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What is an archibiotic? | Vincent Callebaut | TEDxNantes

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    Hello everyone.
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    I am here today to introduce you
    to our architectural concept
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    called Archibiotic.
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    Indeed, biotic art is a new kind
    of transdiciplinary Eco-concept
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    aiming to create new cities
    and intelligent buildings,
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    that is, zero carbon emission buildings.
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    They are self-sufficient in energy
    or even energy-positive
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    that is, they produce
    more energy than they consume.
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    These buildings also recycle
    all their waste
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    following nature's cycles.
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    Archibiotic wants to reinvent tomorrow's
    lifestyle in a transdisciplinary way
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    by partly rejecting the anxiety-inducing
    situation in which we live today
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    at the crossroads of major
    ecological and economic crises.
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    Indeed, since childhood, I have always
    been inspired by the forms of nature,
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    by ecosystems, when I walked
    through my grandparents' gardens,
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    in agricultural fields or in forests,
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    analyzing the different life forms.
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    I incorporated this passion into my job,
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    developing new organic architectures
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    inspired particularly by biomorphism,
    bionics, and biomimicry.
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    Indeed, thanks to biomorphism,
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    today we are able to analyze
    life forms very accurately
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    and incorporate them
    into our architecture.
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    For example, analyzing
    the spiral shape of the nautilus,
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    in a project in Morocco, allows us
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    to build an aerodynamic architecture
    that has natural ventilation.
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    In bionics, we no longer study the form,
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    but we study the structures
    and materials of living things
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    to incorporate them into our architecture.
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    For example, we are inspired
    by dragonfly wings or water lily leaves
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    that have significant
    structural capacities
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    which can be transferred,
    thanks to our engineers,
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    to some of our projects.
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    Then we study biomimicry,
    which goes even further,
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    studying large scale ecosystems,
    mature ecosystems,
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    that is, those organisms in our biosphere
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    that have learned to create
    interactions between themselves
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    to transform waste and constraints
    into natural resources and opportunities.
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    The city of tomorrow will be dense,
    green, and connected.
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    Indeed, for a decade, I have been
    in favour of building green cities,
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    fertile, sustaining cities,
    which can bring back to the city
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    not only ecosystems and biodiversity
    following nature's cycles
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    but also agriculture to reintegrate
    modes of food production
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    in places of consumption.
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    I am also in favour of a dense city
    because, as you know,
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    the denser a city is,
    the less energy-intensive it is.
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    We are therefore campaigning to limit
    horizontal sprawl as much as possible,
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    which can currently be seen
    in most of our European cities.
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    I am also in favour
    of ultra-connected cities,
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    using the efficiency of information
    and communication technologies
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    to completely streamline
    our modes of consumption,
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    by dematerialization,
    and also by reducing land use,
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    reducing systematic recourse
    to our means of transport,
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    public or private.
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    The first archibiotic I will present
    to you is our Lilypad project,
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    which was initiated in 2008
    due to the climate crisis,
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    which has been highlighted
    by many international observers.
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    We wanted to create
    a floating, mobile platform,
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    an amphibious city, in total harmony
    with the marine environment.
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    The city moves on the oceans,
    from the equator to the poles,
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    and offers a new way of housing
    future climate refugees
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    who will appear during the 21st century.
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    Indeed, according to the scientific scene,
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    we now know that an increase
    in global temperatures of one degree
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    will increase the level
    of the oceans by one meter.
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    This increase in the level of the oceans
    will make some areas disappear,
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    such as 1% of Egypt,
    7% of the Netherlands, 17% of Bangladesh,
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    and up to 80% of the Maldives archipelago.
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    So we wanted to create
    a possible alternative in advance
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    for the 50 million climate refugees
    predicted for 2030.
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    This figure will increase
    to 250 million by 2100.
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    We therefore wanted to suggest
    to the municipality of Kiribati
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    the creation of a city
    that is self-sufficient in energy,
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    which is submerged
    as much above the water level
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    as below the water level.
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    We therefore suggested
    an amphibious model,
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    integrating all renewable energies.
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    This city is inspired
    by biomimicry of the structure
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    of the Amazon waterlily's
    giant leaves Victoria regia,
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    which has exceptional plasticity with
    its radial and concentric pattern of veins
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    and makes for the most stable platform
    possible floating on the oceans.
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    Our engineers transcribed this structure
    on to architectural and engineering plans
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    to explore how a structure can
    withstand being driven by marine currents
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    stabilized by a central
    ballast of fresh water,
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    which is actually the rainwater recovered
    and phyto-purified by hanging gardens.
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    The town is organized around
    three multi-functional mountains
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    given over to trade, leisure and work,
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    covered with hanging gardens
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    and a network of streets,
    lanes, and passageways
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    leading to housing that is
    completely covered with plants.
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    Each apartment's balcony
    is a hanging orchard or kitchen garden
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    which makes each inhabitant
    into an organic food farmer.
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    This city is completely amphibious.
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    We presented it especially
    in many nursery and primary schools,
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    to educate the younger generation
    and our children,
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    to increase awareness of urban ecology
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    and thus we present positive answers
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    saying that today it is possible
    to build sustainable cities.
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    This project has also been suggested
    to the European Community
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    to raise geopolitical and social awareness
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    about how future environmental
    migrants can be housed
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    whilst also granting them
    rights and obligations.
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    This project has also been
    suggested to certain cities,
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    such as Monaco or Hong Kong
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    so they can extend
    their limited territory offshore.
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    The second project
    is the Dragonfly project,
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    a pioneering project focusing
    on the agriculture of the future.
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    Indeed, in the near future,
    there will be 9 billion of us on Earth,
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    and of these 9 billion human beings
    more than two thirds will live in cities.
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    So today, it is essential to invent
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    a new way of thinking about
    our modes of food production.
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    While the intention is for rural
    agriculture to produce grain for food
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    in developing
    and under-developed countries,
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    it will also aim to create
    second generation bio-fuels,
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    that is bio-fuels that are not made
    from the edible part of the plant,
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    but from the waste.
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    So local agriculture can be reinstated
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    directly in the heart of cities
    in places of consumption:
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    vertical farms that would create
    layers of agricultural fields.
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    This vertical farms project
    is inspired by dragonflies' wings,
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    which are finely veined, mimicking nature,
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    because, in fact, nature always uses
    the minimum amount of materials to build
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    the strongest possible structures.
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    We have also retransposed
    this structure into our project,
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    our plans, and our sections,
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    to study bioclimatic organic
    architecture with our engineers.
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    Actually, in summer we can naturally
    ventilate and cool this vertical farm
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    and we can build up hot air from
    the winter sun so there is a buffer
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    meaning the temperature is kept constant.
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    The city of New York has
    large differences in temperature:
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    between minus 25° in winter
    and 40° in summer.
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    This city is completely organic,
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    and so allows layering
    of agricultural fields
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    with vertical farms
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    where dairy products, meat,
    and eggs can be produced
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    for a closed-loop city.
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    Today's Western city is based on a loop
    that always imports raw materials
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    and wealth, and which exports
    pollution and waste.
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    We want to break this loop
    by using intelligent buildings
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    that work in a closed environment
    managing to be self-sufficient in energy
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    through the integration
    of renewable energies.
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    This is the chance we have today:
    having self-sufficient buildings
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    where, here, you see a vertical farm
    that has a photovoltaic shield
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    producing 50% of the electrical energy
    needed for running this urban farm.
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    The rest of the electricity is supplied
    by axial and vertical wind turbines
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    integrated directly into the hull
    in line with the prevailing winds.
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    With its architectural
    and mixed composition,
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    we have suggested to investors building
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    an office tower and a housing tower
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    very close to large
    bioclimatic greenhouses.
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    Using this multifunctional design,
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    energy production can be reduced by 50%
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    because in fact, for example, the heat
    emitted in offices in the daytime
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    is retransmitted
    in the evening into homes.
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    This greatly reduces energy consumption.
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    What we wanted to do
    is create a veritable Central Park,
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    turned vertically,
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    which feeds the city's inhabitants.
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    Here are a few views
    of the central marina,
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    which accommodates
    bio-taxi moorings or floating markets,
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    or floating markets, the surplus food
    produced by the vertical farm
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    in the city of Manhattan.
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    A few views of hanging
    greenhouses, and of bio-lofts,
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    where, eventually, agriculture
    has spread across different floors:
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    agricultural fields, community orchards,
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    or individual hydroponic balconies.
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    After considering floating cities
    and vertical farms,
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    we wanted to explore a project
    in partnership with a U.S. oil group
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    to produce third generation
    clean transport,
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    which works in the same way
    as nature recycles its wastes,
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    and transforms them
    into natural resources,
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    we wanted to work using green algae
    produced by our intensive agriculture,
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    which produces too many nitrates,
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    found especially in our groundwater
    and near to beaches.
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    By putting these green algae
    into cells in vitro,
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    we use biochemistry
    to create accelerated photosynthesis,
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    which is capable of degrading
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    plastics found in the oceans
    and in all petroleum derivatives.
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    So we wanted to create a marine farm
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    that is a great purifier of the seas
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    retrieving these plastics
    and breaking them down to form biogas.
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    This biogas could be injected
    into vertical zeppelins
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    that could serve areas
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    affected by natural disasters
    or by health emergencies.
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    These vertical zeppelins
    could also be used
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    to send food and agricultural produce
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    from Western countries
    to developing countries.
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    We always wanted to create buildings
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    that are actually living ecosystems,
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    which interact with nature
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    and recycle waste
    by transforming it into opportunities.
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    The fourth project
    that I will present to you,
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    the Coral Reef project,
    is a vertical ecovillage,
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    which is currently in the city
    of Haiti's planning system.
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    It is based on the standardization
    of a prefabricated module
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    brought on a cargo ship,
    allowing construction within 6 months
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    of 1,000 passive houses
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    that do not need to be heated
    in winter or cooled in summer.
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    It is a steel and wood construction
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    covered with hanging gardens,
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    in order to enhance
    the lives of its inhabitants,
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    which is self-sufficient in energy.
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    Most of these projects
    could seem utopian to you,
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    but they are currently
    being explored in my agency,
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    and now we are succeeding in obtaining
    international calls for tenders
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    from China and the United Arab Emirates,
    and in South America,
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    to construct these intelligent buildings
    that emit zero carbon,
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    are self-sufficient in energy,
    and recycle their own waste.
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    I invite you to visit our website
    www.Vincent.callebaut.org
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    where we present a new project
    called Agora Garden,
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    a residential towers contest
    we won in 2010,
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    which is currently under construction.
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    It has the peculiarity
    of being a residential building
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    completely covered with hanging gardens,
    orchards and vegetable gardens
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    in the heart of Taipei City
    at the foot of the 101 Tower.
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    I thank you.
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    (Applause)
Title:
What is an archibiotic? | Vincent Callebaut | TEDxNantes
Description:

This talk was given at a local TEDx event, produced independently of the TED Conferences.

Architecture + Biotechnologies + New Information and Communication + Technologies = ARCHIBIOTIC.

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Video Language:
French
Team:
TED
Project:
TEDxTalks
Duration:
14:44

English subtitles

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