sincronitzat
    gained entrance.
  103. No està sincronitzat
    On the eve of his 21st birthday, and his
  104. No està sincronitzat
    independence from Father Francis Morgan,
  105. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien writes to Edith and less than a
  106. No està sincronitzat
    week later, they are re-united.
  107. No està sincronitzat
    Edith is engaged to marry another man,
  108. No està sincronitzat
    but despite almost certain ridicule,
  109. No està sincronitzat
    she agrees to break the engagement to be
  110. No està sincronitzat
    with her Ronald.
  111. No està sincronitzat
    Over the next few months, a growing sense of
  112. No està sincronitzat
    trouble brews across Europe and on the 28th
  113. No està sincronitzat
    of June, 1914, everything changes.
  114. No està sincronitzat
    (gun shot sound)
  115. No està sincronitzat
    (solemn music)
  116. No està sincronitzat
    Gavrillo Princip is arrested for the
  117. No està sincronitzat
    assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
  118. No està sincronitzat
    A diplomatic crisis ensues and within weeks,
  119. No està sincronitzat
    Europe's major powers are at war.
  120. No està sincronitzat
    Germany invades Belgium and Britain declares
  121. No està sincronitzat
    war on Germany. Parliament issues a call
  122. No està sincronitzat
    to arms from the British public.
  123. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: There isn't a rush to the
  124. No està sincronitzat
    colours straight away. It becomes much more
  125. No està sincronitzat
    obvious that people are willing to join
  126. No està sincronitzat
    up when atrocity stories start to emerge,
  127. No està sincronitzat
    then you get a much more concerted rush
  128. No està sincronitzat
    to join.
  129. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: There was an air of excitement
  130. No està sincronitzat
    about the war, there was a naive sense that
  131. No està sincronitzat
    this would allow young men to fulfil their
  132. No està sincronitzat
    potential in a way that wasn't possible in
  133. No està sincronitzat
    peace time. There was a tremendous sense
  134. No està sincronitzat
    of patriotism and a sense of duty towards
  135. No està sincronitzat
    whatever England, or Britain, stood for.
  136. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: They are attracted to the
  137. No està sincronitzat
    idea of a settling of accounts with the Germans,
  138. No està sincronitzat
    or at least some of them will be. On the
  139. No està sincronitzat
    whole, they thought they were going to give
  140. No està sincronitzat
    the Germans a bloody nose.
  141. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: "The Germans has been dastardly"
  142. No està sincronitzat
    and needed to dealt with and shown their place.
  143. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: Men join up out of economic
  144. No està sincronitzat
    necessity and you'll find that in any war.
  145. No està sincronitzat
    Life is not very exciting and the romance
  146. No està sincronitzat
    and colour of joining the army and being
  147. No està sincronitzat
    part of something very big indeed, I'm sure
  148. No està sincronitzat
    has some allure.
  149. No està sincronitzat
    (solemn music) And they see things
  150. No està sincronitzat
    in rather romantic ways, which of course is
  151. No està sincronitzat
    doomed to fail; we all know what the First
  152. No està sincronitzat
    World War turns into. It's not a war of
  153. No està sincronitzat
    movement, of dash and élan; it's not cavalry
  154. No està sincronitzat
    charges and distant trumpets; I'm afraid
  155. No està sincronitzat
    it's the pitter-patter of machine gun fire
  156. No està sincronitzat
    and the crump of artillery that's going to
  157. No està sincronitzat
    dominate.
  158. No està sincronitzat
    So they, I think, have expectations about what
  159. No està sincronitzat
    the war will be like, and I think their main
  160. No està sincronitzat
    emotion was, will it be over before I can
  161. No està sincronitzat
    get to France.
  162. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: Tolkien, who's reading covered
  163. No està sincronitzat
    ancient heroic literature, that is surprisingly
  164. No està sincronitzat
    frank about what happens in war, went into
  165. No està sincronitzat
    the war much more open-eyed. He described
  166. No està sincronitzat
    himself as a "young man with too much
  167. No està sincronitzat
    imagination" and so he did not relish battle
  168. No està sincronitzat
    in any sense.
  169. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: And I think that applies
  170. No està sincronitzat
    to, not just men like Tolkien who fought in it,
  171. No està sincronitzat
    but also the politicians and generals who
  172. No està sincronitzat
    directed it; I think a lot of people
  173. No està sincronitzat
    understood that this war could be terrible.
  174. No està sincronitzat
    Simon Stacey: What you get in the letters
  175. No està sincronitzat
    between Gilson, Tolkien and Wiseman and
  176. No està sincronitzat
    then in Smith's poetry, is a serious
  177. No està sincronitzat
    determination to do their duty and that they
  178. No està sincronitzat
    should be prepared to give their lives.
  179. No està sincronitzat
    A realistic appreciation that this is a dark time
  180. No està sincronitzat
    and that they've got to come through it.
  181. No està sincronitzat
    VO: G.B. Smith and Rob Gilson both join
  182. No està sincronitzat
    the army in 1914, Tolkien's brother, Hilary,
  183. No està sincronitzat
    signs up as a bugler and Christopher Wiseman
  184. No està sincronitzat
    joins the navy. Tolkien however, faces a
  185. No està sincronitzat
    dilemma.
  186. No està sincronitzat
    Simon Stacey: Tolkien was in a difficult
  187. No està sincronitzat
    position when war broke out; he had a year
  188. No està sincronitzat
    of his degree at Oxford to run and Tolkien
  189. No està sincronitzat
    needed a degree badly because he wanted to
  190. No està sincronitzat
    pursue an academic career; he didn't have
  191. No està sincronitzat
    any money in his family unlike Gilson and
  192. No està sincronitzat
    therefore, having committed three years to
  193. No està sincronitzat
    the degree it was very important that he
  194. No està sincronitzat
    completed it. So he discovered a scheme
  195. No està sincronitzat
    whereby he could undergo some training
  196. No està sincronitzat
    in the Officer Training Core whilst
  197. No està sincronitzat
    completing his degree, which he did triumphantly
  198. No està sincronitzat
    with a first at Oxford.
  199. No està sincronitzat
    VO: He follows good friend, G.B.Smith, into
  200. No està sincronitzat
    the Lancashire Fusiliers in the hope of being
  201. No està sincronitzat
    posted to the same battalion.
  202. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: Tolkien was looking for something
  203. No està sincronitzat
    in the army through which he could use his
  204. No està sincronitzat
    particular talents, and his particular talents
  205. No està sincronitzat
    were languages and writing systems; he was
  206. No està sincronitzat
    fascinated by codes and so forth. So it was
  207. No està sincronitzat
    only natural that he would train up as a
  208. No està sincronitzat
    signaller.
  209. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: It would have meant that
  210. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien was exposed to the technology
  211. No està sincronitzat
    available at the time and it must have
  212. No està sincronitzat
    interested him; so the use of the radio, the
  213. No està sincronitzat
    use of signals, of semaphore.
  214. No està sincronitzat
    Simon Stacey: He learnt morse code,
  215. No està sincronitzat
    he learnt how to use signalling lamps, field
  216. No està sincronitzat
    telephones; which of course went on largely
  217. No està sincronitzat
    to be ineffective or not to work.
  218. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: He became Battalion Signalling
  219. No està sincronitzat
    Officer for his Battalion. Tolkien had to
  220. No està sincronitzat
    oversee the communications of a Battalion
  221. No està sincronitzat
    of between 600 and 1,000 men depending on
  222. No està sincronitzat
    manpower at the time.
  223. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: His basic job of course
  224. No està sincronitzat
    was to act as a link between the various
  225. No està sincronitzat
    layers of command, and that he would be
  226. No està sincronitzat
    responsible for incoming orders and making sure
  227. No està sincronitzat
    that the right people got those and of course
  228. No està sincronitzat
    he'd be responsible for telling command further
  229. No està sincronitzat
    up the line about the situation on his sector.
  230. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: So he was an absolute lynch pin
  231. No està sincronitzat
    in a war which depended absolutely on how
  232. No està sincronitzat
    much information you had about your enemies
  233. No està sincronitzat
    position.
  234. No està sincronitzat
    VO: In March of 1916 as his training nears
  235. No està sincronitzat
    its completion, both Tolkien and Edith
  236. No està sincronitzat
    become aware that he will soon be sent to
  237. No està sincronitzat
    the Front. They marry and just over two
  238. No està sincronitzat
    months later, Tolkien is shipped off to France.
  239. No està sincronitzat
    The two of them part, not knowing if they
  240. No està sincronitzat
    will ever see each other again.
  241. No està sincronitzat
    (Loud battle sounds, Guns Firing, Shouting)
  242. No està sincronitzat
    (ominous music)
  243. No està sincronitzat
    VO: When Tolkien arrives at the Front, the
  244. No està sincronitzat
    War has been raging for almost two years.
  245. No està sincronitzat
    The cost of the War is clear;
  246. No està sincronitzat
    the countryside is scarred and the casualties
  247. No està sincronitzat
    high.
  248. No està sincronitzat
    After a virtual stalemate of trench warfare
  249. No està sincronitzat
    throughout 1915, and with a new wave of
  250. No està sincronitzat
    thousands of freshly trained recruits, it is
  251. No està sincronitzat
    clear the Big Push is imminent.
  252. No està sincronitzat
    (marching feet)
  253. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien's Battalion remains in reserve, but
  254. No està sincronitzat
    he fears for the lives of his old school
  255. No està sincronitzat
    friends who are at the Front.
  256. No està sincronitzat
    Within a month of his arrival in France
  257. No està sincronitzat
    the Allies launch the Somme Offensive.
  258. No està sincronitzat
    At 7.30am, on Saturday 1st of July,
  259. No està sincronitzat
    the troops in the British Frontline,
  260. No està sincronitzat
    go over the top.
  261. No està sincronitzat
    (whistle sound echoes)
  262. No està sincronitzat
    On the first day of the Offensive alone,
  263. No està sincronitzat
    20,000 men are killed, 35,000 are wounded
  264. No està sincronitzat
    and over 2,000 are reported missing.
  265. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: The first casualty was
  266. No està sincronitzat
    the plan. It started to fall apart very
  267. No està sincronitzat
    rapidly. Tragically for the men caught out
  268. No està sincronitzat
    in the open, it was a death sentence. 1 in 5
  269. No està sincronitzat
    men who went into combat on the 1st of July
  270. No està sincronitzat
    was killed.
  271. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: It was the most disastrous day
  272. No està sincronitzat
    in the history of the British Army, and
  273. No està sincronitzat
    a tragedy for the entire country. There were
  274. No està sincronitzat
    villages that had lost all their young men.
  275. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: It's marked as a loss of
  276. No està sincronitzat
    innocence, that the 20,000 that were killed
  277. No està sincronitzat
    represent a turning point in British
  278. No està sincronitzat
    consciousness and the relationship perhaps
  279. No està sincronitzat
    between those who make decisions and those
  280. No està sincronitzat
    who are forced to carry them out.
  281. No està sincronitzat
    (soft piano music)
  282. No està sincronitzat
    VO: Among the many men that are lost on that
  283. No està sincronitzat
    day, is dear friend and TCBS member,
  284. No està sincronitzat
    Robert Gilson.
  285. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: He led his Platoon over the top
  286. No està sincronitzat
    took charge of his Company, but was shot
  287. No està sincronitzat
    in the middle of No Man's Land.
  288. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: He was in the fourth wave.
  289. No està sincronitzat
    He saw the first wave go in and fail,
  290. No està sincronitzat
    the second wave go in and fail,
  291. No està sincronitzat
    the third wave go in and fail.
  292. No està sincronitzat
    And he, as a part of the fourth wave, had
  293. No està sincronitzat
    to go in; and they still went. And that
  294. No està sincronitzat
    I think is the most poignant and probably
  295. No està sincronitzat
    the most tragic thing about the 1st of July
  296. No està sincronitzat
    1916. That this generation, had so much faith
  297. No està sincronitzat
    in their superiors, probably had so much
  298. No està sincronitzat
    commitment to their fellows that they were
  299. No està sincronitzat
    prepared to go, even though it meant certain
  300. No està sincronitzat
    death.
  301. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: Tolkien heard about this
  302. No està sincronitzat
    after his first action on the Somme a couple
  303. No està sincronitzat
    of weeks later; and he was devastated.
  304. No està sincronitzat
    It shook him to the foundations of his
  305. No està sincronitzat
    beliefs. He had, as all of the members of
  306. No està sincronitzat
    the TCBS had, built up their group as a
  307. No està sincronitzat
    fellowship, with ideas and a spirit that had
  308. No està sincronitzat
    something to give to the World. In which
  309. No està sincronitzat
    all four of them were vital parts, and now
  310. No està sincronitzat
    one of them was dead. So what did that mean
  311. No està sincronitzat
    about their overall purpose? And also his
  312. No està sincronitzat
    purpose.
  313. No està sincronitzat
    Simon Stacey: Geoffrey Smith wrote him a
  314. No està sincronitzat
    letter in which, clearly Smith experiences
  315. No està sincronitzat
    feelings of devastation and a sense that the
  316. No està sincronitzat
    fellowship had been broken. Rob would never
  317. No està sincronitzat
    become an architect, he would never fulfil
  318. No està sincronitzat
    his part in whatever they dreamed of.
  319. No està sincronitzat
    John Garthm: And I think it took him quite
  320. No està sincronitzat
    some time to recover from that. The other
  321. No està sincronitzat
    two members, Wiseman and Smith, were
  322. No està sincronitzat
    determined to persuade him that, no, the TCBS
  323. No està sincronitzat
    purpose continued and I think eventually
  324. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien took heart from that.
  325. No està sincronitzat
    VO: Tolkien writes to Rob's father, Headmaster
  326. No està sincronitzat
    at King Edward's school to offer his
  327. No està sincronitzat
    condolences. The TCBS lost a bright young
  328. No està sincronitzat
    man, a talented artist and most painfully
  329. No està sincronitzat
    of all; a dear friend.
  330. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien's war has well and truly started and
  331. No està sincronitzat
    over the coming months he is subject to the
  332. No està sincronitzat
    many hardships of trench warfare.
  333. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: He spent his time in and out
  334. No està sincronitzat
    of the trenches. Battalions would be rotated
  335. No està sincronitzat
    from the Frontline to the reserve trenches
  336. No està sincronitzat
    to rest, as they laughably called it, but
  337. No està sincronitzat
    it wasn't really rest, it was training.
  338. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien talked about the universal weariness
  339. No està sincronitzat
    of all this war. But during this period he
  340. No està sincronitzat
    was involved in three attacks, he was
  341. No està sincronitzat
    very fortunate not to have to go through the
  342. No està sincronitzat
    first day of the Somme; he was a few miles
  343. No està sincronitzat
    back from the Frontline at that time.
  344. No està sincronitzat
    His Battalion moved forward for a second
  345. No està sincronitzat
    wave of attacks, they were launched against a
  346. No està sincronitzat
    village called Ovillers; which had been the
  347. No està sincronitzat
    German Frontline. One of the first things that
  348. No està sincronitzat
    he encountered was, complete chaos in the
  349. No està sincronitzat
    battlefield communications system. It was very
  350. No està sincronitzat
    primitive. It was only partly built; damaged
  351. No està sincronitzat
    by the fortunes of battle. He had signallers
  352. No està sincronitzat
    going across No Man's Land carrying flares
  353. No està sincronitzat
    to say, we have arrived. Further flares -
  354. No està sincronitzat
    "we have taken prisoners", they carried
  355. No està sincronitzat
    pigeons; pigeons were about the most reliable
  356. No està sincronitzat
    method of communication. One of Tolkien's
  357. No està sincronitzat
    signallers won a military medal for managing
  358. No està sincronitzat
    to get his pigeons across No Man's Land and
  359. No està sincronitzat
    do the job correctly.
  360. No està sincronitzat
    VO: The attack is a success and many
  361. No està sincronitzat
    prisoners are captured. Of all the combat
  362. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien encounters, one of the most significant
  363. No està sincronitzat
    battles is also one of his last; an attack
  364. No està sincronitzat
    on Regina Trench.
  365. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: This was in October, by which
  366. No està sincronitzat
    time the battlefield had been reduced to mud.
  367. No està sincronitzat
    The attack had been delayed by heavy rain
  368. No està sincronitzat
    but on October 21st there was a cold snap
  369. No està sincronitzat
    so the ground was frozen hard and the
  370. No està sincronitzat
    attack was able to go ahead.
  371. No està sincronitzat
    (Deep boom. Loud Artillery Fire)
  372. No està sincronitzat
    (Gunfire, bullets zipping by)
  373. No està sincronitzat
    (solemn music)
  374. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: He saw violent death, he also
  375. No està sincronitzat
    saw and felt extreme terror.
  376. No està sincronitzat
    He never, as far as we know, described at
  377. No està sincronitzat
    length what trench warfare was like but he
  378. No està sincronitzat
    summed it up in two words, in one of his
  379. No està sincronitzat
    letters, and this was; "animal horror".
  380. No està sincronitzat
    It would reduce you from humanity and
  381. No està sincronitzat
    turn you into a retched beast desperate only
  382. No està sincronitzat
    to cower and survive. And it's very
  383. No està sincronitzat
    interesting if you look in The Lord of The Rings
  384. No està sincronitzat
    whenever the characters are in situations of
  385. No està sincronitzat
    extreme fear, they're always described as
  386. No està sincronitzat
    stooping and stupefied, un-manned by terror.
  387. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: A lot of British trenches
  388. No està sincronitzat
    were deliberately uncomfortable because
  389. No està sincronitzat
    the Generals wanted the men to believe
  390. No està sincronitzat
    that they were only temporary, that they
  391. No està sincronitzat
    would be advancing beyond this, that this
  392. No està sincronitzat
    wasn't their home.
  393. No està sincronitzat
    VO: Out on the Western Front, Tolkien feels
  394. No està sincronitzat
    isolated from home and letters to, and from,
  395. No està sincronitzat
    Edith are a lifeline. For reasons of
  396. No està sincronitzat
    strategic importance Tolkien is forbidden
  397. No està sincronitzat
    from sharing his location in his letters, so
  398. No està sincronitzat
    he devises a code of dots to keep Edith
  399. No està sincronitzat
    informed of where he is.
  400. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: He simply found the letters
  401. No està sincronitzat
    of the alphabet within what he wrote to her
  402. No està sincronitzat
    and put a dot above the relevant ones to
  403. No està sincronitzat
    spell out the name of the place where he was
  404. No està sincronitzat
    currently located. And Edith kept a map
  405. No està sincronitzat
    on her wall and pins to show where he was
  406. No està sincronitzat
    at that time.
  407. No està sincronitzat
    VO: After the successful attack on Regina
  408. No està sincronitzat
    Trench, the Battalion is withdrawn from the
  409. No està sincronitzat
    front and paraded in front of the top brass.
  410. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien however, falls ill.
  411. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: It was trench fever. And this
  412. No està sincronitzat
    was a louse born disease due to the unhygienic
  413. No està sincronitzat
    conditions in the trenches.
  414. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: It spread through contact
  415. No està sincronitzat
    with lice and it symptoms aren't very pleasant
  416. No està sincronitzat
    It gives you a headache, you can have stomach
  417. No està sincronitzat
    cramps, you can have pain in you joints
  418. No està sincronitzat
    and in your bones, you can get lesions on
  419. No està sincronitzat
    your skin; it's not fatal but it can become
  420. No està sincronitzat
    very debilitating. So debilitating you can't
  421. No està sincronitzat
    be an effective soldier. Tolkien got a very
  422. No està sincronitzat
    bad case, so bad that he had to be invalided
  423. No està sincronitzat
    "back to Blighty" as they put it.
  424. No està sincronitzat
    And in fact it was the end of his war.
  425. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: It saved Tolkien's life, it took
  426. No està sincronitzat
    him out of the battlefield and back to Britain.
  427. No està sincronitzat
    He was shipped home to Birmingham, to
  428. No està sincronitzat
    The First Southern General Hospital as it
  429. No està sincronitzat
    was called at the time, which was actually set
  430. No està sincronitzat
    up in the grounds of Birmingham University.
  431. No està sincronitzat
    And it was there that Tolkien was re-united
  432. No està sincronitzat
    with his wife, Edith and where he began
  433. No està sincronitzat
    writing the first stories of Middle-Earth.
  434. No està sincronitzat
    His re-union with Edith was deeply emotional
  435. No està sincronitzat
    and was an inspiration for various pieces of
  436. No està sincronitzat
    writing in his mythology, notably the
  437. No està sincronitzat
    story of Luthien and Beren; which features
  438. No està sincronitzat
    in the Silmarillion and is mentioned in
  439. No està sincronitzat
    The Lord of The Rings. A love story between
  440. No està sincronitzat
    a mortal man and an immortal elf.
  441. No està sincronitzat
    (Gentle Piano Music)
  442. No està sincronitzat
    VO: However, Tolkien's respite is short lived.
  443. No està sincronitzat
    Shortly after returning to Birmingham, Tolkien
  444. No està sincronitzat
    learns from Christopher Wiseman, that
  445. No està sincronitzat
    good friend G.B.Smith has been killed.
  446. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: The Battle of the Somme was
  447. No està sincronitzat
    over, and Smith had been organising a
  448. No està sincronitzat
    football match for his men about four miles
  449. No està sincronitzat
    behind the Frontline, when a stray shell
  450. No està sincronitzat
    exploded near him.
  451. No està sincronitzat
    He was hit by shrapnel and developed what
  452. No està sincronitzat
    they called Gas Gangrene, which killed
  453. No està sincronitzat
    him within a few days. Early in 1916, while
  454. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien was still in training, he had a letter
  455. No està sincronitzat
    G.B.Smith, who by that time was in the trenches
  456. No està sincronitzat
    in France.
  457. No està sincronitzat
    VO: Smith was about to go out on Night Patrol.
  458. No està sincronitzat
    The officer who had led the patrol the night before
  459. No està sincronitzat
    had been captured and most likely killed.
  460. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: It was about the most dangerous
  461. No està sincronitzat
    activity that you could do on the Western Front
  462. No està sincronitzat
    and Smith was about to go into it and he took
  463. No està sincronitzat
    the opportunity to write to Tolkien, and
  464. No està sincronitzat
    tell him; "I'm about to go out on Night Patrol,
  465. No està sincronitzat
    I am a wild and wholehearted admirer of
  466. No està sincronitzat
    what you've written and what you will write"
  467. No està sincronitzat
    He told Tolkien, "you I'm sure are chosen,
  468. No està sincronitzat
    and you must publish."
  469. No està sincronitzat
    Smith was essentially the first Middle-Earth
  470. No està sincronitzat
    fan.
  471. No està sincronitzat
    Simon Stacey: Smith says in the letter that
  472. No està sincronitzat
    death couldn't put an end to the TCBS, to
  473. No està sincronitzat
    the "immortal four" as he put it, that Tolkien
  474. No està sincronitzat
    may say the things that he had wanted to
  475. No està sincronitzat
    say, long after he is there to say them.
  476. No està sincronitzat
    That's very moving because Tolkien, although
  477. No està sincronitzat
    very much his own individual artistic self,
  478. No està sincronitzat
    I think did see his later career as an
  479. No està sincronitzat
    attempt to fulfil the artistic dreams that
  480. No està sincronitzat
    they'd shared.
  481. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: He was able to gather his strength
  482. No està sincronitzat
    and perhaps see Smith as an ideal to be lived up to.
  483. No està sincronitzat
    VO: In the summer of 1918, Tolkien and
  484. No està sincronitzat
    Wiseman gather some of Smith's poems and
  485. No està sincronitzat
    have them published in a small volume,
  486. No està sincronitzat
    entitled; "A Spring Harvest".
  487. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien's war is over, but the impact of his
  488. No està sincronitzat
    experiences will stay with him forever, and
  489. No està sincronitzat
    will even feature in his future writings.
  490. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: The whole experience of the War
  491. No està sincronitzat
    had an ongoing affect on much of Tolkien's
  492. No està sincronitzat
    mythology. As soon as Tolkien returned from
  493. No està sincronitzat
    the Somme he started writing a story called,
  494. No està sincronitzat
    "The Fall of Gondolin" which was the first
  495. No està sincronitzat
    element of his mythology that dealt with battle.
  496. No està sincronitzat
    And the fascinating thing about it is that the
  497. No està sincronitzat
    attacking forces use things that are termed
  498. No està sincronitzat
    by Tolkien, "dragons" or "beasts" or "monsters"
  499. No està sincronitzat
    but they're described as metallic and rolling
  500. No està sincronitzat
    and they spout fire and some of them have
  501. No està sincronitzat
    troops inside them, and it's pretty clear that
  502. No està sincronitzat
    this is a kind of mythologising of the Tank.
  503. No està sincronitzat
    Which was Britains secret weapon, which
  504. No està sincronitzat
    had just been launched on the Somme while
  505. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien was there.
  506. No està sincronitzat
    The Lord of The Rings focusses on a fellowship,
  507. No està sincronitzat
    they're separated on different battlefronts,
  508. No està sincronitzat
    much like the TCBS were.
  509. No està sincronitzat
    Simon Stacey: It's almost unimaginable that,
  510. No està sincronitzat
    in writing of the breaking of the fellowship,
  511. No està sincronitzat
    in The Lord of The Rings, that Tolkien wouldn't
  512. No està sincronitzat
    have been influenced by his own loss during
  513. No està sincronitzat
    the First World War and the breaking of the
  514. No està sincronitzat
    TCBS fellowship.
  515. No està sincronitzat
    There is a late letter in which he mentions
  516. No està sincronitzat
    that the dead marshes, through which Frodo,
  517. No està sincronitzat
    Sam and Gollum travel, owe something to
  518. No està sincronitzat
    northern France, in the area of the Somme
  519. No està sincronitzat
    where he fought.
  520. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: Frodo and Sam are very much
  521. No està sincronitzat
    the equivalent of an officer and his batman; his
  522. No està sincronitzat
    servant. And Tolkien actually said that, "my
  523. No està sincronitzat
    Sam Gamgee is inspired by the Privates and
  524. No està sincronitzat
    Batmen I knew in the First World War".
  525. No està sincronitzat
    Frodo represents really, the feelings of a young
  526. No està sincronitzat
    man like Tolkien himself, thrown into a war
  527. No està sincronitzat
    unwillingly and having to shoulder a terrible
  528. No està sincronitzat
    burden; a burden of duty. You can see that
  529. No està sincronitzat
    Frodo develops symptoms of what we would now
  530. No està sincronitzat
    call Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or
  531. No està sincronitzat
    War Trauma, or what they called then,
  532. No està sincronitzat
    Shell Shock. He becomes withdrawn from
  533. No està sincronitzat
    the World, increasingly enclosed within himself
  534. No està sincronitzat
    he says he can't remember what grass was like,
  535. No està sincronitzat
    what sunlight was like.
  536. No està sincronitzat
    When the war is over in The Lord of The Rings,
  537. No està sincronitzat
    Frodo does not strut his stuff as a hero,
  538. No està sincronitzat
    he is visibly traumatised by the whole
  539. No està sincronitzat
    experience. This was very true of many of the
  540. No està sincronitzat
    soldiers who returned from the Western
  541. No està sincronitzat
    Front, unable to talk about the experiences
  542. No està sincronitzat
    that had affected them so deeply.
  543. No està sincronitzat
    (retrospective piano music)
  544. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: The generation that fights
  545. No està sincronitzat
    the First World War, should be called courageous.
  546. No està sincronitzat
    Simon Stacey: The sacrifice of that generation
  547. No està sincronitzat
    was extraordinary.
  548. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: It was a tragic loss not only for
  549. No està sincronitzat
    families, for friends, but for civilisation as
  550. No està sincronitzat
    a whole. It shook long-held beliefs and
  551. No està sincronitzat
    assumptions in honour and glory.
  552. No està sincronitzat
    Simon Stacey: It is the first thorough
  553. No està sincronitzat
    going war of the machines. So many
  554. No està sincronitzat
    thousands and ultimately millions of men
  555. No està sincronitzat
    could be wiped out, could be destroyed without
  556. No està sincronitzat
    necessarily facing their individual enemy.
  557. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: These men don't have
  558. No està sincronitzat
    the privilege of dying one at a time, they die
  559. No està sincronitzat
    on mass; and it's those numbers that I think
  560. No està sincronitzat
    traumatise us so much. That's why we have
  561. No està sincronitzat
    the memorials at Thiepval and Menin Gate;
  562. No està sincronitzat
    where it's just one long list of names.
  563. No està sincronitzat
    These bodies have simply disappeared, and
  564. No està sincronitzat
    they're all separate lives but they've all
  565. No està sincronitzat
    vanished at once.
  566. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: When you read the King Edward's
  567. No està sincronitzat
    School Chronicle, as I have to research
  568. No està sincronitzat
    Tolkien's life here, you get to know the boys
  569. No està sincronitzat
    with whom he grew up and you see their
  570. No està sincronitzat
    achievements, you see what they were learning,
  571. No està sincronitzat
    you see how wonderfully intelligent, potentially
  572. No està sincronitzat
    creative and brilliant they were. And then
  573. No està sincronitzat
    the First World War; and you see that they're
  574. No està sincronitzat
    heading for this.
  575. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: These young men, with their
  576. No està sincronitzat
    whole lives in front of them, have, yes it's
  577. No està sincronitzat
    a phrase that we all know, have been cut off
  578. No està sincronitzat
    in their prime. They were full of potential,
  579. No està sincronitzat
    full of life, full of vigour, full of plans,
  580. No està sincronitzat
    full of ambition; wanting to do all kinds of
  581. No està sincronitzat
    things with their professional lives and
  582. No està sincronitzat
    their personal lives, and denied that opportunity.
  583. No està sincronitzat
    John Garth: When you look at the fortunes
  584. No està sincronitzat
    of war, it's quite astonishing that Tolkien
  585. No està sincronitzat
    survived and went on to produce the great
  586. No està sincronitzat
    works of literature that he did; works that
  587. No està sincronitzat
    have shaped our culture. And one does
  588. No està sincronitzat
    wonder how many others didn't survive,
  589. No està sincronitzat
    what potential was locked inside them that
  590. No està sincronitzat
    they never had time to bring out of themselves.
  591. No està sincronitzat
    So there is an uncountable loss there.
  592. No està sincronitzat
    Simon Stacey: G.B.Smith gives a brief glimpse
  593. No està sincronitzat
    of a young life snuffed out and only very
  594. No està sincronitzat
    incompletely communicating its dreams.
  595. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: This is a generation that did
  596. No està sincronitzat
    not talk about the way it felt. So in that
  597. No està sincronitzat
    sense I think the psychological affect was
  598. No està sincronitzat
    long lasting. A number of veterans surived
  599. No està sincronitzat
    the war only to find that they couldn't survive
  600. No està sincronitzat
    the peace.
  601. No està sincronitzat
    VO: In the chapel at King Edward's School,
  602. No està sincronitzat
    eight brass plaques hold the names of
  603. No està sincronitzat
    245 Old Edwardians who lost their lives during
  604. No està sincronitzat
    the First World War. Tolkien and his TCBS
  605. No està sincronitzat
    friends, are just four of almost
  606. No està sincronitzat
    fifteen hundred Old Edwardians who answered
  607. No està sincronitzat
    their country's call and fought in The Great War,
  608. No està sincronitzat
    and each of their stories is worth telling.
  609. No està sincronitzat
    Paul Golightly: The graveyards that you can
  610. No està sincronitzat
    walk around in northern France now have become
  611. No està sincronitzat
    almost 21st century cathedrals; where some
  612. No està sincronitzat
    really important questions need to be ask about
  613. No està sincronitzat
    the nature of war and the nature of
  614. No està sincronitzat
    sacrifice, and in the First World War's case,
  615. No està sincronitzat
    the scale of that sacrifice. Whether any war
  616. No està sincronitzat
    could be worth that.